Past climates provide a unique opportunity to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern Earth System dynamics. Paleo-records are invaluable archive for evaluation of climate models used for future projections. This session is focused on Earth System modeling of geological past and model evaluation using geological archives. Expected contributions include, but are not limited to, analysis of changes in atmosphere, ocean, biosphere or cryosphere in the Earth System Model simulations. Contributions are welcome on modeling of relatively recent periods (for example, last millennium, Holocene, or Last Glacial Maximum) as well as periods in a deeper geological past (e.g., Miocene or Eocene). Large-scale syntheses of data archives relevant for evaluation of Earth System Models are of interest.