Freshwater availability for irrigation of agricultural land is one of the main environmental problems in many areas of the World, affecting negatively to crop productivity. Thus, to maintain crop productivity reducing the pressure on freshwater resources the two main challenges of soil research are: i) to increase water use efficiency in the soil and; ii) to find new sources of water for irrigation. In one hand, it is necessary to develop new tillage and irrigation systems (i.e., water-saving tillage, water harvesting methods and new irrigation technologies) in order to reduce the amount of water used for irrigation while maintaining crop productivity. On the other hand, the use of treated wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land can be a good solution to save water because it reduces the utilization of freshwater and can improve key soil fertility parameters (i.e., nutrients and organic matter content in the soil), thus influencing crop production in a positive way. However, at the same time it can produce negative effects on the soil, such as heavy metal accumulation, an increase of soil salinity and sodicity, an enhancement of soil water repellency or the appearance of pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to make a close monitoring of the water used and the soil quality, in order to minimize the negative impact on the soil. This session focuses on the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and its impact on soil properties, and on the development of strategies to increase water use efficiency in agriculture.