In the attempt to mitigate the negative effects of natural and human-induced hazards, industrialized societies and developing countries face increasingly complex problems. These are different from the traditional problems of both pure and applied science. For many types of hazards, warning systems are becoming fundamental tools to reduce the losses caused by the hazards. Nowadays, warning systems are designed and implemented to cope with individual or multiple hazards, at different temporal and geographical scales, from the local to the continental or even the global scale. Warning systems vary in complexity from simple systems using basic monitoring devices, to extremely complex systems that exploit multiple, state-of-the-art technologies, including ground-based, airborne, and satellite observation sensors, and modern communication technologies.
The session intends to bring together experts from different and distant fields that can individually contribute to the design, implementation, use and maintenance of warning systems, at different scales and for natural and human-induced hazards. Real-time, event-based, and off-line devices and systems are of interest to the session. Critical analysis of long-established systems and of innovative, prototype or future systems are welcomed. Contributions discussing the potentialities and limitations of specific technologies, and presentation outlining problems and failures of individual systems are encouraged. Contributions comparing the design, characteristics and performances of different devices or systems, and presentations dealing with the multiple problems associated with the practical use of a warning system are of interest, including the design of policies and the implementation of guidelines.