EGU General Assembly 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The 1834 Ermellek earthquake effects and the architecture of migration after war in Baroque times

Maria Bostenaru Dan
Maria Bostenaru Dan
  • Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism, Faculty of Urbanism, Department of Urban and Landscape Design, Bucharest, Romania

1712 Swabian immigration started to Sathmar county on today's Romania territory. This followed closing the Sathmar peace 1711 after a war which left lands empty without work force. The colonists came from Upper Swabia, which is today Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The immigration took about one century. The colonists came by means of ships called Ulmer Schachtel from Ulm on the Danube, for which reason these are the first Danube Swabians. The later waves of colonists were brought by Emperor Maria Theresia to further areas in Banat and Hungary. Within a DOMUS scholarship in the home country, the author investigated how patterns of architecture were brought by the migrants from their old to their new home, including church and vernacular architecture. The colonists came from an area where much of the land belonged to monasteries, and following the end of the 30 years war an intense construction activity started, in Baroque style, which led to what is today the Upper Swabian Baroque Street. Investigation of Zsiros assessed the magnitude of the 1834 Érmellék earthquake, which affected this area, by effects on vernacular architecture. But also churches displayed earthquake damage, as research of Julia Bara shows, including destruction of towers and vaults. Churches were built by foreign architects such as Josef Bittheuser from Würzburg and Franz Sebastian Rosenstingl from Vienna. The churches of the later in Vienna displayed damages with time as well. Within the research of the author these damages were mapped and connected to patters of earthquake safe construction in the home country, which is also affected by moderate earthquakes. Particularly in case of vernacular architecture, the houses of the colonists are related to other typologies of Danube Swabians but not to those which can be observed in the houses conserved in village museums, from which some date from before the migration. This can be explained by their destruction. The oldest identified one is one of the ancestors of the author, dated by genealogy data to be built around 1840. The in situ conserved museum house is of a more recent date. The vernacular housing typology was investigated employing the GEM taxonomy based on the World Housing Encyclopedia questionnaire. Relevant for the session is how migration patterns result in architectural shape patterns, for which the author also participated in building a society game. Migration has been mapped by means of story maps as well, but also using Gephi network analysis. The effects of the anthropic hazard of war on letting large amounts of population move (migration) are also relevant for the session.

How to cite: Bostenaru Dan, M.: The 1834 Ermellek earthquake effects and the architecture of migration after war in Baroque times, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6825,, 2020


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