Urban and peri-urban areas comprise a wide variety of soils, ranging from semi natural (e.g., urban forest) to highly disturbed soils (e.g., constructed areas), with great variability in short distances. This spatial variation represents a major challenge to investigate, classify and characterize the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Soil properties determine their ability to provide ecosystem services, such as food production, water regulation, carbon sequestration and recreation. Increasing human pressure in urban and peri-urban environments is a cause of soil degradation and compromise their ability to provide ecosystem services in quality and quantity, and build resilience to global changes. This session aims to discuss (i) methodologies to assess the spatiotemporal variability of urban and peri-urban soils, including the use of soil quality indices, (ii) soil ecosystem services; (iii) main soil threats leading to soil degradation, such as sealing, compaction, erosion, contamination/pollution and biological decline in soil quality; and (iv) strategies to enhance ecosystem functions and services of urban and peri-urban soils, particularly focused on nature-based solutions. Studies emphasising the role of soil to improve urban sustainable development, namely through the use of information about soil quality to support urban planning strategies and optimizing ecosystem services are very welcome. Discussion to promote a more efficient and sustainable use of soil and improving soil-related decision-making processes at international, national, regional and local levels are encouraged in this session.