Peatlands represent an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, acting simultaneously as C sinks (for CO2) and sources (for CH4). While the central characteristic of peatlands is an imbalance between organic matter production and decomposition leading to peat accumulation, the pathways to peat accumulation differ and depend on the geographical settings in which peatlands develop. Climate, topography, vegetation, hydrology, peat composition, and microbial communities, among others, exert control on peat accumulation processes. Understanding the role of such variables on C and other chemical elements dynamics in peatlands is of major interest for their conservation and restoration in the context of global climate change. The goal of this session is to bring together peatland scientists that will emphasize the commonalities and differences among peatlands located in different geographical settings. Contributions comparing processes in peatlands located in different regions are encouraged, but site-specific studies are also of interest.