Climate change is now widely recognised as a clear and present challenge to society at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In addition to climate change per se, climate extremes and natural hazards – some independent of climate, others increasing in frequency and intensity due to climate change – further aggravate these challenges. Our ability to interrogate past climates and natural hazards has increased dramatically in the last decades, as has our ability to model their states forward into the future. Yet, our understanding of how human social systems would interact with these future climates remains incomplete. Organised jointly by IHOPE (https://ihopenet.org/) and Future Earth’s Knowledge-Action-Network on Extreme Events and Emergent Risks (https://www.risk-kan.org/), this session showcases research that is situated at the interface between Earth System Science and the Human Sciences (e.g. anthropology, archaeology, history) with a particular focus on innovative ways of modelling the impacts of climate change, extreme events and natural hazards on societies of the past. Equipped with the insights generated by these combined interdisciplinary palaeo-perspectives, the session will then ask how and what we can learn from intersecting the archives of nature and society. The session also seeks out novel and pioneering approaches to modelling possible future scenarios for society-environment interactions, as we move forward into the rapidly changing and increasingly extreme climates of the Anthropocene.