Towards the end of this decade, ISRO, NASA and ESA plan to send four missions to Venus. The first three demonstrate new technologies and address specific science questions. The fourth, EnVision, is different. Taking its cue from Earth Observation and Mars exploration, EnVision seeks to understand Venus ‘in the round’: how geologically active is Venus today, and what does that mean for the cycling of volatiles – especially water and sulphur dioxide – between the interior, atmosphere and clouds? What lessons does Venus hold for understanding Earth-sized planets generally? EnVision will inform our answers with a complementary suite of instruments designed to provide a holistic picture of our closest neighbour.
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