In this session, we will try to link studies focussing on the crust and lithospheric mantle with observations of the present-day topography and its evolution through time. A variety of regional activities, e.g. TopoIberia, TopoScandia, Eartscopes have been initiated recently to unravel the processes forming the landscapes we observe today. We invite integrated studies based on geophysical, e.g. seismological, potential fields, GPS, and geological as well as geomorphological and geochronological observations, which address the evolution of topography through time and in relation to processes in the lithosphere and mantle. Are the mechanisms that create uplift a patchwork of different effects, or do major underlying lithospheric processes exist?