Soil degradation; in particular under anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices or mining reduces the capacity of soils to provide services in quantity and quality leading to crop failure, desertification and reduction of food security and biodiversity. Soil rehabilitation on the other hand aims at improving soil functions and ecosystem services - mostly responsible for crop production and ecosystem health. Hence, soils are currently subjected to an impact never observed since agriculture revolution. The impact of humans on soil reached to a level that can be considered a forming factor - the 6th factor of soil formation. This session gathers studies investigating the impacts of human on pedogenesis. A special focus should be given to the attenuation or improvement of soil functions and ecosystem services as consequence of intensive management. Research focusing on soil degradation or rehabilitation in arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean environments are highlighted in this session as the effects of anthropogenic activities can be intensified by the challenges of prolonged periods of drought and intense and irregular rainfall. We especially acknowledge research linking agricultural practices to soil formation - to develop the theory of agropedogenesis.