EGU General Assembly 2020
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the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Stromboli volcanic island as a source of tsunami hazard for the Tyrrhenian Sea

Filippo Zaniboni, Gianluca Pagnoni, Glauco Gallotti, Stefano Tinti, and Alberto Armigliato
Filippo Zaniboni et al.
  • Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Italy (

The recent paroxysmal crisis occurring on the island of Stromboli (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), manifesting into two main events during summer 2019 (3rd July and 28th August), renovated the attention on the possibility of tsunami generation induced by volcanic activity. The Stromboli edifice is characterized by the Sciara del Fuoco scar on its north-western flank channeling most of the material ejected from the crater to the sea.

In this area, in December 2002, two landslides (the first submarine, the second subaerial) triggered large waves affecting the whole coast of the island, causing severe damages but fortunately no casualties, due to the non-touristic period. The tsunami rapidly dissipated with distance, being observed in Panarea (20 km south-east of Stromboli), as is typical of non-seismic tsunamigenic sources. A similar occurrence during summer would have resulted into dramatic consequences, especially along the Stromboli coasts.

In this study, the tsunamigenic potential associated with destabilized mass along Stromboli flanks is evaluated by means of numerical, in-house developed, codes with the aim of providing insights on the tsunami hazard along the coasts of Stromboli, of the surrounding Aeolian archipelago and in general in a larger domain covering the southern coasts of Tyrrhenian Sea as well.

How to cite: Zaniboni, F., Pagnoni, G., Gallotti, G., Tinti, S., and Armigliato, A.: Stromboli volcanic island as a source of tsunami hazard for the Tyrrhenian Sea, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-9875,, 2020

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Presentation version 1 – uploaded on 03 May 2020
  • CC1: Comment on EGU2020-9875, Francois Schindele, 05 May 2020

    The Stromboli is definitevely one of the tsunamigenic volcano that need tsunami hazard and threat assessment. The list of events are comprehensive, included the last slides occurred in 2019.  The method is relevant, but to be able comment the results and last slides, the exact formula of the Potential Energy of Slide and the formula of Total energy of Tsunami should be provided.

    • AC1: Reply to CC1, Filippo Zaniboni, 06 May 2020

      Dear Francois, thanks for your comments.

      Your point is undoubtedly interesting, but we believed it was too specific and we preferred to concentrate on the results, that can be considered preliminary.

      However, coming to your question, the potential energy of the slide is computed as mgh, with m the mass (density*volume), g gravitational acceleration and h elevation of the slide center of mass (CoM). Such elevation at the moment is computed simply as the difference between the initial position of the CoM and a final reference depth of 2000 m, but for sure more sophisticated methods can be adopted (assuming, for example, the depth of the final position of the slide, or the depth at the moment the slide stops "feeding" the tsunami).

      As for tsunami total energy, the one used for this analysis is the maximum of the mechanic energy of the tsunami, computed as the sum of kinetic and potential energy of the propagating wave.

      I hope this answer is satisfying, do not hesitate to contact me should you have further comments.

      Best regards, Filippo 

      • CC2: Reply to AC1, Francois Schindele, 06 May 2020

        Dear Filippo,

        Thanfs for your response. It is clear now, nevertheless due to variation and dispersion of volumn and mass during the slide, other assumptions could be done. Would it be at one order of Energy or much less ? I agree that for a short presentation this would be a too long explanation.

        Best regards


        • AC2: Reply to CC2, Filippo Zaniboni, 06 May 2020

          You are certainly right about mass dispersion during the slide motion, that we do not simulate with our code and that probably can change the potential energy. Maybe one order of magnitude is too much, because the mix with water increases the volume but lowers density, so probably mass does not change considerably. Erosion can play a role as well.

          However, the mass dispersion phase probably is not particularly influent from the tsunami generation point of view, since most of the energy transfer from slide to water occurs in the initial stage, when volume variation is negligible or can be considered of second order.

          Again, thanks for the interesting discussion, we will for sure take into account your considerations in the continuation of this work.

          Best regards