Since the launch of the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1 in 1972, land imaging technology has evolved rapidly and transformed science research innovation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is partnering with U.S. Federal agencies, incorporating input from state/local, academic, industry, and international communities, to document current usage and benefits, and improvement needs for future land imaging observation data and products. The European Commission in collaboration with the European Space Agency is also engaged in a continuous collection of user needs to drive the implementation of its programme. This includes feedback from users but also considering emerging needs from changes in society, policies and technologies.

These activities promote a needs-driven, prioritized investment decision process for land imaging systems, products, and services to better serve the broad land imaging community. This session will provide an overview of the current landscape of land imaging capabilities, applications, user needs for future systems, and the future landscape of land imaging including the rapidly expanding commercial sector.

This session will highlight activities within U.S. Federal agencies, academic, state/local, and international communities, and within the European Union institutions, agencies, including the European Space Agency and EU Member States.
We also invite submissions showcasing new and emerging multi-disciplinary land imaging applications, technology trends, and future needs and opportunities.

Convener: Zhuoting Wu | Co-conveners: Simon L. G. Jutz, Michel Massart
| Attendance Tue, 05 May, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)

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Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 10:45–12:30

Chairperson: Zhuoting Wu, Simon L. G. Jutz , Michel Massart, Philip Dabney
D624 |
Michel Massart, Fabienne Jacq, and Hugo Zunker

Copernicus is the Earth Observation Flagship programme of the European Union. It is user driven programme. It has observation capacities with currently 7 satellites in orbit, and information production services in 6 domains: land, emergency, security, climate change, atmosphere and marine. One of the objective of the programme started in 2011 is to ensure the long-term sustainability of the observation capacities for Europe. In this context, the European Commission and the European Space Agency are now preparing the Next Generation (2030) of Sentinel satellites.

To define the specifications of this Next Generation, the European Commission has launched several user requirement surveys and studies aimed at gathering the satellite observation long-term needs across different sectors.

User requirements have been gathered based on desk studies, exchanges and interactions with existing and potential user communities. They have been collected and analysed from different sources which include dedicated studies carried out between 2015 and 2018, requirements expressed by users during task forces and expert groups, and outcomes of several users’ requirement workshops and meetings organized during the last two years. Based on this collection of User Requirements, the European Space Agency has started now to define the potential specifications of the Next Generation of Copernicus satellites.

 The objective of the presentation will be to explain the process setup for collecting the User Requirements, their analysis and the outcomes.

How to cite: Massart, M., Jacq, F., and Zunker, H.: Copernicus User Needs Collection, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1629, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1629, 2020.

D625 |
A Land Imaging Architecture Scorecard to Support Decision-Making
Carolyn Vadnais, Erin Dale, and Zhuoting Wu
D626 |
Duccio Rocchini

Assessing biodiversity from field-based data is difficult for a number of practical reasons: (i) establishing the total number of sampling units to be investigated and the sampling design (e.g. systematic, random, stratified) can be difficult; (ii) the choice of the sampling design can affect the results; and (iii) defining the focal population of interest can be challenging. Satellite remote sensing is one of the most cost-effective and comprehensive approaches to identify biodiversity hotspots and predict changes in species composition. This is because, in contrast to field-based methods, it allows for complete spatial coverages of the Earth's surface under study over a short period of time. Furthermore, satellite remote sensing provides repeated measures, thus making it possible to study temporal changes in biodiversity. While taxonomic diversity measures have long been established, problems arising from abundance related measures have not been yet disentangled. Moreover, little has been done to account for functional diversity besides taxonomic diversity measures. The aim of this talk is to propose robust measures of remotely sensed heterogeneity to perform exploratory analysis for the detection of hotspots of taxonomic and functional diversity of plant species.

How to cite: Rocchini, D.: Space oddity: estimating Earth biodiversity from a satellite, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-4185, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-4185, 2020.

D627 |
| Highlight
Armin Löscher, Philippe Martimort, Simon Jutz, Ferran Gascon, Craig Donlon, Ilias Manolis, and Umberto Del Bello

ESA initiated in 2018 an architectural design study to prepare the development of the next generation of the optical component of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3. This encompasses the next generation of the Multi Spectral Imager (MSI), Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI) and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) observations. The aim of this activity was to analyse and trade-off different architectural options for the Next-Generation of the Copernicus Space Component optical imaging missions in the 2032 time horizon, considering user needs, addressing mainly the Copernicus Marine and Land services, starting from user requirements for Copernicus Next Generation derived from EC studies and related workshops. It also did draw from the experience and lessons learned regarding the current generation of Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3, to ensure continuity of services and further enhancement as identified, necessary to meet new and emerging user needs. The study investigated also trends both in terms of other spaceborne optical missions by national agencies in Europe and worldwide, as well as commercial missions e.g. with the advent of “New Space” constellations of small satellites. Observation gaps and potential synergies were identified to avoid duplication when establishing the architecture of the next generation of the Copernicus Space Component optical imaging family for land and ocean applications. A wide range of scenarios have been analysed for possible combination of several observation capabilities within the same instrument, on the same platform or on satellites flying in formation, assessing pros and cons with respect to scenarios with free-flyer satellites for each observation capability. Based on the above analysis of user needs, gap/synergy analysis and architectural concept trade-offs, high level mission assumptions and technical requirements are being established for the continuity of the MSI, OLCI and SLSTR observations, including any additional elements, as identified, to meet user requirements in the respective Copernicus services and application areas.

How to cite: Löscher, A., Martimort, P., Jutz, S., Gascon, F., Donlon, C., Manolis, I., and Del Bello, U.: The ESA Sentinel Next-Generation Land & Ocean Optical Imaging Architectural Study, an Overview, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6675, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6675, 2020.

D628 |
Verhegghen Astrid, d'Andrimont Raphaël, Lemoine Guido, Strobl Peter, and van der Velde Marijn

Efficient near-real time and wall-to-wall land monitoring is now possible with unprecedented detail because of the fleet of Copernicus Sentinel satellites. This remote sensing paradigm is the consequence of the freely accessible, global, Copernicus data, combined with affordable cloud computing. However, to translate this capacity in accurate products, and to truly benefit from the high spatial detail (~10m) and temporal resolution (~5 days in constellation) of the Sentinels 1 and 2, high quality and timely in-situ data remains crucial. Robust operational monitoring systems are in need of both training and validation data. 

Here, we demonstrate the potential of Sentinel 1 observations and complementary high-quality in-situ data to generate a crop type map at continental scale. In 2018, the Land Cover and Land Use Area frame Survey (LUCAS) carried out in the European Union contained a specific Copernicus module corresponding to 93.091 polygons surveyed in-situ. In contrast to the usual LUCAS point observation, the Copernicus protocol provides data on the extent of homogeneous land cover for a maximum size of 100 x 100 m, making it meaningful for remote sensing applications. After filtering the polygons to retrieve only high quality sample, a sample was selected to explore the accuracy of crop type maps at different moments of the 2018 growing season over Europe. The time series of 10 days VV and VH were classified using Random Forest models. The crops that were mapped correspond to the 13 major crops in Europe and are those that are monitored and forecast by the JRC MARS activities (soft wheat, maize, rapeseed, barley, potatoes, ...). Overall, reasonable accuracies were obtained (~80%). Although no a priori parcel delineation was used, it was encouraging to observe the relative homogeneity of pixel classification results within the same parcel. In the context of forecasting, we specifically assessed at what time in the growing season accuracies moved beyond a set threshold for the different crops. This ranged from May for winter crops such as soft wheat, and September for summer crops such as maize. 

Our results contribute to the discussion regarding the usefulness, benefits, as well as weaknesses, of the newly acquired LUCAS Copernicus data. Doing so, this study demonstrates the potential of in-situ surveys such as LUCAS Copernicus module  specifically targeted for Earth Observation applications. Future improvements to the LUCAS Copernicus survey methodology are suggested. Importantly, now that LUCAS has been postponed to 2022, and aligned with the Copernicus space program, we advocate for a European Union wide systematic and representative in-situ sample campaign relevant for Earth Observation applications, beyond the traditional LUCAS survey. 

How to cite: Astrid, V., Raphaël, D., Guido, L., Peter, S., and Marijn, V. D. V.: A Sentinel-1 based European crop parcel map using 2018 in-situ LUCAS Copernicus observations, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18703, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18703, 2020.

D629 |
| Highlight
Ferran Gascon, Anja Stromme, Michael Rast, Jens Nieke, Benjamin Koetz, Ana Bolea Alamañac, and Marcello Sallusti

The Copernicus EU program started in 1998 with the overarching aim to become Europe’s operational Earth Observation monitoring system providing data and information services. An essential part of the program is the Copernicus Space Component (CSC), which is managed by the European Space Agency (ESA) as responsible for the Copernicus Sentinels satellite constellations.

The presentation will include an overview of the CSC Optical Imaging Family (OIF) currently operated missions, namely Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3, and candidate potential missions being developed, namely Copernicus Hyperspectral Imaging Mission for Environment (CHIME) and High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Land Surface Temperature Monitoring Mission (LSTM). The next generation missions are not included here.

Sentinel-2 is an Earth Observation mission developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. The mission consists on a Multi-Spectral Instruments (MSI) on board a constellation of two satellites: Sentinel-2A launched in June 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in March 2017. It covers the Earth’s land surfaces and coastal waters every five days under the same viewing conditions and every three days at mid-latitudes with high spatial resolution and a wide field of view.

5 day revisit (i.e. under same viewing conditions) is met at all latitudes of observations (not only at equator), and with the swath overlap and the S2 orbit repeat pattern (14+3/10 rev/day, i.e. a 3 day sub-cycle), 3 day geometric coverage is achieved at mid latitudes.

Sentinel-3 mission is measuring sea surface topography, sea and land surface temperature, and ocean and land surface colour with high accuracy and reliability to support ocean forecasting systems, environmental monitoring and climate monitoring. The Sentinel-3 mission is jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT to deliver operational ocean and land observation services.

CHIME, identified as one of the Copernicus Expansion High Priority Candidate Missions (HPCM), will provide routine observations through the Copernicus Programme for managing natural resources and assets in support of EU policy, and will complement currently flying multi-spectral missions such as Sentinel-2. Compared to multi-spectral missions, CHIME will have an increased number of narrow spectral bands (spectral resolution of 10nm with no gaps between bands) in the visible-to-shortwave infrared range (400-2500nm), which will allow for a more accurate determination of biochemical and biophysical variables.

LSTM, also identified as one of the HPCM, will provide enhanced measurements of land surface temperature with a focus responding to user requirements related to agricultural monitoring. High spatio-temporal resolution thermal infrared observations are considered fundamental to sustainable management natural resources in the context of water and food security of a global society. Operational land surface temperature (LST) measurements and derived evapotranspiration (ET) are key variables in understanding and responding to climate variability, managing water resources for agricultural production, predicting droughts but also addressing land degradation, natural hazards, coastal and inland water management as well as urban heat island issues.

How to cite: Gascon, F., Stromme, A., Rast, M., Nieke, J., Koetz, B., Bolea Alamañac, A., and Sallusti, M.: Status of Current and Expansion Missions of the Copernicus Optical Imaging Family, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21491, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21491, 2020.

D630 |
The Copernicus Sentinel Fleet: Health check of Planet Earth
Simon L. G. Jutz
D631 |
Impact of NASA’s ESTO SLI-T, IIP, and other R&D Investments on SLI program
Philip Dabney, Jeffrey Masek, Sachidananda Babu, Parminder Ghuman, and Nahal Kardan