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Observational seismology has witnessed tremendous advances in the last two decades in Europe and worldwide. Current state-of-the-art permanent seismic monitoring means dense deployments of modern broadband velocity and acceleration sensors, often co-located, writing on 24- or 26-bit digitisers, with continuous real-time streaming to data centres. Technological improvements have been accompanied by community developments of standards, protocols, strategies and software to ease and homogenise data acquisition, archival, dissemination and processing. The establishment of EIDA (http://orfeus-eu.org/data/eida/) marked a change of paradigm in seismic data dissemination in Europe. The EIDA federated infrastructure is accessible via standard web services, including those promoted by FDSN. The deployment of dense modern accelerometer networks has progressively blurred the boundary between broadband and strong-motion seismology. Geophysical site characterisation has become standard practice, and open databases have been created to host basic and advanced station metadata. In this dynamic landscape, ORFEUS (http://orfeus-eu.org/) carries out since more than 30 years its mandate to promote and coordinate waveform seismology in Europe through the collection, archival and distribution of seismic waveform data, metadata and closely-related derived products. ORFEUS services (http://orfeus-eu.org/data/) currently provide access to the waveforms acquired by ~ 10,000 stations in Pan-Europe, including dense temporary experiments, with strong emphasis on open data and high data quality. Contributing data to ORFEUS archives means long-term archival, state-of-the-art quality control, enhanced data access and usage. At the onset of a new era for observational seismology, characterised by the challenges posed by big data and the establishment of a coordinated governance of all European seismological services in EPOS Seismology, this session discusses the latest advances in seismological observation in Pan-Europe and the challenges ahead. This includes integration of different datasets like GPS, OBS and portable arrays. Focus is on, but not limited to the participants to ORFEUS, their hardware and software infrastructure, technical and scientific products. Contributions from other global / international / national agencies focused on observational seismology are welcome. This session facilitates seismological data discovery and promotes open data sharing and integration.

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Convener: Carlo Cauzzi | Co-conveners: Lucia Luzi, Lars Ottemöller, Helle Pedersen, Damiano Pesaresi
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| Attendance Thu, 07 May, 08:30–10:15 (CEST)

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Chat time: Thursday, 7 May 2020, 08:30–10:15

Chairperson: Carlo Cauzzi
D1660 |
EGU2020-8389
Carlo Cauzzi, Jarek Bieńkowski, Susana Custódio, Christos Evangelidis, Philippe Guéguen, Christian Haberland, Florian Haslinger, Giovanni Lanzano, Thomas Meier, Alberto Michelini, Lars Ottemöller, Helle Pedersen, Javier Quinteros, Reinoud Sleeman, Angelo Strollo, and Luca Trani

ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology) is a non-profit foundation that promotes seismology in the Euro-Mediterranean area through the collection, archival and distribution of seismic waveform data, metadata and closely related products. The data and services are collected or developed at national level by more than 60 contributing Institutions in Pan-Europe and further developed, integrated, standardized, homogenized and promoted through ORFEUS. Among the goals of ORFEUS are: (a) the development and coordination of waveform data products; (b) the coordination of a European data distribution system, and the support for seismic networks in archiving and exchanging digital seismic waveform data; (c) the encouragement of the adoption of best practices for seismic network operation, data quality control and data management; (d) the promotion of open access to seismic waveform data, products and services for the broader Earth science community.  These goals are achieved through the development and maintenance of services targeted to a broad community of seismological data users, ranging from earth scientists to earthquake engineering practitioners. Two Service Management Committees (SMCs) are consolidated within ORFEUS devoted to managing, operating and developing (with the support of one or more Infrastructure Development Groups): (i) the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA; https://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/eida/); and (ii) the European Strong-Motion databases (SM; https://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/strong/). A new SMC is being formed to represent the community of European mobile pools. Products and services for computational seismologists are also considered for integration in the ORFEUS domain. ORFEUS services currently provide access to the waveforms acquired by ~ 10,000 stations in Pan-Europe, including dense temporary experiments, with strong emphasis on open, high-quality data. Contributing to ORFEUS data archives means long-term archival, state-of-the-art quality control, improved access and increased  usage. Access to data and products is ensured through state-of-the-art information and communications technologies, with strong emphasis on federated web services that considerably improve seamless user access to data gathered and/or distributed by ORFEUS institutions. The web services also facilitate the automation of downstream products. Particular attention is paid to adopting clear policies and licences, and acknowledging the crucial role played by data providers / owners, who are part of the ORFEUS community. There are significant efforts by ORFEUS participating Institutions to enhance the existing services to tackle the challenges posed by the Big Data Era, with emphasis on data quality, improved user experience, and implementation of strategies for scalability, high-volume data access and archival. ORFEUS data and services are assessed and improved through the technical and scientific feedback of a User Advisory Group (UAG), comprised of European Earth scientists with expertise encompassing a broad range of disciplines. All ORFEUS services are developed in coordination with EPOS and are largely integrated in the EPOS Data Access Portal. ORFEUS is one of the founding Parties and fundamental pillars of EPOS Seismology. This contribution presents the current products and services of ORFEUS and introduces the planned key future activities. We aim at stimulating Community feedback about the current and planned ORFEUS strategies.

How to cite: Cauzzi, C., Bieńkowski, J., Custódio, S., Evangelidis, C., Guéguen, P., Haberland, C., Haslinger, F., Lanzano, G., Meier, T., Michelini, A., Ottemöller, L., Pedersen, H., Quinteros, J., Sleeman, R., Strollo, A., and Trani, L.: ORFEUS Services for Coordinated High-Quality Seismic Waveform Data Access in Pan-Europe, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8389, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8389, 2020

D1661 |
EGU2020-19125
Jean-Marie Saurel, Sidney Hellman, Robert Casey, Mike Hagerty, Stefan Lisowski, Constanza Pardo, Helle Pedersen, Catherine Péquegnat, Tim Ronan, Jonathan Schaeffer, Oleksandr Sukhotskyi, Mary Templeton, Chad Trabant, and David Wolyniec

In 1987 The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) was formed and the SEED (Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data) format was adopted as its standard for digital seismic data exchange.  In addition, since at least 1991, it has been common practice to generate dataless SEED volumes, containing only station metadata, for distribution.  The success of the SEED format as a global standard can be judged from the high level of data exchange in the  seismological community.

A few years ago FDSN working group II was tasked with updating the representation of seismic metadata.  The result, stationXML, is defined in a modern XML schema and extends the SEED representation of metadata.  Today, most of the worldwide seismic datacenters, including the entire EIDA framework, are already distributing metadata in stationXML format, or will do so soon.

While some client-side software (e.g., ObsPy) exists for reading stationXML, there are relatively few standalone and dedicated solutions available for metadata producers to generate and edit stationXML.  Here we describe a tool for the creation and management of stationXML, initially developed by IRIS and ISTI. Currently, RESIF has undertaken, along with ISTI, to continue the development of an improved version of the tool which has been named “yasmine” (Yet Another Station Metadata INformation Editor).

This software, with a web-based GUI, offers the user the ability to create and edit native stationXML metadata complying with the latest FDSN approved standard (currently v 1.1). It offers the ability to create channel responses from scratch using templates in both the IRIS Nominal Response Library (NRL) and a new Atomic Response Objects Library (AROL). The NRL/AROL wizard in yasmine allows the user to browse these generic libraries and select the sensor and datalogger at the site and returns the full (combined) response.  The tool uses ObsPy Inventory python objects (Station, Channel, Response, etc) in the backend, and maintains collections of these for editing and assembly in a persistent, user-defined database.  Existing stationXML may be imported, saved into network, station, channel and response templates and stored in user-defined libraries for future use.  Channel responses may be readily plotted in the tool for confirmation.

While the web-based GUI permits both local standalone and server deployments, a full set of command line options will allow users to create their own batch scripts to drive yasmine’s stationXML editing capabilities including stationXML file splitting/merging, batch modification of objects, insertion of objects at various levels, and more.

The software will be released under the GNU GPL v3 licence and the code will be made available from IRIS github repositories.

How to cite: Saurel, J.-M., Hellman, S., Casey, R., Hagerty, M., Lisowski, S., Pardo, C., Pedersen, H., Péquegnat, C., Ronan, T., Schaeffer, J., Sukhotskyi, O., Templeton, M., Trabant, C., and Wolyniec, D.: Yasmine : A new tool for stationXML, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19125, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19125, 2020

D1662 |
EGU2020-22285
Maria D'Amico, Erika Schiappapietra, Giovanni Lanzano, Sara Sgobba, and Francesca Pacor

We present a processing scheme (eBASCO, extended BASeline COrrection) to remove the baseline of strong-motion records by means of a piece-wise linear de-trending of the velocity time history. Differently from standard processing schemes, eBASCO does not apply any filtering to remove the low-frequency content of the signal. This approach preserves both the long-period near-source ground-motion, featured by one-side pulse in the velocity trace, and the offset at the end of the displacement trace (fling-step). Hence, the software is suitable for the identification of fling-containing strong-motion waveforms. Here, we apply eBASCO to reconstruct the ground displacement of more than 400 three-component near-source waveforms recorded worldwide (NESS1, http://ness.mi.ingv.it/; Pacor et al., 2019) with the aim of: 1) extensively testing the eBasco capability to capture the long-period content of near-source records; 2) calibrating attenuation models for peak ground displacement (PGD), 5% damped displacement response spectra (DS), permanent displacement amplitude (PD) and period (Tp). The results could provide a more accurate estimate of ground motions, to be adopted for different engineering purposes such as performance-based seismic design of structures.

Pacor F., Felicetta C., Lanzano G., Sgobba S., Puglia R., D’Amico M., Russo E., Baltzopoulos G., Iervolino I. (2018). NESS v1.0: A worldwide collection of strong-motion data to investigate near source effects. Seismological Research Letters. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180149

How to cite: D'Amico, M., Schiappapietra, E., Lanzano, G., Sgobba, S., and Pacor, F.: Fling-step recovering from near-source waveforms and ground displacement attenuation models , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22285, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22285, 2020

D1663 |
EGU2020-17790
Angelo Strollo, Domenico Di Giacomo, Dino Bindi, and Riccardo Zaccarelli

Location and magnitude are the primary information released by any seismological observatory to characterize an earthquake. Nowadays, the size of large enough earthquakes are routinely measured in terms of released seismic moment (moment magnitude, Mw). Whereas events with Mw above about 5.5 populate seismological archives connected to global monitoring networks, the moment magnitude of smaller events require the analysis of regional and local dense networks, or the establishment of empirical relationships to convert other magnitude scales into Mw (e.g., local magnitude to moment magnitude conversions). Since Mw is constructed over a physical parameter, it does not saturate. Moreover, being the seismic moment connected to tectonic features such as fault area and the average slip, Mw became the reference magnitude for seismic hazard studies. Although Mw accomplishes perfectly the task of characterizing the earthquake size, it does not provide the most complete view about the earthquake strength since Mw is insensitive to changes in the rupture dynamics. An assessment of the amount of the seismic energy released by an event (energy magnitude Me) is allowing to complement Mw with a measure of the earthquake size more suitable to evaluate the earthquake shaking potential.

Aiming at introducing soon a new real-time service providing Me for major earthquakes we are presenting in this study the results of benchmark tests against the procedure proposed by Di Giacomo et al., in 2008 [1] as well as the analysis performed on a larger data set including all major events available in the GEOFON catalogue with a published moment magnitude since 2011. The initial procedure has been translated to a python code within the Stream2segment package [2] and leveraging on EIDA and IRIS data services, more than 2000 station for ~5000 events since 2011 have been downloaded and processed. The large data set used and the real-time application pose new challenges, among them the teleseismic distance, the strongly unbalanced network and the real-time data flow making the data set used dynamic. We present and discuss here the effects of these complications and how we are tackling them towards the implementation of new service at GFZ computing Me in real-time.

 

[1] Di Giacomo, D., Grosser, H., Parolai, S., Bormann, P., and Wang, R. (2008), Rapid determination of Me for strong to great shallow earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10308, doi:10.1029/2008GL033505.

[2] Riccardo Zaccarelli, Dino Bindi, Angelo Strollo, Javier Quinteros, Fabrice Cotton; Stream2segment: An Open‐Source Tool for Downloading, Processing, and Visualizing Massive Event‐Based Seismic Waveform Datasets. Seismological Research Letters ; 90 (5): 2028–2038. doi: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180314

How to cite: Strollo, A., Di Giacomo, D., Bindi, D., and Zaccarelli, R.: Revamping the GFZ Energy Magnitude computation procedure to establish a new service, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-17790, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-17790, 2020

D1664 |
EGU2020-7929
Ramon Carbonell, Irene DeFelipe, Juan Alcalde, Monika Ivandic, and Roland Roberts

Controlled source seismic data acquisition experiments have produced a vast amount of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) data since its development in the late 50’s. These datasets provide critical information on the structure and nature of the crust and the lithosphere, which constitutes a fundamental research tool within Solid Earth Sciences. The DSS datasets are unique and constitute the output of an expensive (in time, effort and cost) scientific process, which evidences the need for their preservation, both the recently acquired and the legacy data. Furthermore, the new developments in processing and imaging techniques generate new possibilities for re-use of the vintage datasets. The availability and accessibility of these datasets, therefore, is of foremost importance for scientists, decision-makers and the general public.

The research community, aware of the value of these data, has pushed forward Open Data policies based on the FAIR principles of data management (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable). In this respect, a long-term plan has been launched by the European Plate Observation System (EPOS, https://www.epos-ip.org/) e-infrastructure. The focus is to streamline the integrated use of scientific data, data products and services. In close link with EPOS, the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe (SERA, http://www.sera-eu.org/home, a Horizon 2020 project) includes a working package to set up a network on DSS data and products management. This initiative ensures the traceability of the data allowing that third parties can freely access, exploit and disseminate the data by means of permanent, international identifiers: a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) or handle. Furthermore, the current aim is to go beyond the FAIR principles by linking the data with its related peer-reviewed publications, other scientific contributions and technical reports, facilitating its re-use.

A prototype DSS data exchange system has been developed jointly between the DIGITAL.CSIC (the Spanish National Research Council) services and the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera-CSIC (https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/101879, last access January 2020). Within the platform, each dataset includes the acquired raw data and a metadata file. The metadata provides information of the nature of the data itself, list of authors, the context of the data (time and location of the experiments), funding agencies and other relevant legal aspects. The technical information includes the acquisition parameters, data processing and format of the data (SEGY standard in this case - www.seg.org-, broadly used in the geophysics community). In the developed storage protocol, a permanent identifier is assigned once it has been checked that the data meets all the described requirements. This permanent identifier ensures that any visit or download is accounted for. This information is entered into a statistics referencing database and can also be used as a measure of the impact of the data and/or data product.

This work is funded by the European Commission (Grant Agreement no: 676564-EPOS IP, Call H2020-INFRADEV-2014-2015/H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, SERA 730900).

How to cite: Carbonell, R., DeFelipe, I., Alcalde, J., Ivandic, M., and Roberts, R.: Towards an Open Access European Database for Deep Seismic Sounding data, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7929, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7929, 2020

D1665 |
EGU2020-7692
Irene DeFelipe, Juan Alcalde, Jose Luis Fernandez-Turiel, Jordi Diaz, Adelina Geyer, Cecilia Molina, Isabel Bernal, Jose Fernandez, and Ramon Carbonell

The European Plate Observation System (EPOS, https://www.epos-ip.org/) is an e-infrastructure of ESFRI, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (https://www.esfri.eu/), aimed at facilitating and promoting the integrated use of data, data products, services and facilities from internationally distributed research infrastructures for Solid Earth Science. This e-infrastructure is greatly committed to tackle viable solutions for Solid Earth challenges. It is a long-term plan that integrates research infrastructures of different European countries into a single inter-operable platform through different thematic core services (e.g., Seismology, Satellite data, Volcano Observations, Multi-Scale Laboratories). The Spanish EPOS node is coordinated by CSIC (the Spanish National Research Council) that hosts its own institutional repository, the DIGITAL.CSIC.

CSIC has adopted the European open data mandate and supports that data archives follow the FAIR principles of data management: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. Therefore, data are broadly accessible to reuse for other researchers, industry, teaching, training and for the general public. Following these principles, the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera is updating and enlarging its database (https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/101879, last access January 2020). These datasets include, among other, geophysical data acquired in the Iberian Peninsula since the 90’s. They comprise seismic studies of the structure of the crust in different geological settings, both on and offshore, and ranging from continental to exploration scale. These projects have been funded by public calls as well as from industry-funded research projects. As an example, these datasets contain data addressing the characterization of the shallow subsurface for the development of CO2, radioactive waste geologic storage sites, and to assess geologic hazards in the nearby of active faults. These datasets provide access to data that are relevant to assess sustainable and secure exploration and exploitation of the subsurface, a key societal challenge.

This work is a contribution of Project EPOS Sustainability Phase (EPOS SP), funded by the European Commission (Grant Agreement no: 871121 - EPOS SP-H2020-INFRADEV-2018-2020/H2020-INFRADEV-2019-2).

How to cite: DeFelipe, I., Alcalde, J., Fernandez-Turiel, J. L., Diaz, J., Geyer, A., Molina, C., Bernal, I., Fernandez, J., and Carbonell, R.: The Spanish node of the multidisciplinary integrated e-infrastructure EPOS, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7692, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7692, 2020

D1666 |
EGU2020-8273
Roman Racine, Carlo Cauzzi, John Clinton, Donat Fäh, Benjamin Edwards, Tobias Diehl, Stefan Heimers, Nicholas Deichmann, Philipp Kästli, Florian Haslinger, and Stefan Wiemer

The Swiss Seismological Service (SED; http://www.seismo.ethz.ch) at ETH Zürich is the federal agency in charge of monitoring earthquakes in Switzerland and neighboring areas, and for the assessment of seismic hazard and risk for the region. The SED seismic network largely relies on software and databases integrated in the SeisComP3 monitoring suite for waveform acquisition, automatic and manual event processing, event alerting, web infrastructure, data archiving and dissemination. Data from all digital seismic stations acquired by the SED over the last 30 years - broadband (presently ~230), strong-motion (~185), short-period (~65), permanent and temporary - are homogeneously integrated in the seismic network processing tools and products. Waveform data from the Swiss National Seismic Networks are openly available through the SED website and ORFEUS EIDA / Strong-Motion (http://orfeus-eu.org/data/) data gateways. The SED earthquake catalogue is publicly available through FDSN Event web services at  the SED (http://arclink.ethz.ch/fdsnws/event/1/). The Swiss seismic hazard maps are integrated in the EFEHR portal (http://www.efehr.org). The SED is updating its strategy for magnitude determination to make it fully consistent with the state-of-the-art in engineering seismology and seismic hazard studies in Switzerland, and to optimise the use of its dense seismic monitoring infrastructure. Among the planned changes are the: (a) adoption of a new ML relationship applicable in the near-source region at epicentral distances smaller than 15-20 km; (b) inclusion of ML station corrections based on empirically observed (de)amplification with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model and associated predictions; (c)  seamless computation of Mw based on spectral fitting of recorded FAS using a Swiss specific model. In this contribution we present and discuss the updated magnitude computations for a playback dataset of thousands of recorded earthquakes, and compare them with the current official estimates. We discuss the expected impacts of the new magnitude determination strategy on the SED event processing chain in SeisComP3, the SED catalogues and other seismological products. We welcome community feedback on our planned transition strategy.

How to cite: Racine, R., Cauzzi, C., Clinton, J., Fäh, D., Edwards, B., Diehl, T., Heimers, S., Deichmann, N., Kästli, P., Haslinger, F., and Wiemer, S.: Updated determination of earthquake magnitudes at the Swiss Seismological Service, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8273, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8273, 2020

D1667 |
EGU2020-21693
Maria-Theresia Apoloner, Helmut Hausmann, and Nikolaus Horn and the AlpArray Working Group

Seismic networks are expanding and changing continuously: station instrumentation breaks and improves, new stations are set up permanently and temporarily for projects, or get available online from seismological services. For routine processing, it is important to know if and where adding an existing station to processing or building or improving a station will add the most value to the detection an location capabilities.

Therefore, in this study we calculate seismic network detectionthresholds for Austria using data available to us from different sources: From the Seismic Network of Austria (OE), which consists of unevenly distributed high quality low noise broadband and strong-motion stations, with station spacing up to 100 km. Cross-border from neighboring countries, where each of them operates at least one seismic network with very different station quality and coverage. As well as from temporary regional scientific projects (i.a. AlpArray (Z3), the SWATH (ZS)) and local infrastructure monitoring (GeoTief EXPLORE 3D).

Additionally to comparing different methods (SN-CAST by Möllhoff et al. 2019, Net-Sim by Niko Horn, GT5-criterium) with each other, we also analyze how strong-motion stations, recently added due to the interregio project ARMONIA, improve the detection capabilities.

How to cite: Apoloner, M.-T., Hausmann, H., and Horn, N. and the AlpArray Working Group: Estimation of seismic network detection thresholds for Austria, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21693, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21693, 2020

D1668 |
EGU2020-13619
Michael Roth and Björn Lund

The Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) is operating 69 broadband stations in a latitude range from about N55.5 to N68.5 deg. The southern and northern parts of Sweden are covered more or less evenly with stations having about 100km interstation distances. In the center, between latitudes N61 - N65 deg the stations are situated in a band of about 100 km width following the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The maintenance of this large and distributed network - parts of it in Arctic environment - is challenging. All stations are recording at 100 samples per second and are sending continuous data in near real-time to the SNSN centre at Uppsala University. Seismic data are shared via seedlink directly with seismological institutes in the neighbouring countries, and a subset of the network is made available at ORFEUS. The density, spatial distribution and data avalability of the network allow the production of  a reviewed seismic bulletin with a magnitude completeness down to 0.5. We are currently running several independent automatic processing systems at SNSN: Seiscomp3, Earthworm, SIL/MSIL and an in-house developed waveform-backpropagation algorithm. The SIL system was put in operation 1990 and was originally designed to work decentralized (i.e. phase detection processing at each station computer) and to work with segmented data, suitable for a network with narrow communication bandwidth. SIL was further developed into a version called MSIL, which now performs all steps (detection, associaton and localization) centrally. This not only facilitates station and software maintenance, but also reduces the number of potential points of failure, thereby increasing the data acquisition and processing performance. All the automatic systems are set up for regional and local monitoring. Solutions obtained by the Seiscomp3 and Earthworm system are consistent in location and magnitude for more than 90% of the detected events. The SIL/MSIL and the backpropagation system are targeted to weaker events and they provide additional seismic event locations, but also more spurious events. The current setup of several automatic systems provides operational redundancy and it increases the confidence in the automatic solutions (when detected by more than one system). Eventually we are going to merge the automatic solutions of all systems into one automatic bulletin in order to decrease the workload for analyst review.

How to cite: Roth, M. and Lund, B.: The Swedish National Seismic Network, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-13619, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-13619, 2020