EGU General Assembly 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Improving the products of global GNSS data analysis by correcting for loading displacements at the observation level

Lin Wang1, Daniela Thaller1, Andreja Susnik2,3, and Rolf Dach2
Lin Wang et al.
  • 1Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, G1, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (
  • 2University of Bern, Astronomical Institute, Bern, Switzerland
  • 3(Now) NERC Space Geodesy Facility, Herstmonceux, UK

In recent years, the sensitivity of the GNSS station time series to the loading displacements is demonstrated by multiple studies, mainly for the non-tidal atmospheric loading (NTAL) and non-tidal ocean loading (NTOL). But the impact of the loading displacements is beyond the coordinate time series, including and not limited to geocenter motion, Earth Orientation Parameters, satellite orbits, etc. We extensively evaluate the impact on and the improvements of the reference frame products from reprocessed 25 years of GPS and GLONASS network solution with a consistent application of non-tidal loading and Continental Water Storage Loading (CWSL) displacement at the observational level. We also discussed the differences of correcting for the loading displacements at the observation level and correction at the product level on GNSS station coordinates and Geocenter motions, we elaborate the advantage of the inclusion of correction at the observational level.


Significant improvements are found in estimated coordinate time series, almost 90% of the station shows improved WRMS in North and Up directions and over 75% in East. CWSL dominates the contribution in the North direction. The annual Geocenter variations (over 80% of the x and y components) can be explained by the loading displacement. A small and consistent reduction of orbit disclosure is found among all 32 GPS satellites and most of the GLONASS satellites (23 out of 25) after the inclusion of all the loading displacements.  All the improvements demonstrate the urgent need for the adoption of loading displacements in the global GNSS analysis.

How to cite: Wang, L., Thaller, D., Susnik, A., and Dach, R.: Improving the products of global GNSS data analysis by correcting for loading displacements at the observation level, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12920,, 2021.


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