EGU General Assembly 2021
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

A Multi-variable & Multi-objective Optimization Framework for LID Layout in Sponge City

Sijie Tang, Jiping Jiang, and Yi Zheng
Sijie Tang et al.
  • Southern University of Science and Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shenzhen, China (

Practitioners usually design the plan of Sponge City construction (SCC) by combining LID facilities (e.g., rain garden, rain barrels, green roofs, and grassed swales) according to their personal experiences or general guidelines. The layout (including selection, connection and distribution area) of LID facilities is subjective, in the risk of far from optimal combination. Previous researchers have developed some LID optimization tools, which only consider the dimension and number of LIDs in a given scenario. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a flexible and extensible design tool with the support of urban hydrological model to conduct the facilities layout optimization. This study introduced a SWMM-based multi-variable and multi-objective optimization framework called CAFID (Comprehensive Assessment and Fine Design Model of Sponge City) to meet this end. The assessment module with multi-objective couples diverse controlling end-points (e.g., total runoff, peak runoff, pollutant concentration, cost, and customized social-ecological factors) as the candidates of assessment criteria. The optimization module with multi-variable is implemented by SWMM, starting with three steps: 1) Full allocation. Based on the availability, list the candidates of LID facility for each sub-catchment; 2) Full connection. Order the potential stream direction of surface runoff from rainfall to municipal network, based on possible hierarchical structure of sub-catchments and LID facilities; 3) Full coverage. Identify all the suitable area for LID facility in sub-catchment. The optimization on the 3 variables, the selection, connection, and area, is powered by NSGA-II and TOPSIS algorithms, which make it possible that we choose a final result from the set of nondominated solutions according to special weight distribution. The effectiveness of CAFID was illustrated through a case of Sponge City in Fenghuangcheng of Shenzhen City, one of 30 national pilot sponge cities in China. As well, this new framework is expected to be widely verified and applied in Sponge City construction in China or similar concepts all over the world.

How to cite: Tang, S., Jiang, J., and Zheng, Y.: A Multi-variable & Multi-objective Optimization Framework for LID Layout in Sponge City, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14638,, 2021.