EGU General Assembly 2021
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Incorporating spatial gradient observations into seismic noise interferometry

Patrick Paitz1, Korbinian Sager2, Christian Boehm1, and Andreas Fichtner1
Patrick Paitz et al.
  • 1Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (
  • 2Brown University

With an increasing availability of next-generation instruments in seismology such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) interrogators and rotation sensors, as well as public datasets from these instruments, there is a demand for incorporating these new gradient observables into the workflows of seismic interferometry and noise source inversion.

Dropping the common assumption of Green’s function retrieval, we derive a generalized formulation for seismic interferometry that can utilize not only displacement measurements but also spatial and temporal gradients thereof – including velocity, strain and rotation.

Based on this formulation, we are able to simulate interferometric wavefields of displacement and gradient observations or arbitrary combinations of these observables, for heterogeneous visco-elastic media, and for arbitrary noise source distributions.

We demonstrate how to derive adjoint-based expressions for finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of the interferometric wavefields with respect to subsurface structure and noise source distributions, for a wide range of observed quantitates and combinations thereof. We provide numerical examples of such sensitivity kernels.

Especially in environments where the common assumption of a homogeneous noise source distribution is violated, our formulation enables correlation-wavefield based inversions, combining different seismic observables.

The discussed theoretical and numerical developments bring us one step closer to multi-observational full waveform ambient noise inversion, underlining the potential and possible impact of recent developments in seismic instrumentation to seismology across all scales.

How to cite: Paitz, P., Sager, K., Boehm, C., and Fichtner, A.: Incorporating spatial gradient observations into seismic noise interferometry, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4440,, 2021.

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