EGU21-7688, updated on 23 Aug 2022
EGU General Assembly 2021
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Observations of atmospheric 14CO2 at Anmyeondo GAW station, South Korea: implications for fossil fuel CO2 and emission ratios

Haeyoung Lee1, Edward Dlugokencky2, Jocelyn Turnbull3,4, Scott Lehman5, John Miller2, Gabrielle Pétron2,4, Sangwon Joo1, and Yeon-Hee Kim1
Haeyoung Lee et al.
  • 1National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Environmental Meteorology Research Division, Jeju, Korea, Republic of (
  • 2NOAA, Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
  • 3National Isotope Center, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, 5040, New Zealand
  • 4CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
  • 5INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA

To understand the Korean Peninsula's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and sinks as well as those of the surrounding region, we used 70 flask-air samples collected during May 2014 to August 2016 at Anmyeondo (AMY; 36.53 N, 126.32 E; 46 m a.s.l.) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station, located on the west coast of South Korea, for analysis of observed 14C in atmospheric CO2 as a tracer of fossil fuel CO2 contribution (Cff). Observed 14C  C ratios in CO2 (reported as Δ values) at AMY varied from −59.5 ‰ to 23.1 ‰, with a measurement uncertainty of ±1.8 ‰. The derived mean value Cff of (9.7±7.8) µmol mol−1 (1σ) is greater than that found in earlier observations from Tae-Ahn Peninsula (TAP; 36.73 N, 126.13 E; 20 m a.s.l., 28 km away from AMY) of (4.4±5.7) µmol mol−1 from 2004 to 2010. The enhancement above background mole fractions of sulfur hexafluoride (Δx(SF6)) and carbon monoxide (Δx(CO)) correlate strongly with Cff (r>0.7) and appear to be good proxies for fossil fuel CO2 at regional and continental scales. Samples originating from the Asian continent had greater Δx(CO) : Cff(RCO) values, (29±8) to (36±2) nmol µmol−1, than in Korean Peninsula local air ((8±2) nmol µmol−1). Air masses originating in China showed (1.6±0.4) to (2.0±0.1) times greater RCO than a bottom-up inventory, suggesting that China's CO emissions are underestimated in the inventory, while observed RSF6 values are 2–3 times greater than inventories for both China and South Korea. However, RCO values derived from both inventories and observations have decreased relative to previous studies, indicating that combustion efficiency is increasing in both China and South Korea. Since we confirmed the possibility to verify the bottom-up inventories using our measurement data, it will be presented the Korea IG3IS future plan in this presentation.

How to cite: Lee, H., Dlugokencky, E., Turnbull, J., Lehman, S., Miller, J., Pétron, G., Joo, S., and Kim, Y.-H.: Observations of atmospheric 14CO2 at Anmyeondo GAW station, South Korea: implications for fossil fuel CO2 and emission ratios, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7688,, 2021.

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