EGU21-8531, updated on 04 Mar 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8531
EGU General Assembly 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Global Heritage Stone Resource in Brazil

Eliane Aparecida Del Lama1 and Antônio Gilberto Costa2
Eliane Aparecida Del Lama and Antônio Gilberto Costa
  • 1University of São Paulo, Institute of Geosciences, Department of Mineralogy and Geotectonics, São Paulo, Brazil (edellama@usp.br)
  • 2LABTECRochas, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (ag.costa@uol.com.br)

Since the establishment of the Heritage Stone Subcommission by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), in 2011, idealized with the purpose of designating stones of historical significance to compose the Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR), 22 of them have been designated. The nationalities of these GHSR are: 3 British, 1 Norwegian, 2 Belgian, 2 Swedish, 1 Slovenian, 3 Italian, 2 Portuguese, 3 Spanish, 1 Maltese, 1 Indian, 2 American and 1 Argentine. So far, no Brazilian stone has been designated as GHSR. We can observe in monuments and buildings in the Brazilian territory the following imported GHSR: Lioz Stone and Estremoz Marble from Portugal, Carrara Marble and Rosa Beta Granite from Italy and Larvikite from Norway. The use of stones from Portugal and Italy is related firstly to the Portuguese colonization and, later, to economic cycles, such as rubber and coffee, with Italian immigration being significant to the coffee cycle. The presence of Lioz is major, however, it is found almost exclusively in some Brazilian coastal capitals, such as Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Belém. The churches of Salvador are richly decorated with numerous varieties of Lioz. In Belém, it is found in the Basilica of Nossa Senhora de Nazaré, among other churches, and in many tombstones in the Nossa Senhora da Soledade Cemetery. Estremoz Marble is found in commercial buildings and tombstones. In the city of São Paulo, lots of buildings have internal cladding and ornaments made in Carrara Marble, e.g. Municipal Theater, Palace of Justice, Metropolitan Cathedral and Obelisk Mausoleum for the Heroes of 32. In the city of Rio de Janeiro, the tomb of Orville Derby (founder of the Geological Survey of Brazil) at São João Batista Cemetery, among others, is decorated with Carrara Marble, which can also be seen in tomb art of Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo. Rosa Beta Granite can be seen at Monument to Bartolomeu de Gusmão in the city of Santos, costal area of São Paulo State. The use of Larvikite is contemporary. This stone is mainly present in tombstones, for example, at the Consolação Cemetery in São Paulo, but it also decorates the façades of several commercial buildings, both in capitals and several Brazilian cities. In Brazil, several types of Brazilian stones are found in monuments and religious or administrative buildings. These stones, which have been used since Colonial Brazil, are characteristic of certain regions, such as Augen Gneiss in Rio de Janeiro, Itaquera Granite in São Paulo, beachrock in northeastern Brazil, quartzites and steatite in Minas Gerais, among others. Some of them constitute UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and due to their historical importance to our heritage, these stones may be indicated as GHSR in the future.

How to cite: Del Lama, E. A. and Costa, A. G.: Global Heritage Stone Resource in Brazil, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8531, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8531, 2021.