Energy, Resources and the Environment - Open session


Energy, Resources and the Environment - Open session
Convener: Viktor J. Bruckman | Co-conveners: Christopher Juhlin, Sonja Martens
vPICO presentations
| Tue, 27 Apr, 13:30–15:00 (CEST)
Public information:
Besides this scientific session, you are invited to join the ERE award lectures, networking and feedback meetings. We are looking forward to meeting you:
- MAL7: ERE 2020/2021 Division Outstanding ECS Award lectures, Tue, 27 Apr, 15:30–16:35.
- NET4: ERE ECS-event, Tue, 27 Apr, 18:00–19:00.
- DM6: Division meeting for ERE, Thu, 29 Apr, 11:00–12:00.
- NET5: ERE-event for all division members, Thu, 29 Apr, 12:00–13:00.

Would you like to publish your scientific results? Please check these two options for an ERE special issue and join us for more informaton at the ERE Division Meeting:
1. ERE special issue 2021 in Advances in Geosciences: Submissions from 1 May to 30 Jun 2021
2. ERE special issue with a full paper in Applied Sciences: Submissions until 31 August 2021.

vPICO presentations: Tue, 27 Apr

Chairpersons: Viktor J. Bruckman, Sonja Martens, Christopher Juhlin
Featured presentations
Adriano Vinca, Jarmo S. Kikstra, Francesco Lovat, Benigna Boza-Kiss, Bas van Ruijven, Charlie Wilson, Joeri Rogelj, Behnam Zakeri, Oliver Fricko, and Keywan Riahi

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing radical temporary breaks with past energy use and GHG emissions trends. However, how a post-pandemic recovery will impact longer-term transformations to a low-carbon society is unclear. Here, we present different global COVID-19 shock-and-recovery scenarios that systematically explore economic uncertainty and the demand-side effect on emissions. We consider changes in the residential, industry and transport energy sub-sectors under diverging cases that might lead to a more carbon intensive and individualistic way of consumption, or to a policy-advised new future that supports the emission reduction opportunities seen during the pandemic. The resulting impact on cumulative CO2 emissions over the coming decade can range from 28 to 53 GtCO2 reduction depending on the depth and duration of the economic downturn and the extent and persistence of demand-side changes. Recovering from the pandemic with low energy demand practices - embedded in new patterns of travel, work, consumption, and production – reduces climate mitigation challenges in the long run. We show that a low energy demand recovery reduces carbon prices for a 1.5°C consistent pathway by 19%, saves energy supply investments until 2030 by 2.1 trillion USD, and lessens pressure on the upscaling of renewable energy technologies.  

How to cite: Vinca, A., Kikstra, J. S., Lovat, F., Boza-Kiss, B., van Ruijven, B., Wilson, C., Rogelj, J., Zakeri, B., Fricko, O., and Riahi, K.: Impacts of COVID-19 induced energy demand changes on emissions and mitigation challenges, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15574,, 2021.

Luisa Vargas Suarez and Jason Donev

There are extensive conceptual difficulties in understanding a country’s energy story. Every country in the world uses some combination of energy production, imports, and exports energy to meet their society’s needs. Thermal inefficiencies converting primary energy into electricity further confuse the issues. A visualization using large, publicly available data can help illustrate these different energy perspectives. This data visualization helps clarify the following perspectives: Production, Imports, Exports, Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES), Total Final Consumption (TFC), and the conversion losses from turning TPES into TFC. TPES refers to the total amount of energy a country obtains directly from natural resources such as fossil fuels or wind. TFC refers to the addition of the all energy directly consumed by a user for an energy service such as electricity for lighting in a house. This paper discusses the interactive simulation that was built to allow users to explore the composition of a country’s energy production, imports and exports through the conversion into energy people consume. The simulation allows users to explore the energy stories for different countries, and how these change over the decades.

How to cite: Vargas Suarez, L. and Donev, J.: Visualizing the Energy Production, Imports and Exports for Countries, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13802,, 2021.

Samuel Robinson and Alona Armstrong

Energy systems around the world are rapidly transitioning towards decentralised and digitalised systems as countries aim to decarbonise their economies. However, broader environmental effects of the upscaling of these smart local energy systems (SLES) beyond reducing carbon emissions remain unclear. Land-use change associated with increased deployment of renewables, new infrastructures required for energy distribution and storage, and resource extraction for emerging energy technologies may have significant environmental impacts, including consequences for ecosystems within and beyond energy system project localities. This has major implications for biodiversity, natural capital stocks and provision of ecosystem services, the importance of which are increasingly recognised in development policy at local to international scales. This study assessed current understanding of the broader environmental impacts and potential co-benefits of SLES through a global Rapid Evidence Assessment of peer-reviewed academic literature, with a critical evaluation and synthesis of existing knowledge of effects of SLES on biodiversity, natural capital and ecosystem services. There was a striking overall lack of evidence of the environmental impacts of SLES. The vast majority of studies identified considered only energy technology CO2 emissions through simulation modelling; almost no studies made explicit reference to effects on ecosystems. This highlights an urgent need to improve whole system understanding of environmental impacts of SLES, crucial to avoid unintended ecosystem degradation as a result of climate change mitigation. This will also help to identify potential techno-ecological synergies and opportunities for improvement of degraded ecosystems alongside reaching decarbonisation goals.

How to cite: Robinson, S. and Armstrong, A.: Environmental impacts of smart local energy systems, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-900,, 2021.

Solar energy
Sacha de Rijk, Ruurd Noordhuis, Bas van den Boogaard, and Ineke Roell

Like other countries The Netherlands are facing several societal challenges. As space is very scarce in the Netherlands it is vital to find chances for synergy in solutions to the challenges. It is investigated whether an upgrade of natural values in a large Dutch freshwater lake could go together with installing solar panels on water and thus generate sustainable energy. Our first exploration shows that this kind of synergy has potential for both biodiversity and renewable energy. The presentation will show the design, requirements, uncertainties, chances and risks.

The area of interest is Lake IJssel, a freshwater lake covering an area of 1,100 km2 with an average depth of 5.5 m. Lake IJssel was constructed by the completion of a dam in 1932, transforming the former brackish water of the Zuiderzee into a lake. The water levels are precisely controlled, and the lake provides several ecosystem services. The present ecosystem is imbalanced with low productivity and low biodiversity.

To strengthen the delta nature in the Dutch waters a national Program for nature restoration has been launched. Goal for Lake IJssel is creating more natural transitions: from wet to dry and from fresh to salt. This is done by creating the missing habitats necessary for a healthy ecosystem like shallows with submerged vegetation and wetlands with a natural fluctuation of water levels. At the same time, the region surrounding Lake IJssel is trying to find opportunities for generation of renewable energy. Solar panels on the open water of the lake is one of the options. We have developed a design consisting of a cluster of artificial island modules.

The entire design consists of seven modules of which four modules provide space for solar panels. Each solar module consists of a constructed ring dike with an open connection to the lake providing a water surface where wave action is greatly reduced so thatsolar panels can be installed safely. In this exploration, we opted for a panel coverage percentage of 50% of the surface. If we decrease the water depth by one or two meters under the solar panels with local sediment, the light can penetrate to the lake floor. This creates a favorable environment for aquatic plants. Under the panels, a relatively open, structure-rich vegetation of mainly pondweeds is expected, which is interesting for growing young fish in the summer due to a combination of food supply and shelter. In winter, when the vegetation has disappeared, these waters are expected to be attractive for the wintering of (larger) fish. In addition, the mounting structures of the panels also contribute, providing a substrate for mussels and other invertebrates.

The idea has not yet been tested in practice. The possibility of multiple use of space for ecology and energy is so far based on the judgement of the best available experts and experiences. A pilot study and monitoring are required to gain more insights in the ecological impacts of solar panels in this ecosystem.

How to cite: de Rijk, S., Noordhuis, R., van den Boogaard, B., and Roell, I.: Potential synergy between solar energy and biodiversity, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7040,, 2021.

Sebastian Lerch, Benedikt Schulz, Mehrez El Ayari, and Sándor Baran

In order to enable the transition towards renewable energy sources, probabilistic energy forecasting is of critical importance for incorporating volatile power sources such as solar energy into the electrical grid. Solar energy forecasting methods often aim to provide probabilistic predictions of solar irradiance. In particular, many hybrid approaches combine physical information from numerical weather prediction models with statistical methods. Even though the physical models can provide useful information at intra-day and day-ahead forecast horizons, ensemble weather forecasts from multiple model runs are often not calibrated and show systematic biases. We propose a post-processing model for ensemble weather predictions of solar irradiance at temporal resolutions between 30 minutes and 6 hours. The proposed models provide probabilistic forecasts in the form of a censored logistic probability distribution for lead times up to 5 days and are evaluated in two case studies covering distinct physical models, geographical regions, temporal resolutions, and types of solar irradiance. We find that post-processing consistently and significantly improves the forecast performance of the ensemble predictions for lead times up to at least 48 hours and is well able to correct the systematic lack of calibration.

How to cite: Lerch, S., Schulz, B., El Ayari, M., and Baran, S.: Post-processing numerical weather prediction ensembles for probabilistic solar irradiance forecasting, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2800,, 2021.

Yash Narayan

Solar and storage based microgrids offer a unique opportunity for both climate change mitigation by reducing CO2 emissions and for climate change adaptation by increasing infrastructure resiliency. In this work, we design a time-of-use (ToU) optimization algorithm to determine whether it would be economically viable to install microgrids within two school campuses in the Bay Area, California that have unique load profiles. Our algorithm, which combines machine learning for accurate site-level net load forecasts, examines three years of electricity consumption data to compute the school’s savings from peak demand charges, energy charges, and demand response revenue generated by providing ancillary services to the grid. Given the school’s unique load profile combined with SGIP and MACRS incentives available in the state of California, we determine that a 15-year battery installed at these two campuses with a cost of $600/kWh provides a net positive internal rate of return (IRR) of 11.9% and 18.3% respectively year-over-year. In addition, the battery provides backup power in case of a power outage and improves grid resilience by providing peak shaving when the power grid is stressed. We hope that our computational analysis can motivate other schools to examine the huge economic and climate benefits that a microgrid poses at their campus. 

How to cite: Narayan, Y.: Solar and Energy Storage Based Microgrids:  Data-Driven Optimization and Economic Analysis to Examine Energy Savings from a Microgrid within a School Campus, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6785,, 2021.

Geothermal exploration and research
Javiera Chocobar, Bernhardt Johst, Rolf Bracke, and Erik H. Saenger

     The development of geothermal exploration has benefited from the inclusion of exploration protocols based on geological Plays classically used in hydrocarbon exploration projects. Despite being a research topic in which many efforts have been devoted, it presents weaknesses when evaluating the role of the communities (the social dimension) during the exploration process. To address the lack of studies, a qualitative research has been carried out in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panamá) to determine the necessary factors to be considered in the social dimension within the geothermal exploration based in Plays.

     We have identified the social factors within each social dimension (demand, infrastructure, land access) and from this, a catalogue of the necessary activities required in the social dimension during the geothermal exploration process based on plays is proposed. The results of our survey will greatly contribute to the implementation of the Play-based exploration in geothermal projects because it reduces the risks associated in the initial phase of the exploration process and offers a step-by-step methodology that, when adapted to the needs of each country, can improve the efficiency of the current geothermal exploration protocols.

How to cite: Chocobar, J., Johst, B., Bracke, R., and Saenger, E. H.: Identification of the socio-technical factors within geothermal exploration based on Plays with examples from Central America, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8091,, 2021.

Bianca Kretz, Willi Freeden, and Volker Michel

For geothermal purposes (heat and electricity generation) it is necessary to have an aquifer from which the contained hot water can be lifted by drilling. The exchange of the hot water against some cooled off water has an effect on the surrounding material and displacement of the material has an influence on the pore pressure and the water. Poroelasticity can model these influencing effects by partial differential equations.

We want to apply poroelasticity in geothermal research by so-called multiscale modelling. Scaling functions and wavelets are constructed with the help of the fundamental solutions. A related method has been previously used for the Laplace, the Helmholtz and the d'Alembert equation (cf. [2],[4],[5]) as well as for the Cauchy-Navier equation, where the latter requires a tensor-valued ansatz (cf. [3]). We pursue this concept to develop such an approach for poroelasticity, where a fundamental solution tensor is known (cf. [1]).

The aim of this multiscale modelling is to convolve the constructed scaling functions with the data of the displacement $u$ and the pressure $p$. With this, we have the opportunity to visualize structures in the data that cannot be seen in the whole data. Especially, the difference of the convolution of two consecutive scaling functions is expected to reveal detail structures.

For the theoretical part, we can show that the scaling functions fulfill the property of an approximate identity. Furthermore, with numerical results we want to show the decomposition.


[1] M. Augustin: A method of fundamental solutions in poroelasticity to model the stress field in geothermal reservoirs, PhD Thesis, University of Kaiserslautern, 2015, Birkhäuser, New York, 2015.

[2] C. Blick, Multiscale potential methods in geothermal research: decorrelation reflected post-processing and locally based inversion, PhD Thesis, Geomathematics Group, Department of Mathematics, University of Kaiserslautern, 2015.

[3] C. Blick, S. Eberle, Multiscale density decorrelation by Cauchy-Navier wavelets, Int. J. Geomath. 10, 2019, article 24.

[4] C. Blick, W. Freeden, H. Nutz: Feature extraction of geological signatures by multiscale gravimetry. Int. J. Geomath. 8: 57-83, 2017.

[5] W. Freeden, C. Blick: Signal decorrelation by means of multiscale methods, World of Mining, 65(5):304--317, 2013.

How to cite: Kretz, B., Freeden, W., and Michel, V.: Benefit of poroelasticity for geothermal research, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4301,, 2021.

Abdullah F Qatarneh, Capucine Dupont, Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Julie Michel, Loic Simonin, Hervé Piégay, and Mário J. Franca

Around the world rivers transport large volumes of driftwood into lakes, seas and oceans. Recruited commonly during flooding events and transported by rivers, driftwood poses a hazard for the point of view of the safety of infrastructures and river dwellers. For that reason, it is many times extracted locally and stored; driftwood removal prevents sinking and protects the dam infrastructure. Collected driftwood is a neglected river resource that is generally combusted or landfilled. Génissiat dam on the Rhone River in France presents a case study where annually approximately 1300 tons of driftwood is intersected.


Among the different processes that are capable of converting driftwood, HydroThermal Carbonization (HTC) is of high interest due its ability to process biomass with high moisture content, such as driftwood. HTC of biomass leads to the production of a solid product referred to as hydrochar, which is a high added-value material that can be used in different applications, such as fuel cooking, soil amendment, water treatment and energy storage. The goal of the study was to characterize the driftwood collected upstream of the Génissiat dam and to investigate its potential for hydrochar production as precursor of anode in sodium-ion batteries. Sodium-ion batteries have received more interest lately as an alternative for the resource intensive and expensive lithium-ion batteries.  The study follows a novel approach in study driftwood by categorizing based on their genera. HTC of the different identified genera was conducted in a 2L batch reactor following a temperature of 200 °C for a residence time of 11.5 h. Results show that the impact of driftwood genera is not significant for processing of driftwood through HTC. Produced hydrochar had a high carbon content (from 55.4 to 57.0 %) and lower ash content (from 0.2 to 1.4 \% of dry biomass). Electrochemical results show that driftwood-based hydrochar is a promising precursor of hard carbon anodes in sodium-ion batteries due to its excellent electrochemical performance.


Key words: Driftwood, Hydrothermal carbonization, Hydrochar, Rhone river, Sodium-ion batteries

How to cite: Qatarneh, A. F., Dupont, C., Ruiz-Villanueva, V., Michel, J., Simonin, L., Piégay, H., and Franca, M. J.: Evaluating river driftwood potential for energy storage applications, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10951,, 2021.

Anders Fredenslund and Charlotte Scheutz

The Danish voluntary methane monitoring programme for agricultural biogas producing facilities was launched by the Danish Biogas Association in autumn, 2016. The Danish Biogas Association had set a san overall goal of reducing the total methane loss from Danish biogas and upgrading plants on a national level to less than 1% of production by 2020.

The Danish Government has allocated approximately 1.3 million € to monitor and reduce methane emissions from the biogas sector in the period 2019-2020, based on previous experiences. The funds are used to administer this new programme, method testing, validation of measurement service providers and to provide partial funding for the participation of biogas plants. Also, the project includes recommendations to the Danish Energy Agency regarding use of measurements in regulation based on the results of the programme. The programme includes agricultural biogas plants (both farm-scale and centralized plants), industrial biogas plants and biogas plants treating sludge from wastewater treatment. The biogas plants provide partial funding. Three levels of own-funding are used depending on the magnitude of gas production. Large biogas plants pay a larger fraction of expenses than smaller plants. This was chosen to ensure participation of smaller facilities.

At each biogas plant, two or more of the following actions are performed:

1. Initial agreement on services and expectations

2. Development of self-monitoring programme

3. Leakage search and mitigation recommendations

4. Quantification of methane loss using remote sensing

5. Draft project of emission reduction initiatives

Actions 1 and 4 are mandatory for the participating biogas plants. The leakage search (Action 3) is performed using Optical Gas Imaging (OGI). Here, a measurement technician uses OGI to identify leakages both outdoors on tanks, pipes etc., and indoors. The report lists and illustrates leakages (through video documentation) and provides advise on mitigation actions were applicable. Even though OGI is not used quantitatively, the leaks are categorized as low, medium and high emission rates based on the operator’s assessment from the OGI videos.

Quantification of the biogas plants total methane emission (Action 4) is done using a tracer gas dispersion method. This remote sensing method includes the controlled, continuous release of a tracer gas (C2H2 in this case) combined with downwind, cross-plume measurements of methane and tracer gas. This method is described in Scheutz and Fredenslund (2019). It has been used to quantify emissions from biogas plants in the previous voluntary programme as well as to measure fugitive emissions from other area sources such as landfills, composting facilities and wastewater treatment plants.

About 60 plants have signed up and measurement and consultation activities are currently ongoing. The plants include about 35 manure-based biogas plants, 2 industrial biogas plants and 22 wastewater treatment plants. All activities are to be completed by the end of February, 2021.

This presentation will include a short introduction to the programme, observed emission rates and emission factors, typical sources of methane emission, mitigation options, recommendations regarding regulation and economic factors such as expenses for the monitoring activities.


Scheutz, C., Fredenslund, A.M. 2019. Total methane emission rates and losses from 23 biogas plants. Waste Management, 97, 38-46.

How to cite: Fredenslund, A. and Scheutz, C.: Maximising climate protection through minimising gas leakage – the Danish biogas measurement programme, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16061,, 2021.

Groundwater resources
Artur Wilczynski, Barbara Namyslowska-Wilczynska, and Pawel Maslankiewicz

The Authors deal with the problems of management of post-industrial areas affected by high unemployment leading to prevailing frustration, increasing migration of the population and other socially and economically adverse phenomena. This is accompanied by the considerable degradation of the natural environment and the deterioration in the quality of life of the local population. The aim of the studies is showing the possibilities to create a model to manage the resources in order to achieve sustainable development, particularly to manage water and energy in the post-industrial areas. The studies have been carried out for a region heavily industrialized in the recent past with present closed down mines. In particular, the work relates to examine the possibility of: improving the quality of the surface and underground waters, using the water as a source of low-temperature heat, storing energy and producing energy in local renewable sources, ensuring proper water retention, developing post-industrial tourism through managing the post-industrial facilities and making them available. Innovation of work is to create an integrated model of resources and the environment management, in particular water resources and non-conventional energy.

The proposals constitute a contribution to the implementation of the principles of sustainable development by focusing on three of its dimensions - economic, environmental and social. At the same time it would be a way for the sustainable management of the water environment in the areas of anthropopressure, in industrial and post-industrial areas, for the purpose of collecting water, improving water quality and the use of local energy sources. The possibility of energy storage, which is extremely important in the area of an intensive development of unconventional sources of energy (wind farms, solar sources, hydroelectric, etc.), the characteristics of which are irregular, referred to simply as chimeric sources, also exists.

How to cite: Wilczynski, A., Namyslowska-Wilczynska, B., and Maslankiewicz, P.: Sustainable management of water environment in anthropopressure area for municipal purposes, water quality improvement and utilization of renewable energy sources, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12927,, 2021.

Anthony Lamur, Silvio De Angelis, Rayco Marrero, Yan Lavallée, and Pablo J. Gonzalez

Surface water resources on volcanic islands with moderate rainfall and relatively high permeability are usually scarce or non-existent. As such, life and local economies of these islands mostly relies on groundwater exploitation. It is therefore important to characterise the sustainability of volcanic aquifer systems. In short, an aquifer is deemed in equilibrium when the recharge rate equals or exceeds the exploitation rate. The Izaña area in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has been exploited since the 1900s via a series of ~30 horizontal drilling or water galleries coming from both flanks of the NE-Ridge. Since exploitation began, the water table has dropped continuously, in some area even more than 200 m. Since the 2000s, aquifer dynamics (compaction) have been observed using InSAR indicating a subsidence rate of up to 2 cm per year.

Here, we investigate a suite of rock samples collected. The samples were collected at several water galleries aiming to be representative of the aquifer materials from the Izaña area. We first characterise the basic physical properties of each samples (porosity, permeability, solid density) before quantifying the elastic parameters (Young’s modulus, Poisson ratio) and uniaxial strength of the lithologies collected. We also measure Vp under dry and wet conditions (i.e. different saturation levels) to assess whether water saturation can alter the velocity of P-waves passing through those rocks.

Preliminary results show that connected porosities range from 0.16 to 45%, conferring a wide range of mechanical response to increasing effective pressure, with strength ranging from 18 – 315 MPa and Young’s moduli ranging from 3 – 57 GPa. In a similar fashion, results for Vp measurements also exhibit a range of values (~1.5 – 4.5 km/s). These data show that materials present in the aquifer are extremely varied, suggesting that both fluid flow and observed deformation are likely to be controlled by the weakest, most porous lithologies.

These results will further be integrated with the lithostratigraphic record of the aquifer in order to model the mechanical response of the aquifer to changes in effective pressures, and specifically pore pressure reduction with water extraction. Additionally, chemical and textural analysis will provide insights on the evolution of the porous network at different alteration levels, here serving as a proxy for time at saturation in the aquifer. Finally, we aim to compare the experimental results from laboratory measurements to those of hydro-geophysical measurements that will be collected in the field starting in mid-2021.

How to cite: Lamur, A., De Angelis, S., Marrero, R., Lavallée, Y., and Gonzalez, P. J.: Quantifying the mechanical response of the Izaña area (Tenerife) to sustained groundwater withdrawal, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9905,, 2021.

Ricardo Pérez Indoval, Javier Rodrigo-Ilarri, and Eduardo Cassiraga

Chlorpyrifos is commoly used as an pesticide to control weeds and prevent nondesirable grow of algae, fungi and bacteria in many agricultural applications. Despite its highly negative effects on human health, environmental modeling of this kind of pesticide in the groundwater is not commonly done in real situations. Predicting the fate of pesticides released into the natural environment is necessary to anticipate and minimize adverse effects both at close and long distances from the contamination source. A number of models have been developed to predict the behavior, mobility, and persistence of pesticides. These models should account for key hydrological and agricultural processes, such as crop growth, pesticide application patterns, transformation processes and field management practices.

This work shows results obtained by the Pesticide Water Calculator (PWC) model to simulate the behavior of chlorpyrifos. PWC model is used as a standard pesticide simulation model in USA and in this work it has been used to  simulate the fate and transport of chlorpyrifos in the unsaturated zone of the aquifer. The model uses a whole set of parameters to solve a modified version of the mass transport equation considering the combined effect of advection, dispersion and reactive transport processes. PWC is used to estimate the daily concentrations of chlorpyrifos in the Buñol-Cheste aquifer in Valencia Region(Spain).

A whole set of simulation scenarios have been designed to perform a parameter sensitivity analysis. Results of the PWC model obtained in this study represents a crucial first step towards the development of a pesticide risk assessment in Valencia Region. Results show that numerical simulation is a valid tool for the analysis and prediction of the fate  and transport of pesticides in the groundwater.

How to cite: Pérez Indoval, R., Rodrigo-Ilarri, J., and Cassiraga, E.: Assessment of groundwater contamination by chlorpyrifos using the PWC model in Valencia Region (Spain), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9514,, 2021.

Stefano Cara, Silvana Fais, Paola Ligas, Carlo Matzuzzi, and Federica Podda

The aim of this work is to combine geological/geophysical techniques with proximal sensing based on Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for advanced 3D modeling, in a possible post-mining landscape recovery of abandoned mine sites. In this framework a test area in central Sardinia (Italy) was studied. In this area, several talc-chlorite-feldspar bodies have long been mined in open pit operation greatly modifying the original landscape. At present the rearrangement of the mining site and particularly the open pit works that have been occupied by newly formed pools filled with waters from aquifers can be considered an overall project of landscape recovery. The project team have focused on developing a UAS proximal sensing technique for the acquisition of high-definition digital images and by means of photogrammetric algorithms (CMPMVS) in order to generate a dense 3D point cloud and successively high-resolution digital models (DSM and DTM). The proximal sensing survey was performed at different flight heights to obtain a Ground Sample Distance (GSD) according to the scale of investigation. The availability of a detailed topographic dataset is fundamental to characterize a complex morphology and is a basic support for integration with the data resulting from the geological-geophysical survey conducted in the abandoned mine area. Based on this a geophysical investigation by the electromagnetic very low frequency (VLF) method was carefully planned and carried out to localize potential structural discontinuities that can guide groundwater circulation between the newly formed pools encased in the crystalline basement rocks. The VLF method has a high-resolution power in detecting lateral variations in the electrical properties (i.e., conductivity) of the rock formations related to the presence of underground geological structures. To facilitate the interpretation of the VLF-EM anomalies the Karous–Hjelt linear filter was applied on the EM data. Thanks to the application of this filtering procedure, it was possible to obtain the current density pseudosections along the profiles crossing the basement rocks. The pseudosections provide a representation of the various current concentrations in depth and hence the spatial arrangement of subsurface geological features such as faults, fracture zones and geological contacts. The VLF data were also quantitatively interpreted with a 2D code for the VLF data inversion. Both in the pseudosections and in the 2D resistivity models two main conductive zones are present. These conductive zones could be the signature of a preferential path of the water circulation between the newly formed pools encased in the basement rocks. The application of the integrated geological-geophysical and UAV photogrammetric survey approach proved successful in characterizing the basement rocks of the investigated area and allowed to localize structural discontinuities that can guide the groundwater circulation. The results of this study can represent the indispensable knowledge base to contribute to constraining the hydrogeology numerical model needed for the mine site rehabilitation and reasonable planning of the possible post-mining landscape recovery. The methodological sequence used in this study can be reproduced in other similar abandoned mining sites thus giving an important contribution to an efficient and cost-effective performance of the restoration project.

How to cite: Cara, S., Fais, S., Ligas, P., Matzuzzi, C., and Podda, F.: Integrated geological-geophysical and UAS proximal sensing approach to the study of ground water movement between two open-pit pools in an abandoned mine area., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2343,, 2021.

Mineral resources
Barbara Namysłowska-Wilczyńska

This geostatistical study investigates the variation in the basic geological parameters of the lithologically varied deposit in mining block R-1 in the west (W) part of the Rudna Mine (the region Lubin – Sieroszowice, SW part of Poland).

Data obtained from the sampling (sample size N = 708) of excavations in block R-1 were the input for the spatial analyses. The data are the results of chemical analyses of the Cu content in the (recoverable) deposit series, carried out on channel samples and drilled core samples, taken systematically at every 15-20 m in the headings.

The deposit profile comprises various rock formations, such as: mineralized Weissliegend sandstones, intensively mineralized upper Permian dolomitic-loamy and loamy copper-bearing schists and carbonate rocks: loamy dolomite, striped dolomite and limy dolomite, of various thickness. No schists formed in some parts of block R-1, which are referred to as the schistless area. The deposit series here is considerably less mineralized (comparing with other mining blocks) even though the mineralization thickness of the sandstone and carbonate rocks reaches as much as 20 m.

The variation in the Cu content and thickness of the recoverable deposit and the estimated averages Z* of the above parameters were modelled using the variogram function and the ordinary (block) kriging technique. The efficiency of the estimations was characterized.

As part of the further spatial analyses the Zs values of the analysed deposit parameters were simulated using the conditional turning bands simulation. Confidence intervals for the values of averages based on the estimated averages Z* and averages  based on the simulated values (realizations) Zs, showing the uncertainty of the estimations and simulations, were calculated.

The results of the analyses clearly indicate the shifting of the mineralized zone (the mineralizing solutions), sometimes into the sandstones while spreading throughout the floor of calcareous-dolomitic formations and sometimes into the carbonate rocks, partly entering the roof layers of sandstones. It can be concluded that the process of deposit formation and copper mineralization variation had a multiphase character and the lateral and vertical relocation of the valuable metal ores could play a significant role.

The combination of various geostatistical techniques - estimation and simulation - will allow for more effective management of natural resources of mineral resources, including copper ore deposits.

How to cite: Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, B.: Estimation of copper ore deposit parameters – case study of Rudna Mine mining block R-1 (SW part of Poland) using geostatistics, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12397,, 2021.

Environment and infrastructure
Yabin Da, Yangyang Xu, and Bruce McCarl

Surface ozone pollution has been proven to impose significant damages on crops. However, the quantification of the damages was extensively derived from chamber experiments, which is not representative of actual results in farm fields due to the limitations of spatial scale, time window, etc. In this work, we attempt to empirically fill this gap using county-level data in the United States from 1980 to 2015. We explore ozone impacts on corn, soybeans, spring wheat, winter wheat, barley, cotton, peanuts, rice, sorghum, and sunflower. We also incorporate a variety of climate variables to investigate potential ozone-climate interactions. More importantly, we shed light on future yield consequences of ozone and climate change individually and jointly under a moderate warming scenario. Our findings suggest significant negative impacts of ozone exposure for eight of the ten crops we examined, excepting barley and winter wheat, which contradicts experimental results. The average annual damages were estimated at $6.03 billion (in 2015 U.S. dollar) from 1980 to 2015. We also find rising temperatures tend to worsen ozone damages while water supply would mitigate that. Finally, elevated ozone driven by future climate change would cause much smaller damages than the direct effects of climate change itself.

How to cite: Da, Y., Xu, Y., and McCarl, B.: Effects of ozone and climate on historical (1980-2015) crop yields in the United States: Implication for mid-21st century projection, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-399,, 2021.

Nadine Lory Bortolotto and Cristiano Poleto

This work aims to identify means of analysing the gravimetric composition of solid waste retained in the fences of some operational units of the Insular sewage system in the municipality of Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Two sewage pumping stations (Beira-Mar Norte and Hospital Universitário-Trindade) units were chosen and the railing at the entrance to the sewage treatment station of the system (Insular). The following classes of solid waste were adopted: plastics, metals, styrofoam, civil construction material, dead animals, sanitary napkins, diapers, rags and cloths, organic matter, other or tailings. It is being identified the solid waste observed in greater quantities and in percentages in the sanitary sewage system, which may cause damage to the operational units. The intending action is to be able to propose to local government and the system operator, different ways to educate the population and try to prevent or reduce the appearance of these residues in the sewage systems.

How to cite: Bortolotto, N. L. and Poleto, C.: Gravimetric Analysis of Solid Waste from Sanitary Sewage Operating Units of the Insular System, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6668,, 2021.

Faton Krasniqi

Radiological emergencies involving accidental or deliberate dispersion of alpha emitting radionuclides in the environment can cause significant damage to humans and societies in general. A detection system to measure large-scale contamination of these radionuclides is currently not available. In case of a contamination, the only option is to evacuate the population from the affected areas and then run diagnostics by hand due to the short range of alpha particles in air, exposing thus the emergency teams to considerable risk. Even then, the results of emergency field applications are notoriously ambiguous, time consuming and tedious due to the centimetre range of the alpha particles in air. A novel detection approach which is capable of remote detection of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the environment will be reported. This approach will assist the on-site incident management and will enable detection of contamination threats without contact—from safe distances—avoiding thus contamination of operators and equipment.

How to cite: Krasniqi, F.: Optical detection of alpha emitting radionuclides in the environment, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1847,, 2021.

Roshmi Sen, Shankha Pratim Bhattacharya, and Subrata Chattopadhyay

There is a strong positive correlation between thermal comfort quality experienced inside a building and its energy efficiency. This is more obvious in case of mechanically ventilated spaces where the energy gains are directly related to the thermal load, as compared to free running or naturally ventilated spaces. Current state of arts assess the energy efficiency of building envelops in terms of the cumulative thermal load in the operating phase of the building that are catered by mechanical ventilations. Our study aims at addressing this gap of research in assessing the thermal comfort quality of naturally ventilated residential living spaces. Our study is designed in a warm-humid climate setting and in the context of affordable mass housing in the developing world where mechanical ventilation is unaffordable or affordable only for a definite period of the day and during peak summer seasons; such buildings are said to be operating in temporal mixed mode.

Affordable mass housing constitutes 95% housing demand in the residential sector in India. Various alternative materials and composite roofing and walling envelops have been envisioned in the past decade for such constructions, however, their effectiveness in terms of comfort quality has not been assessed for naturally ventilated envelops. Our study introduces a model to assess the thermal performance of naturally ventilated bedrooms constructed with alternate building envelop configurations. We attempt to review  and compare alternative walling technologies and the currently emerging mass housing construction systems in India with the base case housing envelop constructions commonly in practice in India that use ordinary burnt clay brick walls and reinforced concrete roofs. We compare the thermal comfort purveyed in the indoor bedroom spaces using the adaptive thermal comfort model in EN15251 as thermal neutrality temperature. We assess and compare alternative envelop performance using two measuring thermal comfort indices suited for naturally ventilated scenarios - the discomfort hours index and the cooling indoor degree hours index. Discomfort hours measures the number of hours of discomfort experienced during the summer solstice and spring equinox months whereas the cooling indoor degree hours measures the cumulative average temperature elevation from the comfort temperature in the hours marked as discomfort hours. In our study, light gauge steel framed structure with foam concrete filling records the minimum number of discomfort hours, however purveys maximum cooling indoor degree hours.

The above two comfort indices have not been compared in the past to assess the thermal comfort quality in naturally ventilated or temporal mixed mode buildings. Our study frames a thermal comfort assessment model for naturally ventilated envelops and thereby offers a paradigm shift from life cycle cooling load minimization models which are appropriate for mechanically conditioned spaces. Our observations are also important for mass housing envelop selection and in the context of the current policy frameworks in the developing world, aimed at minimizing the projected demand for residential space cooling and future energy footprints in the housing sector.

How to cite: Sen, R., Bhattacharya, S. P., and Chattopadhyay, S.: Comfort-energy nexus in naturally ventilated affordable mass housing with alternative constructions in the developing world, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8003,, 2021.

Abdulrahman Almufarrej and Tohid Erfani

Increasing buildings energy efficiency is a challenging task. The two main contributing factors that control the overall buildings energy performance are the Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and the building envelope design. Our research investigates how three main building envelop design factors (orientation, compactness and window to wall ratio) impact the overall building’s energy consumption. We focus on typical rectangular shaped buildings and vary the geometry between a square to a rectangular floor plan to provide a basis of energy performance in early stage building design guidance. We test the analysis on building’s energy performance specific to the Middle East’s Kuwait climate condition and environment, and discuss the least energy consumption patterns. This is of importance as most of the electricity consumption in Kuwait are due to HVAC use in residential buildings. The major energy consumption factors are broken down to show how the patterns are unique compared to the previously researched efforts and how a regional set of guidance is of need. The results of this study’s implication on energy and resource use in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is discussed, given the high proportion of GHG emission compared to the population within the region.

How to cite: Almufarrej, A. and Erfani, T.: Building’s Energy Consumption Pattern and Design-Built Parameters - Influence of Climate on Design Guidelines, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14275,, 2021.

Sofia Fidani, Ioannis Daliakopoulos, Thrassyvoulos Manios, Manolis Grillakis, Vasiliki Charalampopoulou, and Panagiotis Nektarios

Urban green infrastructure in the form of green roofs and vertical gardens is gradually becoming a mainstream development option to mitigate the negative impacts of dense urbanization, and primarily those associated with the urban heat island effect and the consequent vulnerability due to climate change (Nektarios and Ntoulas, 2017). Nevertheless, the quantification of the effect of green infrastructure in comparison to conventional infrastructure as well as tree parks and gardens, can be a challenge in a rapidly changing urban environment, especially due to historical gaps in environmental parameter monitoring. Here we propose the use of land surface temperature (LST) [oC] produced using freely available LandSat imagery at 30 m resolution, to evaluate the effect of green infrastructure on urban surface temperature. The method relies on the comparison of historical LST timeseries of an area of interest which has undergone urban greening interventions with adjacent city blocks that have retained their conventional urban character. The method is applied to evaluate the impact of the recently constructed Eco Campus Orange (ECO) garden, which has resulted from the renovation of 4 city blocks in Paris, France. Within an area over 3 ha, ECO employs environmentally friendly materials and 100,000 plants to feature 2,300 m2 of green wall and “the largest green roof of Europe”. For the area of interest, over 250 LandSat 5, 7, and 8 multispectral images dating from 2010 to 2020, were analyzed after Ermida et al. (2020). Results show that, since its construction, LST at ECO quickly dropped by over 2 oC, reaching the LST levels of adjacent urban parks. The method is ideal for ambient temperature timeseries reconstruction where long-term monitoring is sparce and can be applied to evaluate drastic landscape changes such as urban greening or vegetation thinning.


Ermida, S.L., Soares, P., Mantas, V., Göttsche, F.M., Trigo, I.F., 2020. Google earth engine open-source code for land surface temperature estimation from the landsat series. Remote Sens.

Nektarios, P.A., Ntoulas, N., 2017. Designing green roofs for arid and semi-arid climates. The route towards the adaptive approach, in: Acta Horticulturae. International Society for Horticultural Science, pp. 197–202.


The research was co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program RIS3Crete (COMPOLIVE: ΚΡΗΡ3-0028773)

The research of MG was co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Human Resource Development, Education and Lifelong Learning", under the Act "STRENGTHENING post-doctoral fellows / researchers - B cycle" (MIS 5033021) implemented by the State Scholarship Foundation.

How to cite: Fidani, S., Daliakopoulos, I., Manios, T., Grillakis, M., Charalampopoulou, V., and Nektarios, P.: Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure in Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect Using Remote Sensing, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15362,, 2021.