The European Union is required to adopt national energy and climate plans for the period 2021-2030, which will have an impact on a number of societal challenges linked to the environment as sustainable resourcing, secure and reliable access to raw materials, groundwater, energy efficiency and decarbonization of the energy sector, climate change mitigation and adaptation. The growing population and the consequent natural-resources pressures on resources and uses are decisive factors for a societal and technological transition considering the European Green Deal and UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Mineral raw materials will play a crucial role to achieve the goals outlined by our society
The industrial transformation envisaged by the EU will increase the need for a coordinated and integrated approach in research and innovation, underpinned by reliable and easy access to data and new sources of raw materials to ensure European competitiveness and wellbeing. This coordinated approach is already being practiced by the Geological Surveys (GSO) of Europe, who aim to develop a common subsurface knowledge hub by developing and sharing new cross-thematic information services, resource evaluation methods, impact assessments and associated policy support tools. To this end, 45 GSO from 32 European countries have joined forces within the GeoERA Programme to improve and facilitate access to subsurface data and knowledge for a broad range of end-uses and can help to align transnational interests regarding management of resources and impacts. This pan-European collaboration develops interoperable, harmonized and seamless data, information and expertise for policy makers, industry and other stakeholders supporting them in the policy and decision-making process
This session will discuss the key results from the European geoscience services and illustrate how these outcomes provide advice and data in response to a more sustainable and efficient management of resources. It with a focus on geo-energy, groundwater and raw materials, and the cross-thematic online information platform required to provide open access. Finally, the session will include the presentation of activities continuously improving a Geological Service for Europe related to issues within the five mission areas of Horizon Europe and the four main themes for a Geological Service for Europe: Resourcing Europe, Climate Change and Decarbonisation, Europe’s Digital Twin and Safety, Security and Wellbeing
vPICO presentations: Thu, 29 Apr
The Pan-European gas-hydrate relate GIS database of GARAH project has allowed assessing the susceptibility of seafloor areas affected by hydrate dissociation. This study has been applied as a first step for the hydrate related risk assessment along the European continental margins. Several factors and variables have been taken into account. They have been defined by their relationship with the presence of hydrates below seafloor and weighted depending on the confidence of finding hydrates in this site. The maximum weight (or confidence) has been given to the recovered samples of gas hydrates or hydrate-dissociation evidences such as degassing or liquation structures observed in gravity cores. Seismic indicators of the presence of gas hydrate or hydrocarbon seabed fluid flow such as BSR, blanking acoustic, amplitude anomalies or the presence of geological structures of seabed fluid flow in the neighbouring of the GHSZ have been weighted with a lower value. The theoretical gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) for a standard composition for biogenic gas has been taken into account as another control factor and constrain feature. Seafloor areas out of the theoretical GSHZ have been excluded as potential likelihood to be affected by hydrate dissociation processes. The base of GHSZ has been classified as a critical area for these dissociation processes.
The proposed methodology analyses the geological hazard by means of the susceptibility assessment, defined by the likelihood of occurrence of hydrate dissociation, collapses, crater-like depressions or submarine landslides over seafloor. The baseline scenario is that gas hydrate occurrence is only possible in seafloor areas where pressure (bathymetry) and seafloor temperature conditions are inside the theoretical GHSZ. Inside GHSZ, the occurrence of gas hydrate is directly related to the presence of its evidences (direct samples of hydrates) or indicators (eg. pore water and velocity anomalies, BSR, gas chimneys, among others), as well as the occurrence of hydrocarbon fluid flow structures inside GHSZ. Finally, the likelihood of the seafloor to be affect gas hydrate dissociation processes will be major at the base of the GHSZ and in the neighbouring of the gas hydrate evidences and indicators. In order to proof this initial hypothesis, a susceptibility assessment has been carried out throughout map algebra in a GIS environment from a density map of evidences and indicators and the Pan-European map of the GHSZ over seafloor. Specifically, it has been conceived as a segmentation in three levels by quantiles resulting of the addition of the density map of evidences and indicators and the weighted map of the GHSZ over seafloor.
GARAH project. GeoERA - GeoE.171.002
How to cite: León, R., Rochelle, C., Burnol, A., Giménez- Moreno, C. J., Nielsen, T., Hopper, J., Reguera, I., Stewart, M., Llorente, M., Mata, P., and Cervel, S.: Susceptibility assessment of gas hydrate dissociation occurrence along European continental margins and adjacent areas. GARAH project (GeoERA), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6407, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6407, 2021.
A Geological Analysis and Resource Assessment of selected Hydrocarbon Systems (GARAH) is carried out as part of the overarching GeoERA project. Here, we report results on the first public 3D basin and petroleum system model developed in a cross-border area of the Dutch, Danish and German North Sea Central Graben. This pilot study reconstructs the thermal history, maturity and petroleum generation of potential Lower, Middle and Upper Jurassic source rocks and assesses potential unconventional resources in a first phase. The 3D pilot study incorporates new aggregated and combined layers of the three countries. Results of the study feed back into the 3DGEO-EU project of GeoERA.
Eight key horizons covering the whole German Central Graben and parts of the Dutch and Danish North Sea Central Graben were selected for building the stratigraphic and geological framework of the 3D basin and petroleum system model. The model includes depth and thickness maps of important stratigraphic units as well as the main salt structures. Petrophysical parameters, generalized facies information and organic geochemical data from well reports are assigned to the different key geological layers. Further, the model is calibrated with temperature and maturity data from selected offshore wells as well as from publications. The time span from the Late Permian to the Present is represented by the model, including the most important erosional phases related to large-scale tectonic events during the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Additionally, salt movement through time expressed as diapirs and pillows is considered within the 3D basin and petroleum system model. Simulations depict that unconventional petroleum resources (oil and natural gas) are present in varying amounts in the source rocks across all three countries.
This is a part of an ongoing EU Horizon 2020 GeoERA project (The GARAH, H2020 grant #731166 lead by GEUS).
How to cite: Lutz, R., Nelskamp, S., Mathiesen, A., Schovsbo, N. H., Ladage, S., and Britze, P.: 3D basin and petroleum system modelling in the North Sea Central Graben - a Dutch, German, Danish cross-border study, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7262, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7262, 2021.
Faults are prominent features in the subsurface that define the geological development and distribution of geological formations and resources therein. Faults can define resources themselves (e.g. minerals, thermal conduits), but more often they can pose a hazard to subsurface drilling, injection and extraction activities . Well-known examples are Basel – Switzerland (geothermal stimulation), Oklahoma – US (waste water injection) and Groningen – The Netherlands (conventional hydrocarbon extraction).
Despite that faults are a typical product of geological mapping, there was, until now, no consistent insight in these structures in a pan-European context. There are some examples focusing on the publication of seismogenic faults (e.g. GEM Global Active Faults Database, SHARE European Database of Seismogenic Faults, USGS Quaternary faults database), yet deeply buried faults are under-represented here. With the European fault database, the GeoERA-HIKE project addresses the following objectives: i) develop a consistent and uniform repository for fault data and characteristics across Europe, ii) Implement an associated tectonic vocabulary which provides a framework for future interpretation, modelling and application of fault data, and iii) assess the applicability of fault data in case studies.
The current fault database is envisioned to be a major stepping stone for a sustained and uniform development and dissemination of tectonic data and knowledge which will be applicable to a broad spectrum of subsurface research challenges. The database contains data from Geological Survey Organizations and partners in the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Italy, France, Ukraine, Portugal, Slovenia, Albania and various countries in the Pannonian Basin Area.
The GeoERA-HIKE project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under agreement No. 731166
How to cite: Van Gessel, S., van Ede, R., Doornenbal, H., ten Veen, J., and Hintersberger, E. and the HIKE Team: A European Fault Database as a stepping stone towards improved subsurface evaluation of hazards and resources, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16232, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16232, 2021.
The transition towards a clean and low carbon energy system in Europe will increasingly rely on the use of the subsurface. Despite the vastness of subsurface space, only a fraction of it is suitable for the exploitation of geo-resources. The distribution and fitting combination of required conditions is determined by geological processes. We are, therefore, constrained in where we can develop resources and capacities. Moreover, increased subsurface use in a restricted area will inevitably lead to high chances of interferences and conflicts of interest. This means that sound geological information is essential to optimise the subsurface contribution to a safe and efficient energy transition.
Within this scope, the main goal of the GeoConnect³d project is to convert existing geological data into an information system that can be used for various geo-applications, decision-making, and subsurface spatial planning. This is being accomplished through the innovative structural framework model, which reorganises, contextualises, and adds value to geological data. The model is primarily focused on geological limits, or broadly planar structures that separate a given geological unit from its neighbouring units. It also includes geomanifestations, highlighting any distinct local expression of ongoing or past geological processes. These manifestations, or anomalies, often point to specific geologic conditions and, therefore, can be important sources of information to improve geological understanding of an area.
Geological data in this model are composed of spatial data at different scales, with a one-to-one link between geometries and their specific attributes (including uncertainties), and of semantic data, with data organised conceptually and categorised and/or linked using SKOS hierarchical and generic schemes. Concepts and geometries are linked by a one-to-many relationship. The combination of these elements then results in a multi-scale, harmonised and robust model.
The structural framework-geomanifestations methodology has now been applied to different areas in Europe. The focus on geological limits brings various advantages, such as displaying geological information in an explicit, and therefore more understandable, way, and simplifying harmonisation efforts in large-scale geological structures crossing national borders. The link between spatial and semantic data is the essential step adding conceptual definitions and interpretations to geometries. Additionally, geomanifestation data successfully validates or points to inconsistencies in specific areas of the model, which can then be further investigated.
The model demonstrates it is possible to gather existing geological data into a comprehensive knowledge system. We consider this as the way forward towards pan-European integration and harmonisation of geological information. Moreover, we identify the great potential of the structural framework model as a toolbox to communicate geosciences beyond our specialised community. This is an important step to support subsurface spatial planning towards a clean energy transition by making geological information available to all stakeholders involved.
This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 731166.
How to cite: Barros, R., Piessens, K., and team, T. G.: GeoConnect³d: transforming geological data into a knowledge system in support of the clean energy transition, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1218, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1218, 2021.
Sustainable evolution of groundwater quantity and quality is essential for sustainable development and protection of society and nature, globally, as acknowledged in the UN sustainable development goals and the European Green Deal. Too much? – too little? – and/or too polluted? are important questions to pose and answer in a changing climate with increasing pressures on water resources, severe loss of biodiversity, and a projected increase in extreme events resulting in an increasing risk of floods, droughts, landslides and land subsidence.
Easy access to digital and FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and reusable) data on groundwater quantity and quality is imperative for informed decision making and efficient climate change mitigation and adaptation to which sustainable groundwater management will contribute. Here we briefly present selected highlights and digital data products from the four GeoERA groundwater projects developed for and made available on the digital subsurface information platform of the European geological survey organizations. The ambition is to develop the digital information platform, EGDI (the European Geological Data Infrastructure) as the leading information platform for sustainable and integrated management of subsurface resources in Europe and one of the leading platforms, globally.
How to cite: Hinsby, K., Gourcy, L., Broers, H. P., Højberg, A. L., Bianchi, M., and van der Keur, P.: Introducing digital information products of the four GeoERA groundwater projects for assessment and sustainable use of water resources and the subsurface in a changing climate, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11944, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-11944, 2021.
Denitrification potential is an important parameter to know for adequate and efficient management and assessment of groundwater vulnerability and chemical status. Denitrification removes nitrate in groundwater, but the denitrification capacity is highly variable in space and time, and it may be used up with time. When linking pressure and impact the effect of partial or complete denitrification and denitrification capacity should be taken into account. In some areas, denitrification is seen as an advantage, allowing higher N release below soil without leading to a decrease of the groundwater quality and eventually concentrations in groundwater higher than the WFD and DWD threshold values, which EU member states have to establish to protect drinking water and groundwater dependent terrestrial and associated aquatic ecosystems.
Within the GEOERA HOVER project, the aim was to assess the spatial extent and importance of denitrification. The studied cases permitted at a first step to highlight the heterogeneities of the approaches due to the variability of information obtained i.e. the likelihood of denitrification, depth and thickness of redox transition zone, complete denitrification status. The parameters used to define the denitrification vary also from one country to another based on a large set of redox sensitive ions (Eh, O2, NO3, NO2, Fe, Mn, SO4, CH4, δ18O-NO3 et δ15N-NO3, H2S or N2). Some of these parameters can be accessed by standard methods in most laboratories, used for groundwater quality monitoring, while others require specialized analysis and interpretations.
Considering groundwater and hydrogeological data available in most of the EU countries, a simple method is proposed in order to classify the monitoring points into three classes: oxic, anoxic and mixed. After being tested in different well-known areas the method will be applied in various lithologies and hydrogeological contexts The proposed method will enable the development of European maps supporting groundwater quality management across Europe.
How to cite: Gourcy, L., Hinsby, K., Thorling, L., Pinson, S., Ascott, M., Broers, H.-P., Malcuit, E., and Christophi, C.: Towards a European denitrification concept for improved groundwater quality management and chemical status assessment, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14289, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14289, 2021.
Work package 7 of the GeoERA HOVER project deals with groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution of the shallow upper aquifer. We present vulnerability assessments across Europe applying the DRASTIC method in 11 pilot areas and the COP method for karst systems in 5 pilot areas. The presented assessments are carried out at multiple scales (between 1:1K and 1:250K), pilot areas sizes (catchment to national scale; 15 to 338 000 km²) and hydro-climatic contexts (ranging from extremely high and steady recharge to very low and seasonal recharge). The core item of this presentation is a detailed investigation and statistical assessment on respective data availability, data density and methodologies applied to retrieve input parameters for the assessment (e.g., groundwater recharge) and how this affects the final vulnerability assessments. We also focus on the definition (numerical ranges) of the individual vulnerability classes, which are valid across all pilots.
In an attempt to generate information summarizing affected aquifer volumes, a method based on a lumped index and 2D conceptual cross-sections is proposed. It was originally designed for sea-water intrusion assessments, and has been adapted and applied in some pilot areas to estimate aquifer volumes of each individual vulnerability class.
How to cite: Broda, S. and the HOVER WP7 Team: Multi-scale input data assessment for harmonized index-based aquifer vulnerability evaluations across Europe, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14449, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14449, 2021.
In order to assess the anthropogenic impacts on groundwater quality we generally need to identify the natural conditions or Natural background levels (NBLs) within groundwater systems, which are used as references to assess the evolution of the contamination status. This information, in addition to the threshold values (TVs), which are derived from NBLs and based on specific criteria values for legitimate water uses and the environment (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems), is required to appropriately assess of the chemical status of groundwater in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive and to analyse and propose potential measures where they are required.
In literature, different methodologies are available to assess NBLs and reference TVs for different geochemical substances based on the available measurements of groundwater salinity (e.g. based on probability plots). In this work we analyze and compare three previously proposed methods for derivation of chloride NBLs, which is a conservation solute and is closely related to salt water intrusion in inland and coastal aquifers. We discuss and compare their applicability in pilots located in different settings (southern /northern European / Mediteranean/ North Sea /Baltic Sea) covering different typologies (detrital, karstic, fissured aquifers) and management issues (overexploitation, land use and land cover changes, etc). We perform sensitivity analysis to different constraints applied to remove samples affected by human activity (Nitrate and the brackish saline constraints) in the assessment of NBLs. Finally, based on this analysis, we propose a general approach for derivation of NBLs that could be applied to any of the tested pilots as well as other similar settings in Europe.
This research has been partially supported by the SIGLO-AN project (RTI2018-101397-B-I00) from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (Programa Estatal de I+D+I orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad).
This work has been partially supported by the GeoE.171.008-TACTIC and GeoE.171.008-HOVER projects from GeoERA organization funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.
How to cite: Pulido-Velazquez, D., Baena-Ruiz, L., Voutchkova, D., Hansen, B., Hinsby, K., Arnó, G., Camps, V., Fernandes, J., Retike, I., Bikse, J., Oude Essink, G., Kroon, T., Delsman, J., Collados-Lara, A.-J., Morel, I., Luque, J. A., and Grima, J.: Comparing methods to estimate chloride natural background levels to assess sea water intrusion, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16210, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16210, 2021.
Bulk mineralogy and geochemistry data of Fe-Mn crusts from seamounts of the Macaronesia region (Canary Islands and Madeira and Azores archipelagos) compiled for the MINDeSEA Database, have been analyzed using statistical tools and related with their location and sampling depth.
Results show that the predominant mineralogy is represented by hydrogenetic Fe-vernadite and goethite, with minor abundance of other Mn-oxides such as buserite, asbolane and todorokite in crusts influenced by early diagenesis. Bulk geochemistry is dominated by Fe and Mn (ranging from 7 to 29 wt. %) with low aluminum-silicate elements (10 wt. % in average) and with significant average contents of several strategic and critical metals like Co, Ni, V, Mo, Te and especially REYs (4700, 2300, 1000, 400, 50 and 2500 µg/g respectively).
Variation of REYs and energy critical element (Co, Mn and Te) contents as a function of water depth and mineralogy are clearly evident in this study. Geochemical and statistical studies (Pearson correlation and factorial analysis with Varimax) reveal that Fe-Mn crusts recovered at water depths just below the oxygen minimum zone (that in this area is located between 300 and 1000 m) at Tropic, Tore, Unicorn and Bimbache seamounts, show an enrichment of all REYs and especially LREEs (Ce is the most enriched element with up to 2900 µg/g). On the other hand, the crusts recollected from the deepest seamounts: Drago, Gaire and MTR (up to 4900 m water depth) show a slightly depletion in all the REYs, especially La and Ce (300 and 1800 µg/g in average respectively). A similar behavior can also be observed for the other energy critical elements where enrichment or depletion is clearly linked to water depth. Additionally, there is a correlation of REY abundance with the mineralogy. High-resolution studies show that REY are concentrated up to an order of magnitude lower in the diagenetic Mn oxide minerals than in the hydrogenetic phases, possibly due to their high growth rates that don’t allow the concentration of these elements. This work is part of the investigation related to the metallogenetic models for marine minerals developed in the Geo-ERA MINDeSEA1 European project.
 This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 731166
How to cite: Marino, E., González, F. J., Medialdea, T., Somoza, L., Ferreira, P., Kuhn, T., Magalhaes, V., and Lobato, A.: REY contents in Fe-Mn crusts in Macaronesia: evidence of variation with depth and mineralogy, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15519, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15519, 2021.
Marine ferromanganese crusts are metal-rich chemical sediments showing an increasing economic interest as potential mineral resources for strategic and critical metals. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts is linked to a series of different factors that favor or limit their genesis on the seabed. The objective of this work is the search of areas for potential formation of these deposits, using data obtained in the Canary Islands Seamount Province. The study has been carried out based on multi-criteria analysis, using a Geographic Information System (ArcGis 10.5, Spatial Analysis and Statistical tools). For this purpose, it has been created a cartographic model, which considers data related to depth, seabed substrate nature and age, slope and exposure to marine bottom currents. This model has been applied to non-sampled areas, contrasting them with data derived from the analysis of samples taken in different oceanographic surveys, in order to establish the correct conclusions. This work has been carried out using bathymetric and geological data shared by the Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) with the MINDeSEA  and EMODnet-Geology  European projects.
 This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 731166.
 EMODNET-Geology project (EASME/EMFF/2018/220.127.116.11-Lot 1/SI2.811048).
How to cite: Lobato, A., Marino, E., González, J., Medialdea, T., and Somoza, L.: Predicting potential areas for the formation of Co-rich ferromanganese crusts in the Canary Islands Seamount Province using multi-criteria GIS analysis, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15563, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15563, 2021.
The ROBOMINERS (Resilient Bio-inspired Modular Robotic Miner) project aims at developing new methods and technologies (prototype automation and robotics technology) to locate and exploit underground mineral deposits and is funded under the European Union’s Research and Innovation programme Horizon 2020. The project targets mineral deposits that are generally considered “non-economical” either because they are not accessible anymore for conventional mining techniques, or they have been previously explored but exploitation was considered uneconomic due to the small size of the deposits or the difficulty to access them (abandoned, small, ultra-depth deposits).
The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is part of the Robominers consortium and its role includes the collection of publicly available data at a national level on mineral deposits which are potential targets on the developed mining technology. The Association of Greek Geologists (AGG) is participating as an EFG Linked Third Party in the project aiming, among others, at the creation of a European database of potentially suitable ore deposits for the utilization of the Robominers technology.
The creation of an ore deposits’ European database is a crucial procedure for the best possible design of exploration and exploitation applying the Robominers innovative approach. The AGG has contributed in the building of a database at a national level (for Greece), of the major and most important mineral deposits, according to the project requirements. A number of ore deposits in which Robominers advanced technology may provide a unique solution to mineral extraction, include porphyry and epithermal deposits and especially vein-like types, but volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS-type) and lense-like or layered orthomagmatic deposits can also be of high importance. From the above mentioned ore deposits the most abundant in Greece are epithermal deposits, deposits in hydrothermal veins, porphyry copper, as well as chromites in ophiolite complexes. Regarding the spatial distribution vein-type or metasomatic deposits are located mostly in Northern Greece (Western Macedonia and Thrace regions) while significant variable-mineralization deposits are related with the Attico-Cycladic belt volcanism (mainly Lavrion, Evia, and islands in the Aegean Sea). Finally, PGE bearing chromite deposits and bauxite deposits, located mainly in Central Greece, may also be significant for the project.
The establishment of a joined European Robominers database is of great significance for the progress of the project since it will provide essential information on key outputs such as the deposit type and commodities, the host rock, and the spatial distribution of the project’s targeted ore deposits and will provide valuable knowledge regarding the future planning of the exploration and exploitation from the developed Robominers innovative technology approach.
Dr Eleni Koutsopoulou
Coordinator of the project
On Behalf of the:
Association of Greek Geologists
Didotou 26,10680, Athens, Greece
VAT ID: EL-999600130
How to cite: Koutsopoulou, E., Servou, A., and Aggelopoulos, G.: The ROBOMINERS project: a promising tool for the re-evaluation of “non-economical” deposits. Aiming at the development of a joined European database of potentially suitable ore deposits for the utilization of the Robominers technology., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13158, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13158, 2021.
Throughout Europe, there are large industrial and cultural landscapes originating from the exploitation of ornamental stone through history. Such landscapes may contain a range of potential values; economic, such as future resources and reserves, and non-economic, such as cultural and industrial heritage, areas for recreation and tourism, and geological heritage. Based on case studies in two areas, we will explore different paths and methods for assessing values of ornamental stone resources.
The Iddefjord granite, SE Norway, has been exploited since the middle ages, but the main phase came with the industrial revolution. During the last half of the 19th Century, the granite industry here grew to a considerable size, culminating around the turn of the century when more than 5000 people worked in the quarries, producing paving and building stone. At present time, only one active natural stone quarry remains, but the quality of the granite should encourage further future developments. The study summarizes the geology and evolution of quarrying and quarry technology and provides a characterization of the quarry landscape: its resources that can provide economic values for the future and the anthropogenic morphology of the landscape created by exploitation through history. From the characterization, we propose a scheme for value assessment of the Iddefjord natural stone resource. In particular, we focus the non-economic values. For instance, the importance of the Iddefjord granite as a historic marker in world architecture may provide significant arguments for future designation of exploitation areas.
The Larvik monzonite (larvikite) in SE Norway is composed of varieties of monzonite with a distinct play of colour (chatoyancy), making the stone highly attractive in the global markets. Although use of larvikite goes back to the medieval period, industrial production started in the Late 19th Century and is still large scaled and increasing. This case study investigates the future resources, applying 3D modelling and UNFC. In addition, secondary value chains from the primary ornamental stone production are evaluated.
These case studies are parts of the Eurolithos and Mintel4EU Projects within the GeoEra umbrella, aimed at harmonizing and visualizing information about natural stone resources in Europe.
How to cite: Heldal, T. and Aasly, K. A.: Value assessment of ornamental stone resources, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14730, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14730, 2021.
With the global increase in raw material demand comes the need for harmonized supporting tools for sustainable resource management in Europe. Europe needs to assess their resource potential, but the European countries do not have a common tool to aggregate information for continent-wide resource inventories. The United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) is a system that may be used for this purpose.
One of the specific tasks in the MINTELL4EU project under the GeoERA programme is to test if the European geological surveys will be able to use UNFC as a tool to evaluate a country’s known and potential resources across variable levels of knowledge. The project will also show, if the application of UNFC can provide better harmonization of mineral resource data nationally and across Europe.
The work on UNFC in MINTELL4EU is based on case studies to gain experience. Based on the knowledge and lessons learned from the case studies, guidelines and recommendations for further work will be given. Preliminary results show that there is a need for a more harmonized system and that stricter guidelines are required. On top of this, there are different levels of experience in UNFC among the European geological surveys, and the approach and methods on UNFC varies between the countries.
How to cite: Aasly, K., Eil, P., Schjøth, F., and Flindt-Jørgensen, L.: Testing UNFC as a harmonized supporting tool for resource management in Europe, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15566, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15566, 2021.
Geological raw materials cover a wide range of materials from sand and gravel over granites and marbles to precious or critical metals and minerals. Man has extracted these materials from the (sub)surface since prehistorical eras, and these indispensable substances have to a very large extent contributed to the evolution of humankind.
In the latest decades, raw materials of economically and strategically importance for society but with high-risks associated with their supply, referred to as Critical Raw Materials (CRMs). To a large extent they form the basis for modern society as they are essential in key industry sectors. In the latest years, access to CRMs is a strategic security question for Europe’s road towards the green transition.
In September 2020, The European Commission launched a new list of CRMs as well as a strategy to enhance Europe’s resilience as most of these substances are sourced from other continents, and as the global competitions is increasing (EC, 2020). Among others, one of the suggested actions in this strategy is to ‘strengthen the sustainable and responsible domestic sourcing ……. in the European Union’. Although Europe has a long tradition of mining and extractive activities, it is acknowledged that there are several challenges to reach a situation with European sourcing of a certain amount of CRMs. Challenges include lack of interest in investment, strict permitting procedures or low levels of public acceptance. Nevertheless, it is recognized that the European geological conditions carry significant potential for CRMs, but more harmonised knowledge across borders is needed. This is where the Geological Survey Organisations of Europe play an important role as they are key partners in collecting and storing information on raw materials at national levels, and in making these available for endusers as policy and decision makers.
All European countries have a national geological survey organization, some in addition a number of regional surveys. Most host data on raw materials, however, data are typically organized in different ways from one country to another based on different geological traditions and legal commitments. In the GeoERA MINTELL4EU project we build on previous projects as Minerals4EU, ProSUM, SCRREEN, ORAMA, and cooperate with ongoing projects as RESEERVE to collect raw material data in central database and to visualize these data in harmonized way at the European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI). Data includes, among other things, the location of individual mineral occurrences, mines, etc. stored in a central database called MIN4EU, and aggregated statistical data at national level on production, trade and reserves etc, compiled in what we know as the electronic Minerals Yearbook. The methods used for collecting (harvesting) and storing data will be discussed, and examples of harmonized visualizations will be shared.
MINTELL4EU is a part of the GeoERA programme supported by European Union's Horizon 2020, grant agreement no. 731166.
How to cite: Flindt Jørgensen, L., Kumelj, Š., and Brown, T.: Collecting, harmonizing and sharing data on European Raw Materials, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14690, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14690, 2021.
The well-being of society and the interdependencies of national economies depend heavily on reliably functioning supply chains as the COVID-19 pandemic proved this long-known statement in everyone's daily life. None of the supply chains can do without the mostly mineral raw materials. The United Nations sees raw materials as the key component for achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The European Green Deal (COM(2019) 640 final) of the European Union as well as the Paris Agreement cannot be achieved without raw materials. The IPR Global Resources Outlook 2019  foresees an increasing demand for raw materials worldwide regardless of all efforts to further close the raw material cycles. At the same time, the demand for responsible procurement under ethically, socially and ecologically sound conditions is becoming more and more stringent.
The four GeoERA Raw Materials projects EuroLITHOS, FRAME, MINDeSEA and Mintell4EU share expertise, information and focus on European on-shore and off-shore resources as a first step to take our share of responsibility to ensure responsible sourcing from domestic sources . It is among the tasks of the GeoERA raw material projects to know and evaluate in a comparable way the raw materials of the geology under our feet and to visualize these results in accessible databases, maps and publications.
Results will be presented and discussed on the example of selected raw materials that are particularly important for the energy transition to make Europe climate-neutral by 2050.
How to cite: Wittenberg, A., de Oliveira, D. P. S., González Sanz, F. J., Flindt Jørgensen, L., and Held, T.: GeoERA´s Contribution Towards Resilience in Europe’s Raw Materials Supply Chains, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15047, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15047, 2021.
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We are sorry, but presentations are only available for users who registered for the conference. Thank you.