Active Tectonics and Geodynamics of Eastern Mediterranean



The broad scale tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean is dominated by the interaction of the Nubian and Arabian plates with the Eurasian plate. This complex tectonic frame exhibits almost all types of plate boundary conditions such as continental collision and extension, oceanic subduction, and continental transform. The evolution and present deformation are constrained by diverse geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations and have been explained by different hypotheses, such as (a) tectonic escape system caused by the post-collisional convergence of Eurasian and Arabian plates creating forces at its boundaries with gravitational potential differences of the Anatolian high plateau (b) asthenospheric flow dragging the circular flow of lithosphere from the Levant to Anatolia in the east and the Aegean in the west, (c) slab pull of the Hellenic subduction, (d) mantle upwelling underneath Afar and with the large-scale flow associated with a whole mantle, Tethyan convection cell, (e) or combinations of these mechanisms for the Eastern Mediterranean. Naturally, this tectonic setting generates frequent earthquakes with large magnitudes (M > 7), forming a natural laboratory on understanding the crustal deformation, and crust-mantle interactions for various disciplines of active tectonics.

Multidisciplinary studies, especially within the last three decades, have made significant contributions to our understanding of the processes on the crustal deformation, and interaction of the mantle with the crustal processes of this region. With this session, we aim to bring together the recent findings of these studies, thus we welcome/invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines including, but not limited to, neotectonics, seismology, tectonic geodesy (e.g. GNSS, InSAR), palaeoseismology, tectonic geomorphology, remote sensing, structural geology and geodynamic modelling, which geographically cover the Eastern Mediterranean region, including Anatolia-Aegean Block, Caucasus, Iran, Middle East and Greece.

Co-organized by GD6/SM1
Convener: Ali Deger OzbakirECSECS | Co-conveners: Jean-Philippe Avouac, Konstantinos Chousianitis, Patricia Martínez-GarzónECSECS, Gülsen Uçarkuş
vPICO presentations
| Wed, 28 Apr, 09:00–11:45 (CEST)

vPICO presentations: Wed, 28 Apr

Chairpersons: Patricia Martínez-Garzón, Gülsen Uçarkuş
East: Collision, transcurrent and vertical motions
Chris Rollins, Tim Wright, Jonathan Weiss, Andrew Hooper, Richard Walters, Milan Lazecky, and Yasser Maghsoudi

Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation provide crucial constraints on a region’s tectonics, geodynamics and seismic hazard. However, such geodetic constraints have traditionally been hampered by poor spatial and/or temporal sampling, which can result in ambiguities about how the lithosphere accommodates strain in space and time, and therefore where and how often earthquakes might occur. High-resolution surface deformation maps address this limitation by imaging (rather than presuming or modelling) where and how deformation takes place. These maps are now within reach for the Alpine-Himalayan Belt thanks to the COMET-LiCSAR InSAR processing system, which performs large-scale automated processing and time-series analysis of Sentinel-1 InSAR data. Expanding from our work focused on Anatolia, we are combining LiCSAR products with GNSS data to generate high-resolution maps of tectonic strain rates across the central Alpine-Himalayan Belt. Then, assuming that the buildup rate of seismic moment (deficit) from this geodetically-derived strain is balanced over the long term by the rate of moment release in earthquakes, we pair these strain rate maps with seismic catalogs to estimate the recurrence intervals of large, moderate and small earthquakes throughout the region. We also use arguments from dislocation modeling to identify two key signatures of a locked fault in a strain rate field, allowing us to convert the strain maps to “effective fault maps” and assess the contribution of individual fault systems to crustal deformation and seismic hazard. Finally, we address how to expand these approaches to the Alpine-Himalaya Belt as a whole.

How to cite: Rollins, C., Wright, T., Weiss, J., Hooper, A., Walters, R., Lazecky, M., and Maghsoudi, Y.: Mapping tectonic strain in the central Alpine-Himalayan Belt with Sentinel-1 InSAR and GNSS observations, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-630, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-630, 2021.

Quentin Bletery, Olivier Cavalié, Jean-Mathieu Nocquet, and Théa Ragon

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has produced numerous major earthquakes. After decades of quiescence, the Mw 6.8 Elazı˘g earthquake (24 January 2020) has recently reminded us that the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) is also capable of producing significant earthquakes. To better estimate the seismic hazard associated with these two faults, we jointly invert interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS data to image the spatial distribution of interseismic coupling along the eastern part of both the NAF and EAF.We perform the inversion in a Bayesian framework, enabling to estimate uncertainties on both long-term relative plate motion and coupling. We find that coupling is high and deep (0–20 km) on the NAF and heterogeneous and superficial (0–5 km) on the EAF. Our model predicts that the Elazı˘g earthquake released between 200 and 250 years of accumulated moment, suggesting a bicentennial recurrence time.

How to cite: Bletery, Q., Cavalié, O., Nocquet, J.-M., and Ragon, T.: Distribution of Interseismic Coupling Along the North and East Anatolian Faults Inferred From InSAR and GPS Data, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1204, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1204, 2021.

Jorge Jara, Romain Jolivet, Alpay Ozdemir, Ugur Dogan, Ziyadin Çakir, and Semih Ergintav

The ever-increasing amount of geodetic observations worldwide allows detailed studies on the evolution of slip along active faults. Models predicting such observations reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of slip on faults during the interseismic phase. Some fault segments are locked, building up stress that will end up being released during future earthquakes, while other segments slip slowly (mm/yr to cm/yr), releasing stress aseismically. Detailed mapping of slip behavior is critical for understanding the relationship between locked and aseismic segments, thus providing insights into seismic hazard.

We analyze GNSS and InSAR data to study fault kinematic coupling along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) using a Bayesian framework. This section slips aseismically at least since the 1960s, with early evidence recognized in the vicinity of the small town of Ismetpasa. This segment also hosted large earthquakes, including the 1943 and 1944 M7+ earthquakes. We combine InSAR and GNSS data acquired over the last ten years to derive ground velocity fields over the last decade. We process SAR images (ALOS and Sentinel01) as well as continuous GPS to build maps of ground velocity, confirming the presence of a 100 km-long aseismic section, at rates of ~ 1 cm/yr. We then model these velocity fields to derive the Probability Density Function of slip, inferring probabilistic estimates of interseismic coupling. The quantified spatial slip variations are interpreted in terms of the fault mechanical behavior as well as compared with the historical events in the region.

How to cite: Jara, J., Jolivet, R., Ozdemir, A., Dogan, U., Çakir, Z., and Ergintav, S.: Seismic coupling and aseismic slip along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7824, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7824, 2021.

Alpay Özdemir, Uğur Doğan, Jorge Jara, Romain Jolivet, Semih Ergintav, Ziyadin Çakır, Seda Özarpacı, and Roger Bilham

Twenty six years after the Mw 7.3 Bolu/Gerede Earthquake of 1944, Ambraseys (1970) first recognized, in the offset of a manmade wall constructed across the fault in 1957, the signature of slow aseismic slip along the central segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Following this discovery, many studies have characterized the behaviour of this aseismic slip with land- and space-based geodetic techniques, and with creepmeters. It is now recognized that the rate of aseismic slip decreases logarithmically from more than 3 cm/yr in the years following the Gerede Earthquake to approximately 6±2 mm/yr today. Of this rate, approximately 1.2 mm/year is residual afterslip and the remainder appears to be linear creep interrupted by creep events. In the last two decades, InSAR allowed the derivation of maps of ground velocities that indicates aseismic slip extends along a 100-km-long section of the fault, with a spatially variable aseismic slip rate, reaching its peak value approximately 15-24 km east of the city of Ismetpasa. Furthermore, creepmeter measurements and InSAR time series indicate that surface aseismic slip in the region of Ismetpasa is largely episodic, alternating between quiescent periods and transient episodes of relatively rapid aseismic slip. These observations raise questions about how slip accommodates tectonic stress along the fault with significant implications in terms of hazard along the seismogenic zone.

In July 2016, we established ISMENET (Ismetpasa Continuous GNSS Network) to monitor spatial and temporal variations in the aseismic slip rate and detect slow slip events along the fault. ISMENET stations are distributed along 120 km long segment of the fault. In order to explore the shallow, fine spatio-temporal behavior of aseismic slip, 19 stations are located within 200 m to 10 km of the fault with 30 and 1 sec sampling rate. We analysed the GNSS time series to extract the signature of aseismic slip using a principal component analysis to reduce the influence of non-tectonic noise. We compared results with creep events quantified by creepmeters.

Keywords: Ismetpasa, Aseismic slip, GNSS, PCA, Time Series Analysis, NAFZ

How to cite: Özdemir, A., Doğan, U., Jara, J., Jolivet, R., Ergintav, S., Çakır, Z., Özarpacı, S., and Bilham, R.: Detecting Transient Creep Events on the Ismetpasa Segment of the North Anatolian Fault with Continuous GNSS Time Series, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11185, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-11185, 2021.

Volkan Özbey, Mehmet Sinan Özeren, Pierre Henry, Olivier Cavalié, Xavier Le Pichon, Elliot Klein, Ergin Tarı, and Gerald Galgana

Seismological studies on the western part of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) revealed the possibility that it may constitute a bimaterial interface at various locations. One evidence for this came from Karadere and Mudurnu segments where Fault Zone Head Waves (FZHW) and Fault Zone Reflected Waves (FZRW) indicated bimaterial interfaces and damage zones of various depth ranges. These were often interpreted as factors affecting various aspects of rupture propagation velocities and rupture lengths. In addition, the difference in crustal structure between the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara and the deep basins may results in an effective rigidity contrast across the Main Marmara Fault, at least in its Eastern part from Kumburgaz Basin, to the entrance of Izmit Gulf. This could result in reduced elastic loading of the northern block, leading to an underestimation of slip deficit in geodetic models. However, the problem was never looked at using multiple constraints at the same time such as the GPS, InSAR and underwater geodetic data. In this study we use the interseismic slip distribution on the westernmost section of the NAF (comprising largely the Main Marmara Fault and the bifurcation zone to the east of the Izmit Gulf) obtained using a block model as a reference model and use a finite element model to test the perturbations to this model as a function of the elastic moduli contrasts across the fault. We are testing the case where there is a bimaterial interface all the way from Izmit Gulf to Kumburgaz and then a lack of such a contrast in the Central Basin. We are also investigating a scenario where the Ganos region also has bimaterial interface (but reverse in its nature).

How to cite: Özbey, V., Özeren, M. S., Henry, P., Cavalié, O., Le Pichon, X., Klein, E., Tarı, E., and Galgana, G.: Kinematics of the Sea of Marmara using GPS, InSAR and underwater geodetic data: Possible Influence of Crustal Heterogeneity, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13441, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13441, 2021.

Yojiro Yamamoto, Dogan Kalafat, Ali Pinar, Narumi Takahashi, Remzi Polat, Yoshiyuki Kaneda, and Haluk Ozener

The offshore part of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) beneath the Marmara Sea is a well-known seismic gap for future M > 7 earthquakes in the sense that more than 250 years have passed since the last major earthquake in the Central Marmara region. Here, an assessment on the location of possible asperities to host the expected next large earthquake is done based on the heterogeneities on the seismic velocity structure. Using long-term ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) observation data, seismic tomography and precise hypocenter estimations have been conducted. As a result, about five times more microearthquakes than the events in a land-based catalog has been detected. A comparison with previously published results suggests that the seismicity pattern has not changed during the three years period between Sep. 2014 and Jun. 2017. The obtained velocity model shows strong lateral contrast whose changing points locate at 28.10°E and 28.50°E. The western corner of the area (28.10°E) corresponds to a segmentation boundary where the dip angle of the NAF segments changed. The high velocity zones in the tomographic images are characterized by low seismicity eastward from the segment boundary at 28.10°E. Eastern 28.50°E, the high velocity zone becomes thicker in the depth direction. These zones are interpreted as asperities to be ruptured by the next large earthquake which are possibly accumulating strain since the mainshock rupture associated with the May 1766 Ms7.3 earthquake.

How to cite: Yamamoto, Y., Kalafat, D., Pinar, A., Takahashi, N., Polat, R., Kaneda, Y., and Ozener, H.: A robust seismic structure along the North Anatolian Fault beneath the Central Marmara Sea, and its implication for seismogenesis, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-757, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-757, 2021.

Jennifer Jenkins, Simon Stephenson, Patricia Martinez-Garzon, Marco Bohnhoff, and Murat Nurlu

The Marmara region in Turkey is an important geological setting, both from a tectonic and a seismic hazard/risk perspective. Here we present a recently published map of crustal thickness variation across this complex region (Jenkins et al., 2020), to aid in furthering our understanding of the past and present tectonic processes that formed present‐day structure. The crustal thickness map was created using Ps converted phases and receiver function (RF) analysis of earthquakes recorded at all publicly available seismic stations and stations in the national monitoring network (run by AFAD Disaster and Emergency Management Authority Turkey). RFs were converted from time to depth using a local 3‐D full‐waveform tomographic model and combined in multiphase common conversion point stacks, such that direct P to S converted arrivals and associated multiples are used together to produce continuous maps of the Moho discontinuity. Results reveal the Moho beneath Marmara ranges in depth from 26–41 km, and shows a regional trend of westward thinning, reflecting the effects of the extensional regime in western Anatolia and the neighboring Aegean Sea. The thinnest crust is observed beneath the western end of the Sea of Marmara, and can be attributed to transtensional basin opening. A distinct region of increased crustal thickness bounded by the West Black Sea Fault in the west, and the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault in the south, defines the ancient crustal terrane of the Istanbul Zone. Isostatic arguments indicate that the thickened crust and lower elevation in the Istanbul Zone require it to be underlain by thicker lithosphere, a conclusion that is consistent with its hypothesized origin near the Odessa shelf.

How to cite: Jenkins, J., Stephenson, S., Martinez-Garzon, P., Bohnhoff, M., and Nurlu, M.: Crustal Thickness Variation Across the Sea of Marmara Region, NW Turkey: A Reflection of Modern and Ancient Tectonic Processes, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6040, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6040, 2021.

Andrea Walpersdorf, Fatemeh Khorrami, Zahra Mousavi, Erwan Pathier, Farokh Tavakoli, Richard Walker, Hamid Reza Nankali, Marie-Pierre Doin, Seied Abdolreza Saadat, and Yahya Djamour

The recent activity of the 600 km long E-W trending Doruneh fault in eastern Iran is attested by clear geomorphological features along its trace, while no instrumental earthquake can be related to this fault. The only two Mw7 events in this area took place on the Dasht-e Bayaz fault, south of Doruneh. The great length of the fault, the lack of the seismicity and the active regional N-S shortening induced by the Arabian-Eurasian convergence highlight the seismic potential of the Doruneh fault. However, until today, the short- and long-term slip rate estimates of the Doruneh fault remain controversial. Geomorphological offset dating indicates long-term slip rates between 2.5 mm/yr and 8.2 mm/yr. Preliminary GNSS measurements and local InSAR data reveal rates between 1 and 5 mm/yr.  This wide range of slip rate estimates suggests either temporal or spatial variability of the Doruneh fault activity.

To investigate the along-strike slip variability of the Doruneh fault, a dense GNSS survey including 18 sites has been conducted in 2012 and 2018. This network completes the 17 regional permanent GNSS stations. Combining campaign and permanent data, the horizontal GNSS velocity field constrains the slip velocity and its variability along the fault by complementary approaches, on profiles perpendicular to the fault, and by a rigid block model. Sinistral motion is maximal in the western part of the fault (1 to 4 mm/yr), and decreasing towards the east. A complementary InSAR velocity map based on Sentinel-1 images between 2014 and 2019 exploits two ascending tracks (A159 and A86) across the Doruneh fault. We followed the SBAS time series analysis approach and corrected the effects of annual loading cycles and tropospheric delay. Sand and unexpected large tropospheric effects prohibited correlation in some places, but a coherent mean velocity map in line of sight (LOS) direction to the satellites is obtained for most of our study area. This map shows no sharp variations along the fault trace that could indicate shallow fault creep. The clearest signals are zones of anthropogenic subsidence. Looking for a long-wavelength tectonic signal (less than 3 mm/yr spread over 100 km), we masked these areas of rapid and short-wavelength deformation. The resulting velocity maps for both tracks are projected on profiles perpendicular to the fault and indicate a long-wavelength signal across the Doruneh fault of less than 2 mm/yr in LOS direction. A systematic parameter search yields a first best fit on track A159 combining a horizontal slip rate of 3.25 mm/yr with a locking depth of 8 km in the western part of the fault. This approach will be pursued on track A86, covering the eastern part, after more thorough cleaning.

We finally compare the combined GNSS-InSAR present-day fault slip rates to new long-term slip rates from geomorphological offset dating, to evaluate the time variability of the Doruneh fault activity. Our multi-disciplinary study will enhance our understanding of the Doruneh fault mechanism and its role in the kinematics of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, and contribute to a better seismic hazard assessment in eastern Iran.

How to cite: Walpersdorf, A., Khorrami, F., Mousavi, Z., Pathier, E., Tavakoli, F., Walker, R., Nankali, H. R., Doin, M.-P., Saadat, S. A., and Djamour, Y.: Spatio-temporal slip rate variability of the Doruneh fault (eastern Iran) from dense GNSS and SENTINEL data and a tectonic study, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2524, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2524, 2021.

Maxime Henriquet, Michel Peyret, Stéphane Dominguez, Giovanni Barreca, Jacques Malavieille, and Carmelo Monaco

            Since the Neogene, the Central Mediterranean geodynamics is controlled by the migration of narrow orogenic belts, driven by fast slabs retreat, and the slowly converging Nubian and Eurasian plates. Nowadays, the Calabrian Arc continues its southeast migration in response to the Ionian oceanic plate rollback but at a much slower rate. The Sicilian kinematics has reached a transient state between the ending subduction-collision phase that formed the island, and the steady-state convergence between Africa and Eurasia. This setting explains why Sicily is among the most seismically active region of the Mediterranean, gathering the most destructive historical events recorded in Italy, such as the Noto (1693, Mw ∼ 7.4) and Messina earthquakes (1908, Mw ∼ 7.1). Such tectonic activity has led to numerous studies aimed at evaluating current surface motions at a regional scale using GPS networks. To improve the spatial coverage, we built the first 3D geodetic velocity field over the whole Sicily Island by processing from the Sentinel-1 InSAR time-series.

            Averaged velocities along the ascending and descending satellite line-of-sight (LOS) were obtained using the Permanent-Scatterer approach (PS-InSAR) over the 2015-2020 period. We converted PS velocity fields into the Nubia reference frame, with the ITRF2014 vertical reference, by adjusting PS to 3D-GPS mean velocities. Reliable GPS velocities were retrieved from time-series of the MAGNET GPS network, leading to about 40selectedsitescoveringSicily and south-west Calabria. Onalltracks, theagreementbetweenPSandGPSLOSvelocitiesisexcellent (rms < 1mm/yr), and derived orbital corrections are robust, except for the western descending track that is only constrained by five GPS data. Since the projected north-south GPS velocity difference along the LOS is about 0.5 mm/yr, we assumed that thenorth-componentoftheground displacementisnegligible. By reducing the problem to a 2D estimation(East and Up component) and using both ascending and descending LOS velocities, we derived the East-andUp-component of the ground deformation within the Nubia-ITRF2014 reference frame. Uncertainties are estimated in the order of 1mm/yr.

            The results show that the Up-component is consistent with previous works indicating a significant uplift of the Peloritani range (~ 1±0.5 mm/yr) in north-eastern Sicily. Together with the East-component, the whole Peloritani block appears, however, as a coherent tectonic unit and does not show any dislocation along the Tindari line, as suggested by previous structural field observations. Interestingly, PS-InSAR data evidence an eastward tilting of the Hyblean Plateau, with about 1.5 mm/yr of subsidence of the Augusta bay relative to the Vittoria plain, and a 1 to 2 mm/yr of differential vertical motion along the southern coast, between Agrigento and the Licata and Sciacca locations. Although the reconstructed ground motion only captures a short time-window of the seismic cycle, these data represent a major milestone to evaluate the seismic hazard of Sicily.

How to cite: Henriquet, M., Peyret, M., Dominguez, S., Barreca, G., Malavieille, J., and Monaco, C.: Pseudo-3D ground deformation map of Sicily derived from Sentinel-1 InSAR time-series, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7105, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7105, 2021.

Giorgi Khazaradze Tsilosani, Giorgi Sokhadze, Galaktion Hahubia, and Manana Kachakhidze

The Republic of Georgia is located in the Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian seas from the west and the east, and the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains from the north and the south. Tectonically, the region belongs to the Alpine-Himalayan collisional zone, formed during the late Cenozoic period as a result of a collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The deformation zone due to this collision is broad and extends from Zagros mountains in southern Iran to the Greater Caucasus in the north. The GPS studies conducted during the last decade suggest a convergence rate of up to 20 mm/yr between the Arabia and Eurasia plates. Although majority of this convergence occurs in the southern part of the deformation zone, important part of this convergence takes place in Georgia, implying an elevated seismic risk in the region. This is corroborated by a presence of significant historical and instrumental earthquakes in the country.

As part of the project dealing with the detection of possible low frequency electromagnetic emissions proceeding earthquakes, in summer of 2016 we have installed a continuous GNSS station MTSK between Mtskheta and Tbilisi. The station consists of Leica GRX1200 GNSS receiver with an AS10 antenna. It is mounted on top of the building, anchored to the existing brick wall. In contrast, principal convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus across the Tbilisi segment, occurs along the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus. To constrain the velocity gradient to the northern boundary of the lesser Caucasus, in 2019 an additional continuous GNSS station MKRN was installed in this deformation zone by the GTDI near the settlement of Mukhrani. It consists of Trimble 5700 receiver with a Zephyr Geodetic antenna.

The analysis of the data is performed using the Gamit/Globk software package from MIT and it is processed in conjunction with 26 continuous GNSS stations of the GEO-CORS network operated by National Agency of Public Registry of Georgia (geocors.napr.gov.ge). In addition, we analyze data form the stations located on Eurasia, Arabia and Africa plates. The main objective of the given work is to monitor a millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of Arabia and Eurasia tectonic plates and identify the regions of higher deformation and relate them to individual faults.

This work has been partially supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (grant DI/21/9-140/13) and PROMONTEC (CGL2017-84720-R AEI/FEDER, UE) project, financed by the Spanish MINEICO. We are grateful to the Andronikashvili Institute of Physics (www.aiphysics.tsu.ge) for letting us use their facility for the installation of the GNSS station.

How to cite: Khazaradze Tsilosani, G., Sokhadze, G., Hahubia, G., and Kachakhidze, M.: Contemporary crustal deformation in Georgia (Caucasus), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2675, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2675, 2021.

Marco Liberatore, Domenico Cosentino, Elsa Gliozzi, Paola Cipollari, Nazik Öğretmen, and Giorgio Spada

Vertical movements of the solid surface reflect crustal deformation and mantle deep related phenomena. For Holocene times, coastlines displaced from the present mean sea level are often used, combined with past relative sea levels (RSL) prediction models, to clue the vertical deformational field. 
Along the coast from south-western Turkey until Israel and Cyprus, a certain amount of good quality data is already published, leaving only a gap where data are absent along the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) coast. Based on new field observations along with this sector, between Adalia and Adana (Mersin, southern Turkey), together with AMS 14C dating, the gap is filled, allowing to describe an overall frame made by vertical differential movements along the Eastern Mediterranean coast. 
Most recent Glacial Isostatic Adjustments (GIA) models have been used to remove the glacio-hydro isostatic component of the RSL. Different solutions from ICE-6G(VM5a) and ICE-7G(VM7) models (developed by W.R. Peltier and co-workers, Toronto University), as also a solution from the GIA model progressively developed by K. Lambeck and collaborators at the Australian National University, have been applied on 201 middle-to-late Holocene markers of RSL. Both GIA models have been implemented within the numerical Sea level Equation solver SELEN4.
Tectonic velocity has been therefore calculated. Starting from southwestern Turkey, subsidence has been found within the range between -0.91 mm/yr and -2.15 mm/yr confirming values from previous works. Velocities from the new markers along the CAP coast are positive ranging between 1.01 and 1.65 mm/yr. These two first blocks are separated by a sharp velocity contact, occurring along the complex fault zone of the Isparta Angle. Such values for the CAP margin were expected as recently published papers report high vertical velocities for a Middle to Late Pleistocene uplift event. Moving to the east, velocities are also positive, within 0.3-0.6 mm/yr, along the coast between the Hatay Gulf and southern Lebanon. The spiked profile of the Lebanese sector is likely due to co-seismic deformations along the Lebanese Restraining Bend faults (LRB). To the south, the Israeli coast is instead showing stability according to some unique RSL markers named piscinae while other markers indicate slow subsidence. Hence another velocity jump of at least 0.5 mm/yr is recognizable between Israel and Lebanon: it is probably associated with already known brittle structures. In northern Cyprus, the only Holocene sea-level marker confirms the almost zero vertical velocity values already obtained for the MIS 5e marine terrace. Therefore, a vertical velocity jump occurs between stable Cyprus and the uplifting CAP southern margin, although they are placed on the same overriding plate of the subduction system. High-angle normal faults at the northern margin of the Adana-Cilicia Basin could explain these different vertical velocity fields. 
These results depict a complex frame of wide independently moving crustal blocks where kinematic separation occurs along well-known regional fault zones. Driving causes of the block movements could be related either to regional tectonics, as it probably is for the LRB coast, or to mantle dynamics, for the uplifting Turkish sector where deeper processes should be considered. 

How to cite: Liberatore, M., Cosentino, D., Gliozzi, E., Cipollari, P., Öğretmen, N., and Spada, G.: Vertical velocity fields along the Eastern Mediterranean coast as revealed by late Holocene sea-level markers, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9819, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9819, 2021.

Nicolò Bertone, Lorenzo Bonini, Anna Del Ben, Giuseppe Brancatelli, Angelo Camerlenghi, Edy Forlin, Dirk Klaeschen, and Gian Andrea Pini

The present‐day tectonic setting of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea results from a long deformation history, characterized by an alternation of extensional and contractional phases: from Mesozoic rifting to Late Cretaceous-present-day compression. This study focused on the tectonic reconstruction of the north-eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea, on a sector located between the Turkish coast and the northern Levantine Basin, using seismic reflection profiles. Previous studies dealt with the recent (Neogene) evolution because they did not have enough depth of investigation to recognize deeper reflections. We used vintage data such as MS and Strakhov surveys to analyze the deeper part of the area. We interpreted and depth-converted these seismic data, and we developed a sequential restoration to reconstruct the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the study area. 

In general, from north to south, we recognize the Cilicia Basin: a piggy-back basin bordered to the south by the offshore continuation of the Kyrenia Range. The Kyrenia Range is a positive flower structure generated during a transpressional phase because of the rotation of the Arabic plate. Southward, a secondary contractional system with an onlapping wedge is present in the area between the Kyrenia Range and another prominent ridge, i.e. the Larnaca Ridge. In the southern part, the same transpressional phase that generated the Kyrenia Range led to a positive inversion of an ancient extensional system, i.e. the Latakia Ridge. Beyond these positive flowers, the Levantine Basin is affected by extensional structures showing weak positive reactivation, including halokinetic features.

In summary, we found that the inherited extensional structures strongly impacted the following contractional ones affecting both their geometry and their kinematics.

How to cite: Bertone, N., Bonini, L., Del Ben, A., Brancatelli, G., Camerlenghi, A., Forlin, E., Klaeschen, D., and Pini, G. A.: Late Mesozoic – Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Cyprus offshore, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12428, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12428, 2021.

Erdem Kırkan, Gülsen Uçarkuş, and Cengiz Zabcı

Multi-spectral satellite imagery becomes a powerful tool in analyses of the earth’s surface in various aspects, including tectonic studies. There are many worldwide samples of such studies, documenting the distribution of faulting or deformation of lithological units especially in arid, semi-arid regions. The East Anatolian Shear Zone and its most prominent member, the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), is part of such a region, where the modern techniques of remote sensing can provide information on the history of this transform fault system. The EASZ and the EAF, together form the eastern boundary of the Anatolian Block, which in this study, we compare the efficiency of Advanced Space Borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images in the discrimination of lithological formations and the Pazarcik Segment of the EAF. First, we used the band combinations of 2/5/1 and 7/3/1, then 4/3-6/2-7/4 and 1/3-1/9-3/9 band ratios were independently selected in order to make an additional evaluation of the lithological discrimination for Landsat 8 OLI and ASTER T1 images, respectively. In the last stage, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which provided a richer colour spectrum than the Band Combination and Band Ratio methods. The preliminary joint-analysis of these three methods allowed us to better understand the basin geometry along this part of the Pazarcik Segment. Accordingly the northern part of the Golbasi basin which hosts the Golbasi Lake, presents a rhomboidal geometry whereas the southern part is divided from the north with a wedge-shaped basin geometry. Towards southwest of the Pazarcik Segment, the Kisik River is left-laterally offset about ~4.8 km which is detectable on the band ratio images. Most critically, the image analysis highlight a geological offset along the Pazarcik Fault Segment at the Golbasi Lake side of the Hoya Formation. A left-lateral cumulative offset of ~11 km is measured along the displaced Hoya formation favouring the hypotheses of either a diachronic origin for the northern and eastern tectonic boundaries of Anatolia, among which the northern one highly exceeds the eastern boundary in terms of total slip, hence the age, or a wider shear zone where the total strain has been shared among parallel/sub-parallel segments.

How to cite: Kırkan, E., Uçarkuş, G., and Zabcı, C.: Preliminary results on the slip history of the Pazarcik Segment of the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey): Insights from the integrated analyses of ASTER T-1 and Landsat 8 OLI multi-spectral imagery-based lithological mapping, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14174, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14174, 2021.

Liqing Jiao, Aurélia Hubert-Ferrari, and Yann Klinger

The Arabia-Eurasia collision zone is an example of large-scale continental deformation. The collision started recently (25-15 Ma) and is characterized by a low shortening rate. The shortening caused by the collision is partly accommodated by vertical uplift, leading to large fold-and-thrust belts that give rise to the Zagros, Caucasus, and Alborz mountain ranges. The other part of the shortening is presently taken up by the lateral extrusion toward the west of the Anatolian block, a relatively rigid continental lithospheric block. This extrusion is accommodated by the conjugate North and East Anatolian Faults.

In this work we aim at understanding the dynamic of the crustal deformation processes resulting from the continental collision, including generation of positive topography and localization of major shear zones that evolve into lithospheric-scale strike-slip faults. Previous modeling attempt were mostly limited to the kinematic description of the strike-slip fault system and did not consider any topographic changes. In this earlier attempt fault geometry was usually assigned a-priori, and most often slab-pull along the Aegean subduction zone was partly needed to drive the extrusion.

Here, using a Discrete Element Modeling approach, we built a 3D model of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, including gravity forces, to study the temporal evolutions of the different tectonic structures, thrust and strike-slip faults, involved in accommodating the continental collision deformation processes.

On one hand, our modeling approach does not require to pre-set any fault geometry at the beginning of the collision. On the other hand, this approach allows us testing the impact of specific boundary conditions, such as the existence of two oceanic-crust relics forming respectively the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and which are considered 100% rigid.

Our preliminary models reproduce at first order the successive deformation steps of the Arabia-Eurasia collision that lead to the current configuration. The first phase of deformation is characterized by the formation of a wide fold-and-thrust belt in front of the Arabian plate indenter. Only in a second phase, the extrusion of an Anatolian block westward is taking place. This extrusion, however, happens only when rigid bodies (the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea) are present in the model. Conversely, extrusion in our models does not require the existence of slab-pull to occur. Eventually, the strike-slip faults generated in our models are showing good qualitative agreement with the current geometry of the North and East Anatolian faults. Faults generated in our models accommodate the rotation of the extruded block in a consistent way with the present-day pattern of the Anatolia block. Further work will allow quantifying the length of the different time steps in the collision process, and to explore the impact of the geometry of the indenter.

How to cite: Jiao, L., Hubert-Ferrari, A., and Klinger, Y.: 3D discrete element modeling of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone and related extrusion of the Anatolian Block, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16315, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16315, 2021.

Gülen Tunç and Süha Özden

Çavdarhisar (Kütahya) province plays a very important role to understand geology and tectonics of the Western Anatolia. Active tectonics characteristics of the region give major information about the evolution of tectonics of the Çavdarhisar (Kütahya) and surrounding areas especially from Late Cenozoic to present day. In this study, kinematic analysis of observed faults in the field and focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes from this region and surroundings are used to reveal the Late Cenozoic stress states of Çavdarhisar (Kütahya). Kinematic analysis results of the faults give four different stress state (SS) regimes from Pre-Late Miocene to Quaternary. Firstly, a main strike-slip faulting (transpressional) (SS.1) has been developed under a NE-SW local compressional tectonic regime in Pre-Late Pliocene with 32°/31° (σ1) and 124°/10° (σ3) trends and Rm ratio was calculated as 0.616. Secondly and consistently with first regime, a NW-SE trending extensional regime (SS.2) produce a local normal faulting presents a minimum stress with 329°/6° (σ3) trend as in horizontal plane in the same period. Then, a NW-SE trending compressional tectonic regime has been efficient in Late Pliocene. This tectonic regime (SS.3) developed a strike-slip faulting (transtensional) has showing by a maximum stress axis by 325°/19° (σ1) and 60°/8° (σ3) trends and Rm ratio was calculated as 0.499. Finally, in the study area, a tectonic regime change has occurred during Quaternary time interval. This regime (SS.4) is oriented a minimum stress state trend as in horizontal plane by a NE-SW directed extensional regime produce a normal faulting in present day and shows a minimum stress with 58°/17° (σ3) trend and Rm ratio is calculated as 0.549. Focal mechanism solutions of the earthquakes that hit the study area show NNE–SSW extension direction which is consistent with present day extensional regime of Çavdarhisar (Kütahya) and surrounding areas. The reason for the regionally effective NNE–SSW trending extensional regime in western and south western Anatolia is related with complex subduction processes between African and Anatolian plates.

 Key words: Çavdarhisar, Kütahya, kinematic analysis, tectonic regime, active tectonics, stress state

How to cite: Tunç, G. and Özden, S.: Stress State Analysis and Active Tectonics of Çavdarhisar (Kütahya) Province, (NW Anatolia, Turkey) from Pre-Late Cenozoic to Quaternary, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-464, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-464, 2021.

Chairpersons: Ali Deger Ozbakir, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Konstantinos Chousianitis
West: subduction and the upper-plate extension
Marc U. Grund, Mark R. Handy, Jörg Giese, Jan Pleuger, Lorenzo Gemignani, and Kujtim Onuzi

The junction between the Dinarides and the Hellenides coincides with an orogenic bend characterized by a complex system of faults, domes and sedimentary basins. The major structure at this junction is the Shkoder-Peja Normal Fault (SPNF) system, which trends oblique to the orogen and is segmented along strike, with ductile-to-brittle branches in its southwestern and central parts that border two domes in its footwall: (1) the Cukali Dome (RSCM peak-T 190-280°C), a doubly-plunging upright antiform deforming Dinaric nappes, including the Krasta-Cukali nappe with its Middle Triassic to Early Eocene sediments; (2) the newly discovered Decani Dome (RSCM peak-T 320-460°C) delimited to the E by the ~1500 m wide Decani Shear Zone (DSZ) that exposes Paleozoic to Mesozoic strata of the East Bosnian Durmitor nappe (EBD). In the northeasternmost segment, the strike of the SPNF system changes from roughly orogen-perpendicular to orogen-parallel. There, the SPNF system has brittle branches- most notably the Dukagjini Fault (DF) that forms the northwestern limit of the Western Kosovo Basin (WKB).

The westernmost ductile-brittle SPNF segment strikes along the southern limb of the Cukali Dome with an increasing vertical offset from 0 m near Shkoder eastwards to >1000 m at the eastern extent of the dome (near Fierza) where normal faulting cuts the nappe contact between the High Karst and Krasta-Cukali unit. The central segment north of the Tropoja Basin, with several smaller branches changing in strike, has a vertical throw of at least 1500 meters based on topographic constraints. Even further to the northeast, the SPNF system includes the moderately E-dipping DSZ juxtaposing the EBD in its footwall against mèlange of the West Vardar unit in its hanging wall, where offset is difficult to determine. 3 km eastwards, in the hanging wall to the DSZ, the brittle DF accommodates another 1000 m of vertical displacement as constrained by maximum depth of sediments of the WKB.

Ductile deformation along the Cukali and Decani Domes occurred sometime between the end of Dinaric thrusting and the formation of the WKB. Brittle faulting partly reactivates ductile segments, but also creates new branches (DF) within the hanging wall of the ductile DSZ. These were active during mid-Miocene to Pliocene times as constrained by syn-tectonic sediments in the WKB. We interpret the SPNF system as a two-phase composite extensional structure with normal faulting that migrated from its older trace along the ductile DSZ to the brittle DF as indicated by cross-cutting relations. The Decani Dome, with higher metamorphic temperature conditions than the Cukali Dome, may reflect the south-westernmost extent of late Paleogene extension in the Dinarides. It may be related to other core complexes and possibly to limited subduction rollback beneath the Dinarides (Matenco and Radivojevi, 2012). Extension from mid-Miocene time onwards was probably related to Hellenic CW rotation during Neogene orogenic arcuation, possibly triggered by enhanced rollback beneath the Hellenides (Handy et al., 2019).

Handy, M.R.,et al. 2019: Tectonics, v. 38, p. 2803–2828, doi:10.1029/2019TC005524.

Matenco, L.,& Radivojevi, D. 2012: Tectonics, v. 31, p. 1–31, doi:10.1029/2012TC003206.

How to cite: Grund, M. U., Handy, M. R., Giese, J., Pleuger, J., Gemignani, L., and Onuzi, K.: Faulting, doming and basin formation during orogenic arcuation – the case of the Shkoder-Peja Normal Fault System (northern Albania and Kosovo), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14816, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14816, 2021.

Valentine Lefils, Alexis Rigo, and Efthimios Sokos

Characterized for the first time in 2013, the Island Akarnanian Block (IAB) is a micro-plate located in the western Greece. This micro-plate accommodates the deformation in between larger scale tectonic structures as the Gulf of Corinth (South-East), the Hellenic subduction (South) and the Apulian Collison (West).

We started a micro-seismic survey (MADAM) at the end of 2015 with a dense seismological network over the area, between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Amvrakikos. In order to obtain precise locations of the recorded events, we better constrained the local velocity model. In fact, several velocity models (local or regional) have been proposed for this area. However, the velocity model generally used by the scientific community remains the Hasslinger 98 velocity model. This model, nevertheless, raises some questions about its physical meaning, mainly due to a low velocity layer between 4 and 7 km-depth.

Thanks to our seismological network and permanent networks of the Corinth Rift Laboratory and the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network, we collected and analysed a huge quantity of data acquired between October 2015 and December 2017. Those analyses of more than 10,000 events allowed us to develop a new and robust local velocity model, which is consistent with the seismic data and the geophysical observations.

The observed seismic activity is characterized by the presence of numerous clusters. The clusters are analysed in detail by relative relocations in order to appraise their physical processes and their possible implications in the fault activity to finally have a better understanding of the deformation mode(s) of the IAB micro-plate.

How to cite: Lefils, V., Rigo, A., and Sokos, E.: Micro-seismicity, seismic-wave velocity model and earthquake clustering in the Akarnanian region (western Greece), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7672, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7672, 2021.

Emmanuel Skourtsos, Haralambos Kranis, Spyridon Mavroulis, and Efthimios Lekkas

The NNE-SSW, right-lateral Kefalonia Transform Fault (KTF) marks the western termination of the subducting Hellenic slab, which is a part of the oceanic remnant of the African plate. The inception of the KTF, described as a STEP fault, is placed in the Pliocene. KTF is considered to be the most active earthquake source in the Eastern Mediterranean. During the last two decades, four significant earthquakes (M>6.0) have been associated with the KTF. These events are attributed to the reactivation of different segments of the KTF, which are (from North to South) the North Lefkada, South Lefkada, Fiskardo, Paliki and Zakynthos segments: the North Lefkada segment ruptured in the 2003 earthquake, the 2014 Kefalonia events are associated with the Paliki segment and the 2015 Lefkada earthquake with the South Lefkada (and possibly the Fiskardo) segments.

The upper plate structure in the islands of Lefkada and Kefalonia is characterized by the Ionian Unit, thrusted over the Paxi (or Pre-Apulian) Unit. The Ionian Thrust, which brings the Ionian over the Paxi Unit, is a main upper-plate NNW-SSE, NE-dipping structure. It runs through the island of Lefkada, to be mapped onshore again at the western coast of Ithaki and at SE Kefalonia. Two other major thrusts are mapped on this island: the Aenos thrust, which has a WNW-ESE strike at the southern part of the island and gradually curves towards NNW-SSE in the west and the Kalo Fault in the northern part. These Pliocene (and still active) structures developed during the late-most stages of thrusting in the Hellenides, strike obliquely to the KTF and appear to abut against it.

We suggest that these thrusts control not only the deformation within the upper plate, but also the earthquake segmentation of the KTF. This suggestion is corroborated by the spatio-temporal distribution and source parameters of the recent, well-documented earthquake events and by the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes. The abutment of the Ionian thrust against the KTF marks the southern termination of the Lefkada earthquake segment, which ruptured in the 2003 earthquake, while the Aenos, (or the Kalo) thrust mark the southern end of the Fiskardo segment. The spatial distribution of the Earthquake Environmental Effects related to the four significant events in the last 20 years displays a good correlation with our interpretation: most of the 2003 macroseismic effects are located in the northern part of Lefkada, which belongs to the upper block of the Ionian thrust; similarly, the effects of the 2014 earthquakes of Kefalonia are distributed mainly in the Paliki Peninsula and the southern part of the island that belong to the footwall of the Aenos thrust and the 2015 effects are found in SW Lefkada, which is part of the footwall of the Ionian thrust.

We suggest that correlation between upper-plate structure and plate boundary faulting can provide insights in the understanding of faulting pattern in convergent settings, therefore contributing to earthquake management plans.

How to cite: Skourtsos, E., Kranis, H., Mavroulis, S., and Lekkas, E.: Upper-plate structural controls on the segmentation of the Kefalonia Fault (Ionian Sea, Greece), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15736, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15736, 2021.

Vasiliki Mouslopoulou, Gian Maria Bocchini, Simone Cesca, Vasso Saltogianni, Jonathan Bedford, Gesa Petersen, Michael Gianniou, and Onno Oncken

The month-to-year-long deformation of the Earth’s crust where active subduction zones terminate is poorly explored. Here we report on a multidisciplinary dataset that captures the synergy of slow-slip events, earthquake swarms and fault-interactions during the ~5 years leading up to the 2018 Mw 6.9 Zakynthos Earthquake at the western termination of the Hellenic Subduction System (HSS). It appears that this long-lasting preparatory phase initiated due to a slow-slip event that lasted ~4 months and released strain equivalent to a ~Mw 6.3 earthquake. We propose that the slow-slip event, which is the first to be reported in the HSS, tectonically destabilised the upper 20-40 km of the crust, producing alternating phases of seismic and aseismic deformation, including intense microseismicity (M<4) on neighbouring faults, earthquake swarms in the epicentral area of the Mw 6.9 earthquake ~1.5 years before the main event, another episode of slow-slip immediately preceding the mainshock and, eventually, the large (Mw 6.9) Zakynthos Earthquake. Tectonic instability in the area is evidenced by a prolonged (~4 years) period of overall suppressed b-values (<1) and strong earthquake interactions on discrete strike-slip, thrust and normal faults. We propose that composite faulting patterns accompanied by alternating (seismic/aseismic) deformation styles may characterise multi-fault subduction-termination zones and may operate over a range of timescales (from individual earthquakes to millions of years).

How to cite: Mouslopoulou, V., Bocchini, G. M., Cesca, S., Saltogianni, V., Bedford, J., Petersen, G., Gianniou, M., and Oncken, O.: Slow-slip, earthquake-swarms and fault-interactions at the western-end of the Hellenic Subduction System precede the Mw 6.9 Zakynthos Earthquake, Greece, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8623, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8623, 2021.

Frank Chanier, Fabien Caroir, Virginie Gaullier, Julien Bailleul, Agnès Maillard, Fabien Paquet, Dimitris Sakellariou, Olivier Averbuch, Jacky Ferriere, Fabien Graveleau, and Louise Watremez

The Sperchios - North Evia Gulf rift system is WNW-ESE directed and participates to the widespread crustal extension induced by the respectively southward and south-westward Nubian and Ionian slabs retreat, and by the extrusion of the Anatolia-Aegean microplate. This crustal stretching, active at least since the early Pliocene, is partly coeval with the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) propagation through the Marmara Sea and the North Aegean domain. At the western termination of the NAF, in the studied area, the domain is widely heterogeneous as it has been previously deformed by successive tectonic events during Hellenic orogeny, from Middle Jurassic to Paleogene times. The low elevation of the Internal Zones in respect to the External Zones of Hellenides suggest that the Frontal Thrust of the Internal Zones, that crosscut the Sperchios Rift, plays a major role in the distribution of rift systems within that area. The Sperchios-North Evia Gulf rift developed over the internal Zones and was driven by at least two major extensional episodes. The first one is characterised by a NNE-SSW extensional direction while the second, still active, is NNW-SSE to N-S. This change in direction can be associated to a modification of the tectonic setting within the Aegean Plate or can be a consequence of clockwise rotation of the whole western Aegean domain.

The WATER survey (Western Aegean Tectonic Evolution and Reactivations), conducted in July-August 2017 onboard the R/V “Téthys II”, allowed to acquire more than 1300 km of very high resolution seismic reflection profiles (Sparker 50-300 Joules) around North Evia Island (North Evia Gulf, Oreoi Channel and Skopelos Basin). The new dataset issued from this survey illustrates structural patterns that can be correlated with onland fault systems.

The interpretation of this new seismic data allowed us to precise the main trends of the North Evia Gulf rift deformation. For example, the rift bordering faults show rapid longitudinal changes in terms of offsets and of their main tilting polarity. Our structural analysis results, together with the kinematic analysis of onshore fault zones, give detailed constraints on the rift structural organisation as well as on the relative chronology of tectonic episodes.

Furthermore, these results provide important data in order to discuss the relations of some major rift structures with other crustal structures inherited from earlier deformation in the Hellenides, and also to consider the deformation patterns in the south-western prolongation of the North Anatolian Fault system during Pliocene to Quaternary times. We discuss the relations between various generations of crustal-scale structures and propose that the variations in the rift asymmetry were triggered, during its initial development, by the presence of older crustal heterogeneities.

How to cite: Chanier, F., Caroir, F., Gaullier, V., Bailleul, J., Maillard, A., Paquet, F., Sakellariou, D., Averbuch, O., Ferriere, J., Graveleau, F., and Watremez, L.: The North Evia Gulf rift system in Central Greece: structural development and crustal inheritances from onshore fault analysis and offshore Sparker seismic data (WATER project), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12256, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12256, 2021.

Fabien Caroir, Frank Chanier, Virginie Gaullier, Julien Bailleul, Agnès Maillard-Lenoir, Fabien Paquet, Dimitris Sakellariou, Olivier Averbuch, Jacky Ferrière, Fabien Graveleau, and Louise Watremez

The Anatolia-Aegean microplate is currently extruding toward the South and the South-West. This extrusion is classically attributed to the southward retreat of the Aegean subduction zone together with the northward displacement of the Arabian plate. The displacement of Aegean-Anatolian block relative to Eurasia is accommodated by dextral motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with current slip rates of about 20 mm/yr. The NAF is propagating westward within the North Aegean domain where it gets separated into two main branches, one of them bordering the North Aegean Trough (NAT). This particular context is responsible for dextral and normal stress regimes between the Aegean plate and the Eurasian plate. South-West of the NAT, there is no identified major faults in the continuity of the NAF major branch and the plate boundary deformation is apparently distributed within a wide domain. This area is characterised by slip rates of 20 to 25 mm/yr relative to Eurasian plate but also by clockwise rotation of about 10° since ca 4 Myr. It constitutes a major extensional area involving three large rift basins: the Corinth Gulf, the Almiros Basin and the Sperchios-North Evia Gulf. The latter develops in the axis of the western termination of the NAT, and is therefore a key area to understand the present-day dynamics and the evolution of deformation within this diffuse plate boundary area.

Our study is mainly based on new structural data from field analysis and from very high resolution seismic reflexion profiles (Sparker 50-300 Joules) acquired during the WATER survey in July-August 2017 onboard the R/V “Téthys II”, but also on existing data on recent to active tectonics (i.e. earthquakes distribution, focal mechanisms, GPS data, etc.). The results from our new marine data emphasize the structural organisation and the evolution of the deformation within the North Evia region, SW of the NAT.

The combination of our structural analysis (offshore and onshore data) with available data on active/recent deformation led us to define several structural domains within the North Evia region, at the western termination of the North Anatolian Fault. The North Evia Gulf shows four main fault zones, among them the Central Basin Fault Zone (CBFZ) which is obliquely cross-cutting the rift basin and represents the continuity of the onshore Kamena Vourla - Arkitsa Fault System (KVAFS). Other major fault zones, such as the Aedipsos Politika Fault System (APFS) and the Melouna Fault Zone (MFZ) played an important role in the rift initiation but evolved recently with a left-lateral strike-slip motion. Moreover, our seismic dataset allowed to identify several faults in the Skopelos Basin including a large NW-dipping fault which affects the bathymetry and shows an important total vertical offset (>300m). Finally, we propose an update of the deformation pattern in the North Evia region including two lineaments with dextral motion that extend southwestward the North Anatolian Fault system into the Oreoi Channel and the Skopelos Basin. Moreover, the North Evia Gulf domain is dominated by active N-S extension and sinistral reactivation of former large normal faults.

How to cite: Caroir, F., Chanier, F., Gaullier, V., Bailleul, J., Maillard-Lenoir, A., Paquet, F., Sakellariou, D., Averbuch, O., Ferrière, J., Graveleau, F., and Watremez, L.: Recent and active deformation in the North Evia domain, a diffuse plate boundary between Eurasia and Aegean plates in the Western termination of the North Anatolian Fault., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12153, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12153, 2021.

Muharrem Hilmi Erkoç, Seda Özarpacı, Alpay Özdemir, Figen Eskiköy, Efe Turan Ayruk, İlay Farimaz, Uğur Doğan, and Semih Ergintav

The Samos-Izmir Earthquake (Mw=6.9) of October 30, 2020 is among the strongest earthquakes that occurred in recent years throughout the Eastern Aegean. The epicenter of this earthquake was 14 km away from Samos Island and 25 km away from Gümüldür-İzmir region. The local tsunami with the wave heights reaching ~2m was triggered by the mainshock. The most affected areas were Sigacik and Akarca in Tukey (Yalciner et. al.,2020) and Vathy Town (NE Samos Island) in Greece (Triantafyllou et. al.,2020).

In this study, we present an estimation of co-seismic deformations using an indirect approach based on GNSS, InSAR and Tide Gauge data. GNSS time series were used from 25 continuous GNSS stations data obtained from TUSAGA-Aktif in Turkey and NOANET in Greek, and the campaign GNSS measurement for 10 GNSS sites located at the western Turkey coast has been carried out after the earthquake. Moreover, InSAR deformation analyses have been performed using Sentinel-1 data. In addition, relative sea level changes have been analyzed in KOS, PLOMARI, and MENTES tide gauge stations.

The vertical components of GPS stations have shown 10 cm uplift in Samos Island and 10 cm subsidence in the coast of Turkey. The results of the geodetic (GNSS, InSAR) analysis are consistent with each other. The rise time estimated here may correspond to the time elapsed shortly before the generation of tsunami waves reached up to 6 meters that propagated rapidly and caused significant damage around the source region. Also, it has been seen that whereas relative sea level in KOS and PLOMARI tide gauge stations are affected by the local tsunami, but relative sea level changes could not be observed in the MENTES station.

How to cite: Erkoç, M. H., Özarpacı, S., Özdemir, A., Eskiköy, F., Ayruk, E. T., Farimaz, İ., Doğan, U., and Ergintav, S.: The Vertical Coseismic Deformation Field of the Samos-Izmir Earthquake (Mw6.9), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4767, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-4767, 2021.

Ioannis Fountoulakis, Christos P. Evangelidis, and Olga-Joan Ktenidou

On November 30, 2020 11:51 UTC, a major earthquake (Mw7.0) struck the northern area offshore Samos island, Greece, causing serious damage to the island and nearby Turkish coast. This seismic event is an ideal opportunity to explore extensional seismicity in the back-arc area of the Hellenic subduction zone. To that end, first and foremost we study the behavior and characteristics of the main event source. Then, we examine the evolution of the aftershock in space and time and relate it to the main event. We implement the technique of local backprojection on strong-motion recordings  (e.g. Kao & Shan, 2007; Evangelidis, 2013) to infer the spatiotemporal distribution of the earthquake source. This method is performed at relatively short periods, making it possible to map in detail the high-frequency radiation of the source, without imposing any a priori constraints on the geometry or shape of the ruptured fault. Furthermore, and which is not often the case, the strong-motion recordings were carefully assessed prior to being used in backprojection, in order to avoid any significant influence of local site effects and amplification, which could in impact the robustness of the backprojection solution. Synthetic tests were also used to resolve the accuracy. Our results show evidence of multiple distinct sources of high-frequency radiation during the earthquake rupture. In addition, the first month of the aftershock sequence was located, clustered and relocated, ultimately highlighting the faults activated in the area. The quality of the resulting high-resolution catalogue was further assessed, and the moment tensors of the strongest events were estimated. Combining the backprojection results with the detailed picture of the aftershock seismic sequence leads to an interpretation of the short- and long-term fault rupture process and their associated secondary effects (tsunami, landslides) in the area. 

The research work was supported by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (H.F.R.I.) under the “First Call for H.F.R.I. Research Projects to support Faculty members and Researchers and the procurement of high-cost research equipment grant” (SIREN, Project Number: 910).


How to cite: Fountoulakis, I., Evangelidis, C. P., and Ktenidou, O.-J.: Imaging the Samos 2020 Mw7.0 earthquake rupture by backprojecting local strong-motion recordings and relocating the aftershock sequence, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15291, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15291, 2021.

Figen Eskikoy, Semih Ergintav, Uğur Dogan, Seda Özarpacı, Alpay Özdemir, M.Hilmi Erkoç, Efe Ayruk, İlay Farimaz, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, and Ali Özgün Konca

On 2020 October 30, an Mw6.9 earthquake struck offshore Samos Island. Severe structural damages were observed in Greek Islands and city of Izmir (Turkey). 114 people lost their lives and more than a thousand people were injured in Turkey. The earthquake triggered local tsunami. Significant seismic activity occurred in this region following the earthquake and ~1800 aftershocks (M>1) were recorded by KOERI within the first three days. In this study, we analyze the slip distribution and aftershocks of the 2020 earthquake.

For the aftershock relocations, the continuous waveforms were collected from NOA, Disaster and Emergency Management Authority of Turkey (AFAD) and KOERI networks. The database   was created based on merged catalogs from AFAD and KOERI. For estimating optimized aftershock location distribution, the P and S phases of the aftershocks are picked manually and relocated with double difference algorithm. In addition, source mechanisms of aftershocks M>4 are obtained from regional body and surface waveforms.

The surface deformation of the earthquake was obtained from both descending and ascending orbits of the Sentinel-1 A/B and ALOS2 satellites. Since the rupture zone is beneath the Gulf of Kusadası, earthquake related deformation in the interferograms can only be observed on the northern part of the Samos Island. We processed all possible pairs chose the image pairs with the lowest noise level.

In this study, we used 25 continuous GPS stations which are compiled from TUSAGA-Aktif in Turkey and NOANET in Greece. In addition to continuous GPS data, on 2020 November 1, GPS survey was initiated and the earthquake deformation was measured on 10 GNSS campaign sites (TUTGA), along onshore of Turkey.

The aim of this study is to estimate the spatial and temporal rupture evolution of the earthquake from geodetic data jointly with near field displacement waveforms. To do so, we use the Bayesian Earthquake Analysis Tool (BEAT).

As a first step of the study, rectangular source parameters were estimated by using GPS data. In order to estimate the slip distribution, we used both ascending and descending tracks of Sentinel-1 data, ALOS2 and GPS displacements. In our preliminary geodetic data based finite fault model, we used the results of focal mechanism and GPS data inversion solutions for the initial fault plane parameters. The slip distribution results indicate that earthquake rupture is ~35 km long and the maximum slip is ~2 m normal slip along a north dipping fault plane. This EW trending, ~45° north dipping normal faulting system consistent with this tectonic regime in the region. This seismically active area is part of a N-S extensional regime and controlled primarily by normal fault systems.


This work is supported by the Turkish Directorate of Strategy and Budget under the TAM Project number 2007K12-873.

How to cite: Eskikoy, F., Ergintav, S., Dogan, U., Özarpacı, S., Özdemir, A., Erkoç, M. H., Ayruk, E., Farimaz, İ., Vasyura-Bathke, H., and Konca, A. Ö.: Slip Distribution of the 2020 Mw6.9 Samos Earthquake Using a Bayesian Approach, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14970, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14970, 2021.

Malte Metz, Marius Isken, Rongjiang Wang, Torsten Dahm, Haluk Özener, Konstantinos Chousianitis, Stefano Lorito, and Fabrizio Romano

The fast inversion of reliable centroid moment tensor and kinematic rupture parameters of earthquakes occurring near coastal margins is a key for the assessment of the tsunamigenic potential and early tsunami warning (TEW). In recent years, more and more multi-channel seismic and geodetic online station networks have been built-up to improve the TEW, for instance the GNSS and strong motion networks in Italy, Greece, and Turkey, additionally to the broadband seismological monitoring. Inclusion of such data for the fast kinematic source inversion can improve the resolution and robustness of its’ solutions. However, methods have to be further developed and tested to fully exploit the potential of such rich joint dataset.

In this frame, we compare and test two in-house developed, kinematic / dynamic rupture inversion methods which are based on completely different approaches. The IDS (Iterative Deconvolution and Stacking, Zhang et al., 2014) combines an iterative seismic network inversion with back projection techniques to retrieve subfault source time functions. The pseudo dynamic rupture model (Dahm et al., in review) links the rupture front propagation estimate based on the Eikonal equation with the dislocation derived from a boundary element method to model dislocation snapshots. We used the latter in both a fast rupture estimate and a fully probabilistic source inversion.

We use some Mw > 6.3 earthquakes that occurred in the coastal range of the Aegean Sea as an example for comparison: the Mw 6.3 Lesbos earthquake (12 June 2017), the Mw 6.6 Bodrum earthquake (20 July 2017), and the recent Mw 7.0 earthquake which occurred at Samos on 30 October 2020. The latter earthquake and the resulting tsunami caused fatalities and severe damage at the shorelines of Samos and around the city of Izmir, Turkey.
The fast estimates are based on only little data and/or prior information obtained from the regional seismicity catalogue and available active fault information. The large number of seismic (broadband, strong motion) and geodetic (high-rate GNSS) stations in local and regional distance from the earthquake with good azimuthal coverage jointly inverted with InSAR data allows for robust inversion results. These, and other solutions, are used as a reference for the comparison of our fast source estimates.
Preliminary results of the slip distribution and the source time function are in good agreement with modelling results from other authors.

We present our insights into the kinematics of the chosen earthquakes investigated by means of joint inversions. Finally, the accuracy of our first fast source estimates, which could be of potential use in tsunami early warning, will be discussed.

How to cite: Metz, M., Isken, M., Wang, R., Dahm, T., Özener, H., Chousianitis, K., Lorito, S., and Romano, F.: Comparison of local kinematic rupture joint inversion approaches for tsunami early warning: Examples of the 2017-2020 Mw > 6.3 East Aegean earthquakes, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5221, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5221, 2021.