Metamorphic minerals: the building blocks of geological paradigms

Metamorphic minerals are silent witnesses to tectonic processes, and their changes through geological time. New approaches in chemical and isotope micro-analysis, geochronology provide exciting new avenues to make these minerals 'talk'—to read their record of deformation, reaction and fluid flow, and use it to study our dynamic lithosphere. The insights obtained through such research provide ways to examine the foundations of long-standing concepts in petrology and tectonics, as well as challenge and shift paradigms in these fields.

This session will highlight integrated metamorphic petrology, with application to tectonics and development of collisional orogens, cratons and subduction zones. We welcome contributions, from petrology, (petro-)chronology, to trace-element and isotope geochemistry. Through these diverse insights, the session will provide an exciting overview of current research on metamorphic and metasomatic processes, as well as the avenues for future innovation.

Invited speakers: Freya George (Johns Hopkins University), Emily Peterman (Bowdoin College)

Co-organized by GD7/TS7
Convener: Matthijs Smit | Co-conveners: Tom Raimondo, Daniela Rubatto, Lucie Tajcmanova
vPICO presentations
| Tue, 27 Apr, 09:00–12:30 (CEST)

vPICO presentations: Tue, 27 Apr

Chairpersons: Lucie Tajcmanova, Tom Raimondo
Insights into metamorphic processes
Jesse Walters, Alicia Cruz-Uribe, Won Joon Song, Joshua Stone, Hanna Brooks, and Kimberley Biela

Here we present titanite U-Pb dates from two banded calc silicate gneisses (SSP18-1A and 1B) from western Maine. Mineral textures and compositions display multiple phases of metamorphism. The peak lower granulite facies assemblage is Di + Kfs + Pl + Ttn, with little to no calcite present. Late Czo + Tr replaces Di + Pl, suggesting an influx of XH2O > 0.90 fluids. Nearby metapelites show the transition from sillimanite-bearing to muscovite-bearing assemblages, indicating that fluid infiltration may be widespread. Compositional maps of clinopyroxene in SSP18-1B show fracturing and rehealing of early Fe-rich diopside with late Mg-rich diopside. Both samples exhibit overprinting of An-rich plagioclase by increasingly Ab-rich plagioclase. Titanite grains in both samples exhibit BSE textures and compositional variation consistent with multiple phases of growth and dissolution-reprecipitation reactions.

Titanite trace element and U-Pb data were collected by LA-ICP-MS at the University of Maine using an ESI NWR193UC excimer laser ablation system coupled to an Agilent 8900 ICP-MS. Single spot ages range from 280 to 400 Ma with 12-20 Ma propagated 2SE. Four composition-date domains are identified in SSP18-1B: A. 400 ± 8 Ma (dark BSE cores), B. 372 ± 4 Ma (bright BSE cores), C. 342 ± 6 Ma (bright BSE cores, no Eu anomaly), and D. 302 ± 3 Ma (dark BSE rims, low LREE). Titanite Fe and Y concentrations increase with decreasing date, whereas Sr concentrations decrease. In clinopyroxene, Fe and Y decrease between high Fe-diopside and late Mg-diopside, placing the fracturing and rehealing events between 400 and 372 Ma. Strontium concentrations in titanite decrease between subsequent generations of plagioclase, diopside, and titanite, suggesting a continual fractionation of Sr from the reactive bulk composition. Low LREE in ca. 300 Ma titanite domains in both samples are consistent with the formation of texturally late allanite and clinozoisite, thus constraining the timing of the high XH2O fluid infiltration event. Zr-in-titanite temperatures for rims in the quartz-bearing SSP18-1B give a weighted mean T of 764 °C at 4.5 GPa, consistent with the muscovite-absent sillimanite-bearing assemblage in garnet cores from metapelite samples. However, the 100-150 °C lower Grt-Bt temperatures for metapelites are not consistent with peak metamorphic phase equilibria. Our data demonstrate the utility of linking titanite textures and trace element concentrations with those of other minerals to reveal past metamorphic and deformational events. Additionally, we show that titanite may reliably preserve U and Pb isotopic ratios, trace elements, and textures over subsequent high-T metamorphic events.

How to cite: Walters, J., Cruz-Uribe, A., Song, W. J., Stone, J., Brooks, H., and Biela, K.: Dating polymetamorphism using titanite: Linking trace elements, textures, and ages, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13449,, 2021.

Emily Peterman, Steven Reddy, David Saxey, Denis Fougerouse, and Zakaria Quadir

Nanoscale analyses of zircon have demonstrated that trace elements, including Pb, can be mobilized to discrete sites in radiation damaged zircon. Although several mechanisms for trace element mobility and segregation in zircon have been proposed, most of this work has been conducted on zircon grains with complex geologic histories, making it difficult to directly determine the mechanisms driving trace element mobility and segregation in zircon. To test among the existing hypotheses for mechanisms driving trace element mobility and segregation, we analyzed both untreated and experimentally heated (1450°C for 24h) Archean zircon using atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sample has a simple, well-characterized thermal history, with no significant thermal events since original crystallization. Despite a high calculated radiation dose (>4 x 1018 a/g), the untreated zircon does not contain anomalous nanoscale features. In contrast, the experimentally heated zircon contains abundant clusters of Y, Mg, Al, Pb + Yb that range from 5 nm to 25 nm in diameter with toroidal polyhedral morphologies. The 207Pb/206Pb measured from Pb atoms located within these features is consistent with present-day segregation, thus confirming that these nanoscale features were produced by experimental heating in the laboratory. TEM analysis determined that the clusters are dislocation loops, and that cluster morphology is therefore crystallographically controlled. The largest loops are located in {100} and contain high concentrations of Mg and Al.

These experimentally induced, trace-element-enriched clusters are similar in size, morphology, composition, and crystallographic orientation to clusters observed in zircon affected by natural geologic processes (cf. Valley et al., 2015; Peterman et al., 2016). Although the calculated radiation doses for all analyzed grains are high, comparison of the nanoscale features indicates no apparent correlation between the radiation dose and the density or distribution of clusters. We also observe that trace-element-enriched clusters are conspicuously absent from zircon grains that lack younger igneous or metamorphic rims. These findings suggest that the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) history and the dT/dt significantly impact both the nanoscale redistribution of trace elements and the density of these features within zircon. Systematic evaluation of the composition and distribution of these features provides a framework for understanding the nanoscale record of metamorphism.



Peterman, E.M., Reddy, S.M, Saxey, D.W., Snoeyenbos, D.R., Rickard, W.D.A., Fougerouse, D., and Kylander-Clark, A.R.C. (2016) Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops. Science Advances, 2, e:1601218.

Valley, J.W., Reinhard, D.A., Cavosie, A.J., Ushikubo, T., Lawrence, D.F., Larson, D.J., Kelly, T.F., Snoeyenbos, DR., and Strickland, A. (2015) Nano-and micro-geochronology in Hadean and Archean zircons by atom-probe tomography and SIMS: New tools for old minerals. American Mineralogist, 100, 1355-1377.

How to cite: Peterman, E., Reddy, S., Saxey, D., Fougerouse, D., and Quadir, Z.: Nanoscale evidence of metamorphism – insights from natural and experimentally-treated zircon , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3036,, 2021.

Daniela Rubatto, Lanari Pierre, Marcel Burger, Bodo Hattendorf, Gunnar Schwarz, Detlef Günther, Jörg Hermann, Thomas Bovay, Alice Vho, and Francesca Piccoli

Garnet is one of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals that record element zoning during crustal metamorphism. In addition to major element distribution, zoning in trace elements can provide a wealth of information to document the changing conditions of garnet growth and modification. Trace element distribution in garnet grains was mapped in 2D in thin section with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOFMS) and conventional LA-ICP-MS to achieve a lateral resolution of 15-5 µm and limits of detection for the heavy rare earth elements (REE) down to 0.2 µg/g (Rubatto et al. 2020).

In granulite-facies garnet, major elements show diffusional resetting, whereas trace elements still largely document the growth history. Enrichment of trace elements in the garnet mantle is attributed to the consumption of biotite (V, Cr) and the dissolution of zircon (Zr) and monazite (Y+REE) in the coexisting melt. Lu is notably enriched in the garnet mantle with implications for geochronology. The gradual zoning of Y+HREE between mantle and core is reconcilable with diffusion over ~200 µm in 10 My at temperatures of 750–800°C

In amphibolite facies garnet, Y+REE trace element zoning closely matches the growth zoning in Ca with no notable diffusive modification. Y+REE zoning is dominated by Rayleigh fractionation in the core and in the outer zones it shows annuli that mark the sporadic breakdown of accessory phases.

Garnet in eclogite facies samples that underwent fluid-rock interaction show growth zoning in major and trace elements, with local oscillations and sectors. In certain samples, the overall distribution of REE can be reconciled with diffusion-limited uptake. Where garnet displays fluid-related veinlets, visible in major elements, that cross-cut the primary growth zoning, the regular Y+REE and Cr growth zoning is not affected by the veinlets. This indicates that the veinlets did not form by a crack-seal mechanism but are rather related to a selective replacement process.



Rubatto D, Burger M, Lanari P, Hattendorf B, Schwarz G, Neff C, Keresztes Schmidt P, Hermann J, Vho A, Günther D (2020) Identification of growth mechanisms in metamorphic garnet by high-resolution trace element mapping with LA-ICP-TOFMS. Contrib Mineral Petrol 175:61

How to cite: Rubatto, D., Pierre, L., Burger, M., Hattendorf, B., Schwarz, G., Günther, D., Hermann, J., Bovay, T., Vho, A., and Piccoli, F.: Growth, replacement and element diffusion in metamorphic garnet revealed by trace element mapping , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6050,, 2021.

Bernardo Cesare and Fabrizio Nestola

Common (anhydrous) Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn garnet, the archetypal cubic mineral, has been recently discovered to be tetragonal in metapelites and metabasites from low-temperature regional metamorphic terranes (Cesare et al., 2018).

Despite the differences in bulk rock composition and pressure conditions, such low-T tetragonal garnets share common chemical features, namely high grossular (>25 mol%) and low pyrope (<7 mol%) contents. Similar compositions are documented in other contexts worldwide, both in blueschists-eclogites and in phyllites, including the metapelites from the garnet zone of the iconic Barrovian metamorphism of the Scottish highlands (Viete et al., 2011).

We have analysed a garnet crystal from a chlorite-biotite schist collected at the Barrow’s garnet zone in Glen Esk. The unit cell parameters were refined using diffraction reflections between 1.20 and 0.55 Å providing a tetragonal cell with a = 11.5731(5) Å and c = 11.5887(8) Å and volume V = 1552.15(15) Å3. Systematic absences analysis on complete intensity data collected up to 2theta = 80° indicated I41/acd space group confirming the cell parameters refinement.

Therefore, the garnet is tetragonal and not cubic, as suggested by its weak birefringence under crossed polarizers.

These results show that the tetragonal structure of common Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn garnet is verified whenever this mineral displays the Ca-rich, Mg-poor composition often observed in low-T metamorphic rocks. And support the hypothesis that the lowering of symmetry is composition-dependent.



Cesare, B., et al. Garnet, the archetypal cubic mineral, grows tetragonal. Sci Rep 9, 14672 (2019).

Viete, D.R., et al. The nature and origin of the Barrovian metamorphism, Scotland: Diffusion length scales in garnet and inferred thermal time scales. J. Geol. Soc. London 168, 115–132 (2011).


How to cite: Cesare, B. and Nestola, F.: Even the low-T garnet from the iconic Barrow’s zone is tetragonal, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14155,, 2021.

Mattia Gilio, Nicola Campomenosi, Kira A. Musiyachenko, Ross J. Angel, Bernardo Cesare, and Matteo Alvaro

Elastic geo-thermobarometry allows the retrieval of the pressure and temperature of entrapment of an inclusion within a host (Zhang, 1998; Angel et al., 2014; Angel et al., 2015). So far, quartz-in-garnet elastic geobarometry has mainly dealt with rocks with inclusions entrapped at high pressure and low temperature conditions, such as eclogite. This is because, at high-temperature (HT) and low-to-medium-pressure conditions (T > 700 °C and P < 1.0 GPa), the rock might cross the α–β quartz transition, changing the elastic properties of quartz inclusions. Here we will show some preliminary results of HT elastic geobarometry in quartz inclusions entrapped (or re-equilibrated) within the β–quartz stability field.
The analysed samples come from three HT-LP terranes: the Athabasca granulite terrane in Canada (Dumond et al., 2015), the Jubrique Unit in the Beltic Cordilliera in Spain (Barich et al., 2014), and the Aus granulite terrane from the Namaqua metamorphic complex in Southern Namibia (Diener et al., 2013). These terrains include crustal rocks such as garnet-bearing gneisses and felsic and mafic granulites that equilibrated at low pressures and high temperatures, near or within the β-quartz stability field. Within these samples, Cesare et al. (2020) described post-entrapment shape change of quartz inclusion in garnet. The quartz inclusions have Raman spectra with peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers with respect to the unstrained reference quartz crystal. The changes in Raman peak shifts of the inclusions were converted into strains using the software StRAinMAN (Angel et al., 2019) and have positive volume strains with ε1>0 and ε3<0. The quartz EoS by Angel et al. (2017), which includes the α–β quartz transition, allowed the entrapment isomekes crossing the phase transition to be calculated and the entrapment pressures of quartz inclusions at HT to be estimated. The results of elastic geobarometry for the set of samples in question are consistent with the PT estimates by classic geothermobarometry, suggesting entrapment or re-equilibration at HT within the β–quartz stability field.
This work was supported by ERC-StG TRUE DEPTHS grant (number 714936) to M. Alvaro

Angel et al. (2014) - Am. Mineral. 99, 2146-2149. Angel et al. (2015) - J. Metamorph. Geol. 33, 801-813. Angel et al. (2017) - Contrib. Mineral. Petr. 172, 29. Angel et al. (2019) - Z. Krist.-Cryst. Mater. 234, 129-140. Barich et al. (2014) - Lithos 206, 303-320. Cesare et al. (2020) - Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 555, 116708. Diener et al. (2013) - Precambrian Res. 224, 629-652. Dumond et al. (2015) - J. Metamorph. Geol. 33, 735-762. Zhang (1998) - Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 157, 209-222.

How to cite: Gilio, M., Campomenosi, N., Musiyachenko, K. A., Angel, R. J., Cesare, B., and Alvaro, M.: Elastic geobarometry of quartz inclusions in garnet at high temperature, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-1508,, 2021.

Miguel Cisneros and Whitney Behr

In recent years, elastic thermobarometry has gained wider acceptance and utility within the petrologic community and beyond. In particular, quartz-in-garnet (qtz-in-grt) elastic barometry is widely used because of the ubiquity of garnet in metamorphic rocks. The technique is based on using Raman spectroscopy to quantify strains recorded by inclusions, and modeling the elastic evolution of the inclusion-host pair to constrain the initial conditions of inclusion entrapment. Recent studies have validated the technique experimentally by comparing pressures from the qtz-in-grt barometer with experimental conditions of garnet growth and entrapment of quartz, and have shown that the barometer can provide reliable pressure conditions of garnet growth. However, current experimental studies fail to capture the reliability of the technique under disparate pressure (P), temperature (T) and deformation conditions, and studies that systematically compare qtz-in-grt barometry and conventional thermobarometry are lacking. 

In this work, we compare P conditions from qtz-in-grt barometry and conventional thermobarometry from the following locations: spatially and temporally variant high P/T subduction zone eclogite blocks from the Franciscan Complex in California, high P/T subduction zone rocks of varying compositions from Syros, Greece, high P/T and low P/T rocks of varying compositions from the Betics system in Spain, low P/T schists from the Jajarkot and Karnali klippen in the Himalaya, high-P rocks from the Alps, and low P/T metapelites from northeast Nevada. Qtz-in-grt barometry constraints from the Franciscan and Syros show good agreement with some reference P-T conditions, but disagree with some thermodynamic equilibria constraints and subsets of multi-mineral thermobarometry calibrations. Qtz-in-grt barometry constraints from the Himalaya are in excellent agreement with reference P constraints. Measurements of samples from other localities are currently in progress. This set of quartz inclusion analyses further allows us to evaluate the effects of inclusion geometry, anisotropy, P and T conditions of garnet growth, and P and T paths on the ultimate P conditions recorded by the qtz-in-grt barometer. The data-set also provides insights into the possible limitations of other techniques (e.g., conventional thermobarometry).

How to cite: Cisneros, M. and Behr, W.: Quartz-in-garnet elastic barometry vs. conventional thermobarometers: a comparison across diverse tectonic settings, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3822,, 2021.

Vincent van Hinsberg, Chris Yakymchuk, Christopher Kirkland, and Kristoffer Szilas

Corundum, including the variety ruby, is found in numerous locations in the Archaean North Atlantic Craton of southern Greenland. Corundum owes its occurrence to fluid-induced interaction among high-grade metamorphic lithologies of contrasting chemistry. Here, we present constraints on the conditions of corundum formation and the compositions of the fluids involved for the Storø and Maniitsoq ruby localities. We use thermodynamic modelling of mineral and mineral-fluid equilibria, and complement these with experimentally obtained data on mineral solubility to show that metasomatism took place at 650-725˚C and 7 kbar, involving a boron-rich, acidic fluid of low fO2 and low X(CO2). Aqueous concentrations of aluminium are low and indicate that corundum saturation is the result of residual aluminium enrichment rather than aluminium mobilisation. Intrusion of the ca. 2.55 Ga Qôrqut granite and associated fluid release is the likely source of boron, and U-Pb dating of rutile inclusions is consistent with a temporal link between ruby formation and granite emplacement. Interaction with meta-dunite and Fe-sulfides modified the oxidized magmatic fluid, introduced SO4, and produced the reduced, high XMg and K-rich fluid recorded by the corundum-bearing samples. These results highlight a complex interplay among lithologies involved in corundum-formation, but also demonstrate that corundum formation is a predictable part of the geological history where a magmatic intrusion expels a pulse of fluid through its lithologically heterogeneous carapace.

How to cite: van Hinsberg, V., Yakymchuk, C., Kirkland, C., and Szilas, K.: The corundum conundrum: Constraining the compositions of fluids involved in metasomatic corundum formation., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10229,, 2021.

Bruna B. Carvalho, Omar Bartoli, Madhusoodhan Satish-Kumar, Tetsuo Kawakami, Tomokazu Hokada, Mattia Gilio, Matteo Alvaro, and Bernardo Cesare

Metamorphism at ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions (i.e., T >900°C and pressures from 7 to 13 kbar) is now recognized as a fundamental process of Earth’s crust, and although progress has been achieved on its understanding, constraining melt generation and fluid regime at such extreme conditions is still poorly explored.

In this study we use former melt inclusions found in peritectic garnet to investigate anatexis and fluid regime of metapelitic granulites in samples from the Rundvågshetta area, the thermal axis of the Lützow-Holm Complex (East Antarctica). Peak P-T estimates are 925-1039°C at 11.5-15 kbar. The studied rock is a coarse-grained heterogeneous metapelitic granulite with a predominant mafic residual domain and a relatively more felsic, melt-rich domain. The mineral association in the mafic domain typically contains orthopyroxene (Al2O36-8.1 wt.%) + sillimanite + quartz + garnet (Prp42-55Alm40-52Grs3-4Sps0.2-1; XMg0.5) + K-feldspar (Kfs) + cordierite (XMg0.86) + rutile ± sapphirine ±biotite (XMg0.75; TiO23.7-5.8 wt.%) ±plagioclase (An35-46). Interstitial Kfs and quartz with low dihedral angles are often present, in particular as thin films between sillimanite and quartz; these features are interpreted as evidence for the presence of former melt along the grain boundaries. In contrast, the more felsic, melt-rich domain is composed of mesoperthite + quartz + garnet + sillimanite + brown biotite (XMg0.7; TiO23.7-5.4 wt.%) + rutile, but is free of orthopyroxene. Cores of garnet porphyroblasts (0.2-0.8 cm, Prp54-57Alm39-42Grs3-4Sps0.2-0.6, XMg0.57) in the melt-rich domains contain clusters of primary glassy inclusions (GI) and crystallized melt inclusions (nanogranitoids; NI) together with multiphase fluid inclusions (MFI) and accessory phases (mainly rutile and apatite).

The GI (5-20 µm) have negative crystal shapes and contain shrinkage bubbles with or without CO2and N2. In some cases, GI may have trapped apatite and rutile. Micro-Raman investigation suggest that the H2O contents of these glasses range from 0 to 3.4 wt.%. Glasses are weakly peraluminous (ASI=1-1.1), have high SiO2(76-78 wt.%), very high K2O (6.5-10 wt.%) and extremely low CaO and FeO+MgO contents.

The NI have variable sizes (10-150 µm) and often contains intergrowth of plagioclase + quartz, K-feldspar (Kfs) and biotite (Bt). Less frequently NI may have euhedral to subhedral grains of Kfs and Bt. Trapped phases are apatite and rutile, except for one inclusion that contains the sapphirine + quartz pair indicating that melt inclusions were trapped at UHT conditions.

The MFI are composed of CO2(with densities from 0.23 to 0.93 g/cm3) and step-daughter magnesite, pyrophyllite. Methane, N2or H2O were not detected.

Our results show that anatexis of metapelites at extremely hot conditions occurred in the presence of COHfluids and generated highly silicic, weakly peraluminous, mildly to strongly potassic magmas with low H2O contents. Additional trace element data will be acquired to shed light on further geochemical fingerprints of these peculiar magmas.

How to cite: Carvalho, B. B., Bartoli, O., Satish-Kumar, M., Kawakami, T., Hokada, T., Gilio, M., Alvaro, M., and Cesare, B.: Generation of highly silicic magmas at ultra-high temperature conditions : evidence from melt inclusions in peritectic garnet, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2291,, 2021.

Alexis Plunder, Eric Gloaguen, Saskia Erdmann, Fabrice Gaillard, Josselyn Garde, and Jérémie Melleton

Rare metal (HFSE such Sn, W, Ta, Nb and LILLE such Li, Rb) granite represent the most enriched magmatic rocks on Earth. This is especially true for some elements that belongs either to the European list of critical raw materials and/or the conflict minerals (eg. Li, Sn, W, Nb, Ta). Rare metal granites generally emplace in the vincinity of S-type granites during late orogenic stages. The fraction crystallisation mechanism is postulated to be the unique way to produce enriched silicate melt that later leads to ore deposits due to a combination of magmatic/hydrothermal processes. However, some problems persist in the explanation of the genesis of rare metal granite: crystal fractionation alone does not lead to the very high rare metal concentrations; field discrepancies exist between rare metal granites and their supposed parent peraluminous granites that in some cases are unknown. An alternative model - based on the integration of geochemical, experimental, paleogeographical and structural studies – suggests that low degree partial melting could be an efficient mechanism to produce critical metals enriched silicate melts enriched. To test whether this hypothesis makes sense, we present a study of the behaviour of W, Sn, Nb and Ta in metamorphic minerals from various metapelitic rocks. The selected samples do not present anomalous bulk concentrations of these elements with respect to an average continental crust. They formed at different pressure temperature conditions, in different orogenic belts. The rock collection comprises (i) amphibolite-facies staurolite bearing rocks, (ii) sillimanite-bearing rocks and (iii) granulite-facies orthopyroxene-bearing rocks. These samples represent the three main stages of the classical evolution of a collisional gradient leading to partial melting: they respectively belong to the muscovite + biotite domain, the muscovite-out reaction and the biotite-out reaction. We first estimate pressure-temperature conditions of formation of the rocks using pseudosection modelling. We then expose a set of LA-ICP-MS data to identify the critical metal carriers minerals in our samples. Meanwhile, we investigate the behaviour of W, Sn, Nb and Ta during the muscovite out reaction with two piston cylinder experiments (a partial melting experiment and a crystallization experiment). The protolith consists of a staurolite-bearing metapelite that did not suffer partial melting. In the light of these new data, we discuss the framework of the production of critical metal enriched silicate melts. We show that the main carrier of W is muscovite (up to 30 ppm) and that biotite handle Sn at high temperature (up to 40ppm). Using both the data from the natural sample and the experiments, we highlight that muscovite releases W during its destabilisation ant that Sn enters in biotite until the mineral breaks. We finally discuss the implication of multiple low degree partial melting / melt extraction as efficient way to produce enriched silicate melts.

How to cite: Plunder, A., Gloaguen, E., Erdmann, S., Gaillard, F., Garde, J., and Melleton, J.: Partial melting as an efficient mechanism to produce rare metal granite?, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10650,, 2021.

Irakli Javakhishvili, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, Giorgi Beridze, and Leonid Shumlyanskyy

The Dizi Series is exposed within the Southern slope zone of the Greater Caucasus that occurs as a complex geological structure, which constitutes an integral part of the Mediterranean (Alpine-Himalayan) collisional orogenic belt. It is built up of terrigenous and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks faunistically dated from the Devonian to Triassic inclusive (Somin, 1971; Somin, Belov, 1976; Kutelia 1983). Most of them are metamorphosed under conditions of chlorite-sericite subfacies of the greenschist facies of regional metamorphism (chlorite-phengite-albite±quartz, graphite-sericite-quartz phyllites and marbleized limestones), and only a minor part represented by clay-carbonaceous, phengite-chlorite-carbonaceous and prehnite-chlorite-carbonate schists underwent anchimetamorphism (Shengelia et al., 2015). The Dizi Series is intruded by numerous magmatic bodies of gabbro-diabases, diabases, diorites, diorite-porphyries, syenites, monzo-syenites and granitoids. The age of the intrusions was defined by K-Ar method at 176-165 Ma (Dudauri, Togonidze, 1998) and by U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon dating at 166.5 ± 4.6 Ma (authors` unpublished data) and corresponds to the Bathonian orogeny. The Middle Jurassic intrusions caused intense contact metamorphism of the rocks of the Dizi Series resulted in the formation of various hornfelses containing andalusite, cordierite, corundum, biotite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, clinozoisite, hornblende, cummingtonite, clinopyroxene, wollastonite and scapolite. These rocks correspond to albite-epidote-hornfels, andalusite-biotite-muscovite-chlorite-hornfels and andalusite-biotite-muscovite-hornfels subfacies of the contact metamorphism (Javakhishvili et al., 2020). The analogues of the Dizi Series rocks have not previously been established either in the Greater Caucasus or in the neighboring regions. In our view, Paleozoic rocks similar to the Dizi Series occur under the Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits within the folded basement of the plain Crimea where they were recovered by wells. Most of these rocks, as in the Dizi Series, underwent metamorphism of chlorite subfacies of the greenschist facies and, to a lesser extent, deep epigenesis (clayey-carbonaceous, sericite-carbonaceous, actinolite-chlorite-prehnite, muscovite-albite-chlorite, epidote-actinolite-chlorite and graphite-talc-quartz schists) (Chernyak, 1969). These rocks are also intruded by Middle Jurassic igneous rocks, including gabbro-diabases, diabases, diorites, syenites, monzo-syenites, granite-porphyries, etc. (Shniukova, 2016; Shumlyanskyy, 2019). As a result of the contact metamorphism of the basement rocks, muscovite-quartz-cordierite and cordierite-quartz-feldspar micaceous hornfelses were formed. Quartz syenite yielded a K-Ar age of 158 Ma (Scherbak, 1981), while monzo-syenite was dated at 170 ± 5 Ma applying 40Ar/39Ar method (Meijers, 2010). Thus, based on the rock associations, the nature of metamorphism, the age of the metamorphic and igneous rocks, and on the spatial position of the Dizi Series and folded basement of the plain Crimea we assume that these units developed coevally in similar environment and geological conditions.

Acknowledgements.This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNSF) [PHDF-19-159, Regional and Contact Metamorphism of the Dizi Series].

How to cite: Javakhishvili, I., Shengelia, D., Tsutsunava, T., Chichinadze, G., Beridze, G., and Shumlyanskyy, L.: On the possible analogy between the Dizi Series of the Southern slope zone of the Greater Caucasus and the folded basement of the plain Crimea: composition, metamorphism, magmatism and age, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-837,, 2021.

Grazina Skridlaite, Jolanta Putnaite, Boguslaw Baginski, Agnieszka Huc, and Laurynas Siliauskas

The Precambrian basement of the western East European Craton (EEC) in western Lithuania is covered by ca 2 km thick sediments. The rocks are mostly charnockitoids and granitoids with a large area of metasedimentary rocks crosscut by the Lk1-5, Pc1-7, Sh3, Ls1-3, Ml1, Tr11, and other drillings. The metasediments are mostly Fe-rich pelites with subordinate calcic-silicic and mafic rocks.

The rocks were metamorphosed in granulite facies with a variable degree of partial melting resulting in domain-like structure. Most of the granulites contain garnet, biotite, sillimanite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and opaque minerals with or without cordierite and hercynite spinel. The earlier geothermobarometry investigations in several drillings have revealed a complex nature of the granulite facies metamorphism. Peak conditions of 800-850o C at 8.5 -9 kbar (samples Tr11, Lk2, 5, Pc1) were obtained from large garnet, biotite, and plagioclase grains with the presence of sillimanite. A second stage of 600-770oC at 6-7 kbar was recorded mainly by the second garnet and cordierite. It was followed by a stage of 550-600oC at 4-5 kbar (Skridlaite et al., 2014).

Using a pseudosection approach (Thermocalc 3.5.0), the preliminary modelling results are the following: in Lk5 sample, the T increases from 790oC at 5.5 kbar to 840oC at 5 kbar; in Tr11 sample, the garnet is stable at 800oC and 7 kbar; in Pc1 sample, a drop of P from 6.5 7.5 to 5 kbar at 760-770oC is prominent.

No metamorphic zircon was produced during the peak metamorphism except for a single metamorphic grain of ca. 1.80 Ga in Lk 2 sample (Bogdanova et al., 2015). Metamorphic overgrowths were too thin to date them. Instead, numerous monazite grains seemed to be promising for dating metamorphic peaks and distinct stages. Two age groups of monazites were distinguished from the preliminary EPMA dating results in Lk1, 2, and 5 samples: 1.79-1.77 Ga and 1.66 Ga - 1.63 Ga. In Tr11 sample, the cores of 1.80-1.79 Ga monazites were overgrown by 1.77-1.76 Ga rims.

After preliminary attempts to model and date distinct stages of metamorphism, we could evaluate advantages of all the methods applied and to look after some solutions of the arising problems. First, the whole-rock chemistry of distinct domains might be helpful to model PT evolution of those domains. More careful mineral analysis in a greater number of samples should be helpful for finding peak and other assemblages in a local equilibrium. HREE, especially Y-content investigations in monazite grains might provide some clues on monazite and garnet behavior during the distinct stage of metamorphism. Some other solutions would be very welcome.

Bogdanova, S. et al., 2015. Precambrian Research, 259, 5–33.

Skridlaite, G. et al., 2014. Gondwana Research, 25, 649-667.

How to cite: Skridlaite, G., Putnaite, J., Baginski, B., Huc, A., and Siliauskas, L.: High-grade metamorphism in metapelites from the western East European Craton, western Lithuania: challenges of deciphering and dating multi-stage metamorphism, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16049,, 2021.

Mahyra Tedeschi, Humberto Reis, Laura Stutenbecker, Matheus Kuchenbecker, Bruno Ribeiro, Vitor Barrote, Pedro Leonardo Vieira, and Cristiano Lana

Detrital zircon records are prone to several sources of bias that can compromise sediment provenance investigations based on U-Pb ages. High-temperature metamorphism (>850 ºC) is herewith addressed as a natural cause of bias since U-Pb zircon data from rocks submitted to these extreme, often prolonged conditions, frequently display protracted apparent concordant geochronological U-Pb records. The resulting spectrum can originate from disturbance of the primary U-Pb zircon system, likewise from subsequent recrystallization and crystallization processes during multiple and/or prolonged metamorphic events. Consequently, a high-grade metamorphosed igneous rock can exhibit a zircon age spectrum similar to that produced by polymict sedimentary rocks, thereby inducing provenance misinterpretations if this rock becomes a source for a sediment. A polymict sedimentary source that undergoes such high temperatures could potentially generate an even more intricate spectrum. Archean, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic metamorphic rocks from the literature, dated by different techniques (SIMS and LA-ICP-MS), are employed as examples to demonstrate the resulting complications.  The compilation shows that (1) high-temperature metamorphism may generate age peaks of unclear or lacking geological meaning, and (2) the interpretation of detrital zircon age spectra depends on the timing of the metamorphic event (pre- or post-depositional). When high-temperature metamorphic rocks are eroded in uplifted areas, the youngest population of a detrital spectrum represents the maximum depositional age through metamorphic zircon from the source. If a sedimentary succession was subjected to high-temperature metamorphic conditions after deposition, its youngest zircon population more likely records the metamorphism, and the maximum depositional age, as well as older sources cannot be directly accessed. To evaluate the presence of high-temperature metamorphism-related bias in a given detrital zircon sample, we suggest a workflow for data acquisition and interpretation, combining a multi-proxy approach with: in situ U-Pb dating coupled with Hf analyses to retrieve the isotopic composition of the sources, and the integration of a petrochronological investigation to typify fingerprints of the (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic event.

How to cite: Tedeschi, M., Reis, H., Stutenbecker, L., Kuchenbecker, M., Ribeiro, B., Barrote, V., Vieira, P. L., and Lana, C.: Unraveling potential biases in U-Pb detrital zircon record induced by high-temperature metamorphism (> 850 ºC), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13256,, 2021.

Kota Suzuki and Tetsuo Kawakami

The Zr content of rutile coexisting with zircon and quartz is mainly a function of the temperature condition and is calibrated as Zr-in-rutile geothermometers. Because of their robustness under high-temperature conditions, they have been applied to granulite facies rocks instead of the conventional Fe-Mg exchange type geothermometers to estimate more reliable temperature conditions. However, it is recently pointed out that in order for rutile to retain the primary Zr content, rutile must be chemically isolated from zircon and quartz during cooling. In this context, inclusion rutile separately enclosed in garnet can be considered to retain the primary Zr content at the time of entrapment, only if rutile, zircon, and quartz are all enclosed in a contemporaneous domain of the garnet.

In this study, we re-examined the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of high-grade pelitic gneisses from selected regions (Akarui Point, Skarvsnes, Skallen, and Rundvågshetta) of the Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC), East Antarctica. The LHC has been divided into the upper-amphibolite facies zone, the transitional zone, and the granulite facies zone, based on matrix mineral assemblages of mafic- to intermediate gneisses. Akarui Point is located in the transitional zone and others in the granulite facies zone.

While previous studies commonly applied the conventional Fe-Mg exchange type geothermometers, we applied the Zr-in-rutile geothermometer of Tomkins et al. (2007) to rutile grains enclosed in garnet that also encloses zircon, quartz, and Al2SiO5 minerals. By utilizing the phosphorus zoning in garnet, we defined contemporaneous domains of the garnet and identified coexisting inclusion minerals in each domain. In this way, coexisting Al2SiO5 minerals and rutile grains were utilized to constrain the P-T condition of each domain of the garnet.

As a result, samples from Akarui Point, Skarvsnes, and Skallen were shown to have experienced almost the same P-T conditions around the kyanite/sillimanite transition boundary (~ 830-850 °C/~ 11 kbar). This is significantly higher than the previously estimated peak condition of 770-790 °C/7.7-9.8 kbar based on the conventional garnet-biotite geothermometer in the case of Akarui Point. From Rundvågshetta, where ultrahigh-T metamorphism is reported by previous studies, higher-T condition (850 ± 15 °C/0.1 kbar to 927 ± 16 °C/12.5 kbar) than those of other three regions was confirmed from inclusion rutile in garnet enclosing sillimanite. Therefore, the traditional metamorphic zone mapping, which classified Akarui Point as belonging to the transitional zone, does not reflect the highest metamorphic grade attained. It should be noted that the regional P-T conditions estimated from inclusion minerals in this study is that of earlier higher-P metamorphic stage than the regional P-T conditions determined by the metamorphic zone mapping utilizing matrix mineral assemblages. This result indicates that the Zr-in-rutile geothermometer is a powerful tool to reveal the P-T evolution of high-grade metamorphic terrains, when combined with detailed microstructural observations focusing on the relationship between rutile, zircon, and quartz.

How to cite: Suzuki, K. and Kawakami, T.: Metamorphic pressure-temperature conditions of the Lützow-Holm Complex of East Antarctica deduced from Zr-in-rutile geothermometer and Al2SiO5 minerals enclosed in garnet, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-776,, 2021.

Dražen Balen and Petra Schneider

The Mt. Medvednica is located north of Zagreb, a capital of Croatia, reaching 1033 m in height. It belongs to a complex geological unit located in the border area between Alps, Tisia (crystalline basement of the Pannonian Basin) and Dinarides, that are separated with large and regionally significant tectonic zones. Such geological position inevitably resulted with preservation of characteristics inherited from those large tectonic units, as well as those related to the local scale geological processes. Despite the significant tectonism, the Cretaceous metamorphism of Mt. Medvednica did not exceed P-T conditions of a low-grade metamorphism, as a typical metamorphic rock present is greenschist originated from the mafic igneous rock protolith.

The investigated Mt. Medvednica greenschists are characterized with weak schistosity, granoblastic to granolepidoblastic texture and typically comprise chlorite (40 vol.%), albite (35 vol.%), opaques (up to 15 vol.%), epidote (5 vol.%) and quartz (5 vol.%) that do not exceed 0.5 mm in size, with accessory minerals like titanite, apatite, zircon and calcite, together with rare finding of pumpellyite. The pumpellyite was so far just sporadically reported in the greenschists and was not investigated in detail. On the contrary, pumpellyite was almost regularly reported in the basic rocks from Jurassic ophiolite mélange that tectonically overly greenschists. Pumpellyite can be found there as a secondary hydrous silicate occurring in the altered extrusive rocks that undergone low-temperature ocean floor hydrothermal metasomatism addressed to the ophiolite emplacement.

Since blasts of pumpellyite (ca. 0.2‒0.3 mm in size) that we have found in the greenschists are possible indicators for a polyphase metamorphic evolution, we have conducted microtextural analyses combined with a phase equilibrium modeling approach through the construction of P-T pseudosections. Chemical composition of greenschists suggested an origin from the altered calc-alkaline basalt. Therefore, P-T pseudosections in the range of 100‒1000 MPa and 250‒450 °C were constructed with PERPLEX software in the complex MnNCKFMASHTO chemical system, and contoured by isopleths for the mode and chemical composition of major rock-forming minerals.

Pumpellyite chemistry is characterized with SiO2=36.77‒38.38 wt.%, Al2O3=18.56‒21.00 wt.%, CaO=20.69‒22.89 wt.% and FeO=14.50‒16.85 wt.% that classify this mineral as a pumpellyite-(Fe2+). Metamorphic P-T conditions for pumpellyite-(Fe2+) blasts in the assemblage with chlorite and albite were modeled to 500 MPa and 270°C. Those values correspond well with the theoretically expected values, as well as with previously obtained peak P-T values for greenschist metamorphism of Mt. Medvednica obtained on the metapelites and metabasites with aid of a classical geothermobarometry. For comparison, different pumpellyite chemistry and slightly higher P-T values obtained in this research with pressures (up to +300 MPa) and temperatures (approx. +40°C) point to metamorphic mineral different from pumpellyite related to Jurassic ophiolite mélange altered basic rocks. Microtextural relations between major mineral assemblage and assemblage with pumpellyite show that prograde part of Cretaceous metamorphism, as a consequence of closure of the Neo-Tethys oceanic crust, preceded the growth of pumpellyite that may be ascribed to the retrograde part of a clockwise P-T path.

How to cite: Balen, D. and Schneider, P.: Occurrence and significance of pumpellyite blasts from the greenschists of the Mt. Medvednica (Croatia), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10224,, 2021.

Chairpersons: Matthijs Smit, Daniela Rubatto
Metamorphism in subduction zones and collisional orogens
Irena Miladinova, Walter Kurz, Arianna V. Del Gaudio, and Werner Piller

Serpentine seamounts located in the forearc region of a subduction zone represent an excellent natural laboratory for studying the geochemical processes acting along convergent plate margins as well as the forearc structure and the related fault patterns. Active serpentinite mud volcanoes are currently restricted only to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system, where old (presumably Cretaceous) oceanic lithosphere is subducting in the absence of an accretionary prism.

IODP Expedition 366 recovered cores from three serpentinite mud volcanoes at increasing distances from the Mariana trench (Yinazao, Fantangisña and Asùt Tesoro). Most of the material consists of serpentinite mud containing lithic clasts from the underlying forearc crust and mantle as well as from the subducting Pacific plate. Pelagic sediments and volcanic ash deposits underlying the mud volcanoes were also recovered. Recycled materials from the subducted slab are found at all three mud volcanoes and consist of metavolcanics, metamorphosed pelagic sediments including cherty limestone as well as fault rocks.

Preliminary investigation of lithic clasts from the furthest Asùt Tesoro Seamount revealed metavolcanics as well as serpentinized ultramafics with well-preserved primary mineral assemblages containing olivine, orthopyroxene and spinel.

Recovered clasts from the summit of the adjacent Fantangisña Seamount contain mainly sedimentary rocks of probable Pacific plate provenance. These consist of red cherty limestone breccia, red shale and mud-siltstone transected by a network of carbonate veins. In contrast, recovered material from the flank shows a wider variety including ultramafic rocks with various degrees of serpentinization and matrix composed of mesh and bastite textures, mafic metavolcanics as well as low-grade metasediments (cherty limestones). Interestingly, garnet with andradite composition occurs throughout the matrix of the ultramafics, indicating serpentinization temperatures of at least 225 °C.

Petrological analysis of metabasalt clasts from the flank of Fantangisña shows changes in the mineral composition within the different core intervals. The composition of clinopyroxene varies between aegirine-augite and omphacite, but augite and diopside are also present. The presence of phengite with Si content of up to 3.5 a.p.f.u. as well as the Na-content in pyroxene indicate minimum pressure of 0.7 GPa at ~250 °C. Additionaly, this estimation is supported by the presence of prehnite, chlorite and pumpellyite. 

Furthermore, providing a detailed characterization of the fluids composition and transport would allow the better constraining of the tectonic and metamorphic history as well as the physical properties of the subducting Pacific Plate. Additional data on that will be presented.

How to cite: Miladinova, I., Kurz, W., Del Gaudio, A. V., and Piller, W.: Serpentinite Mud Volcanism and Exhumation of Forearc- and Lower Plate Material in the Mariana Convergent Margin System (IODP Expedition 366), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4865,, 2021.

Michał Bukała, Christopher Barnes, Iwona Klonowska, Károly Hidas, Kathrin Fassmer, and Jarosław Majka

The Tsäkkok Lens (northern Scandinavian Caledonides) represents the outermost part of the rifted passive Baltica margin and consists of sediments and pillow basalts of MORB affinity that were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions. Fieldwork and further multidisciplinary analytical approach (including e.g. X-ray and EBSD mapping, and μ-CT imaging) revealed that eclogites record brittle deformation on the μm-to-m scale. This deformation is expressed as a set of microfractures (single-grain rupture) and mesofractures (sealed by garnet- and omphacite-veins). Phase equilibrium thermodynamic modeling of phengite-bearing and phengite-free eclogites performed in NCKFMMnASHT and NCFMMnASHT systems predict profuse dehydration related to lawsonite and amphibole breakdown at ~2.35 GPa and ~600°C, close to the peak conditions of ~2.55 GPa and ~640°C. These estimates are in line with conventional thermobarometry and Zr-in-rutile thermometry results. The evidence for dehydration is also provided by the  occurrence of relic glaucophane in matrix and polyphase inclusions in garnet consisting of clinozoisite + quartz ± kyanite ± paragonite that are interpreted as pseudomorphs after lawsonite. Dehydration reactions were responsible for producing fluid, which facilitated brittle fracturing of the eclogites at HP conditions due to increased pore-fluid pressure (also promoted by the volume changes during eclogitization) on the microscale. Altogether, micro- and mesofracturing acted as migration pathways for released fluid, whereas the microfractures are likely precursors of the mesoscale fractures. Garnet-WR Lu-Hf geochronology provided ages of 487.7 ± 4.6, 486.2 ± 3.2, and 484.6 ± 4.5 Ma. LA-ICP-MS trace element profiles of garnet revealed a well-pronounced peak of Lu content in the garnet cores that decreased towards the rims, indicating these dates represent the age of prograde metamorphism. Therefore, the early Paleozoic Tsäkkok Lens eclogites constitute the oldest documented natural example of HP brittle deformation during eclogitization of blueschist.

Research funded by NCN project no. 2019/33/N/ST10/01479 (M. Bukała) and no. 2014/14/E/ST10/00321 (J. Majka), as well as the Polish National Agency for the Academic Exchange scholarship no. PPN/IWA/2018/1/00046/U/0001 given to M. Bukała.

How to cite: Bukała, M., Barnes, C., Klonowska, I., Hidas, K., Fassmer, K., and Majka, J.: Brittle deformation during eclogitization: a perspective from a cold, early Paleozoic subduction zone, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2473,, 2021.

Freya R. George, Daniel R. Viete, Janaína Ávila, and Gareth G. E. Seward

High pressure garnet porpyhroblasts formed in subduction zones serve as a witness to an integrated history of fluid flow, deformation, metamorphic reaction, and exhumation processes. Seemingly ubiquitous within garnet from a heterogeneous suite of eclogite and blueschist units is primary oscillatory elemental zoning—rhythmic, short wavelength (< 10 µm) concentric fluctuations concentrated near the rims of porphyroblasts—which has been documented using a combined major element X-ray mapping and trace element LA-ICP-MS mapping approach. This oscillatory zoning must reflect some fundamental petrogenetic process operating during subduction zone metamorphism. While longer length scale (> 50 µm) oscillations have been interpreted to reflect rock-wide P–T changes during physical cycling through the subduction channel, these short wavelength oscillations have typically been interpreted to reflect changes in the effective grain boundary chemistry induced by fluid fluxing during mineral growth.

Here, we present secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) O-isotope data across the oscillatory zoning in garnet from six subduction settings. A lack of spatial covariance between the elemental and δ18O records is inconsistent with the interpretation that oscillatory zoning is directly linked to infiltration of chemically and isotopically distinct fluids. However, in most samples, vascillations in δ18O of < 2 ‰ (over 20–50 µm) in the mantle and rim, coupled with < 1 ‰ net core-to-rim change may point to the predominance of: (a) an internally-controlled grain boundary fluid and relatively stagnant fluid conditions, with grain boundaries that may experience transient opening, heterogeneous and locally-derived fluid fluxing, and then re-sealing, or (b) a rock-buffered oxygen isotope composition during garnet growth between  450 ˚C and 550 ˚C. However, several samples exhibit a systematic 2.5–4 ‰ change in δ18O across oscillatory major and trance element zoning, accompanied by a 2–3 mol% decrease in andradite content. This change, outside that predicted via closed system crystallization and fractionation, is suggested to reflect the relatively uncommon and sudden transient passage of a reduced external fluid. While this dataset does not reveal the mystery of the oscillatory zoning, it demonstrates spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fluid transfer in subduction zones.

How to cite: George, F. R., Viete, D. R., Ávila, J., and Seward, G. G. E.: Decoupled oscillatory and O-isotope zonation in high pressure low temperature garnet: records of heterogeneous fluid transfer processes, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3061,, 2021.

Lorraine Tual, Matthijs Smit, Jamie Cutts, Ellen Kooijman, Melanie Kielman-Schmitt, and Ian Foulds

Unravelling the timing and rate of subduction-zone metamorphism requires linking the composition of petrogenetic indicator minerals in blueschists and eclogites to time. Garnet is a key mineral in this regard, not in the least because it best records P-T conditions and changes therein and can be dated, using either Lu-Hf or Sm-Nd chronology. Bulk-grain garnet ages are the norm and can provide important and precise time constraints on reactions across both facies. Domain dating, i.e., dating of individual growth zones, moves beyond that. Domain dating by combining mechanical micro-milling and Sm-Nd chronology yielded important constraints on garnet-growth and fluid-release rates for blueschists (e.g., Dragovic et al., 2015). Developing this method for Lu-Hf chronology and, importantly, for "common-sized" garnet (≤1 cm) provides an important opportunity to further explore the potential of this approach.

We combined a low-loss micro-sampling technique in laser cutting with a refined Lu-Hf routine to precisely date multiple growth zones of a sub-cm-sized garnet in a blueschist. The targeted grain from a glaucophane-bearing micaschist from Syros Island, Greece, was chemically characterized by major- and trace-element mapping (EPMA, LA-ICPMS) and five zones were extracted using a laser mill. The three core and inner mantle zones are chemically comparable and identical in age within a 0.1 Myr precision (2σ). The outer two zones are chemically distinct and are resolvably younger (0.2-0.8 Myr). The timing of these two major garnet-growth episodes, together with the variations in trace-element chemistry, constrain important fluid-release reactions, such as chloritoid-breakdown. The data show that the integral history of garnet growth in subduction zones may be extremely short (<1 Myr), but may, even in that short timeframe, consist of multiple short pulses. Garnet-forming reactions clearly are localized and, thus, associated with focussed high-flux fluid flow. Beyond subduction-zone processes, our new protocol for zoned garnet Lu-Hf geochronology of "common-sized" garnet opens possibilities for constraining the causes and rates of garnet growth and in turn, the pace of tectonic processes in general.


Dragovic, B., Baxter, E.F. and Caddick, M.J., 2015. Pulsed dehydration and garnet growth during subduction revealed by zoned garnet geochronology and thermodynamic modeling, Sifnos, Greece. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 413, pp.111-122.

How to cite: Tual, L., Smit, M., Cutts, J., Kooijman, E., Kielman-Schmitt, M., and Foulds, I.: Rapid, paced metamorphism of blueschists from laser-based Lu-Hf garnet-domain geochronology and LA-ICMPS trace element mapping, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8095,, 2021.

Jack Percival, Jiří Konopásek, and Robert Anczkiewicz

Metamorphic minerals in the Brusque Complex of the northern Dom Feliciano Belt, Brazil, provide new insights into the timing and mode of regional convergence, challenging a long-lived subduction-collision model for orogenesis. The key evidence for subduction is an extensive linear belt of granitic rocks (the Granite Belt) that intruded the length of the hinterland of the Dom Feliciano Belt between ~630─580 Ma, and that is inferred to represent arc magmatism above the subducting Adamastor Ocean prior to continental collision. The study area comprises supracrustal units of a foreland fold-and-thrust belt outcropping along the western edge of the symmetric Kaoko─Dom Feliciano orogenic system. The integrated study of primary metamorphic mineral assemblages and associated deformation fabrics support the interpretation of a fold-and-thrust belt environment, with early tectonic movement top-to-NW away from the hinterland. P─T estimates constrained by garnet compositions indicate peak metamorphic conditions of 540─570°C and 5.5─6.5kbar, in line with typical geothermal gradients associated with orogenic metamorphism. The timing of early garnet growth, and by inference the early stages of crustal thickening in the foreland, is constrained by Lu─Hf garnet geochronology at ~660─650 Ma. The data indicate that the onset of metamorphism and deformation in the orogenic foreland occurred ~20–30 m.y. prior to intrusion of extensive granitic magmatism into the orogenic hinterland. The timing of early orogenic thickening in the foreland precludes the interpretation of the Granite Belt as an arc above a large-scale subduction zone in the lead up to orogenesis. Instead, it is interpreted to represent syn-orogenic magmatism typical for hinterland domains in other ancient and recent orogenic systems.

We appreciate financial support from Diku Norway and CAPES Brazil (project UTF-2018-10004), and from the Czech Science Foundation (project no. 18-24281S). This work was partly supported by the Research Council of Norway through the funding to The Norwegian Research School on Dynamics and Evolution of Earth and Planets, project number 249040/F60.

How to cite: Percival, J., Konopásek, J., and Anczkiewicz, R.: Constraining the timing of crustal thickening using garnet geochronology – An argument against subduction-driven orogenesis in the Dom Feliciano Belt, Brazil, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9547,, 2021.

Kathrin Fassmer, Peter Tropper, Hannah Pomella, Thomas Angerer, Gerald Degenhart, Christoph Hauzenberger, Carsten Münker, Axel K. Schmitt, and Bernhard Fügenschuh

In collisional orogens continental crust is subducted to (ultra-)high-pressure (HP/UHP) conditions as constrained by petrologic, tectonic and geophysical observations. Despite a wealth of studies on the subduction and exhumation of UHP rocks, the duration of prograde metamorphism during subduction is still not well constrained.

We plan to apply Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology on metamorphic rock samples to date the duration of garnet growth, which represents a major part of prograde metamorphism from the greenschist-facies onward. Micaschist samples from the Schneeberg and Radenthein Units in the Eoalpine high-pressure belt (Eastern Alps) will be used for dating as they contain cm- to dm-sized garnet blasts, which experienced only one subduction-exhumation cycle. With dating different parts of big garnet grains, we test whether (1) it is possible to resolve the duration of garnet growth within single crystals, and (2) Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd systems date the same events in the PT-path or yield complementary information. Additionally, we will perform U-Pb geochronology on titanite in order to obtain the age of the first stages of exhumation; in addition, dating of rutile inclusions as well as matrix rutiles will be used to test Eoalpine prograde age. We will also apply U-Th-Pb monazite dating (EPMA and LA-ICPMS) to some of the samples. Collectively, these data will allow us to compare the duration of subduction and the timing of initial exhumation in a single sample. We then will constrain the PT-path of the dated samples by pseudosection modeling combined with Zr-in-rutile, quartz-in-garnet, and carbonaceous material geothermo(baro)metry. We already have preliminary results for Zr-in-rutile thermometry of rutile inclusions in garnets and matrix rutiles for samples from both locations. We measured Zr content with an EPMA and used the calibrations of Tomkins et al. (2007) and Kohn (2020). The calibration of Kohn (2020) gives overall slightly lower temperatures, but all obtained temperatures lay in a range of c. 500-600 °C in accordance with previously published data. In addition, EPMA, µ-XRF, LA-ICPMS, and µCT will be used to control if garnets preserved major and trace elemental growth zoning and to provide spatial 3D information on inclusion patterns. µCT analyses were already successfully used to obtain the chemical centre of the garnet grains in order to be able to cut them directly through there center. This is important for all in-situ chemical analyses. With dating different parts of single garnet crystals separately with Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology, we will add tight time constraints to the PT-path and constrain the duration of garnet growth.

With this contribution we formulate the working hypothesis that prograde subduction together with exhumation is a fast process. The basis for testing the idea of fast prograde metamorphism is that many geochronological studies propose a prograde duration of < 10 Ma and studies using geospeedometry sometimes propose an even shorter duration, which is the impetus for this investigation.


Kohn, M.J. (2020). A refined zirconium-in-rutile thermometer. American Mineralogist(105), 963-971.

Tomkins, H.S., Powell, R. & Ellis, D.J. (2007). The pressure dependence of the zirconium-in-rutile thermometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology(25), 703-713.

How to cite: Fassmer, K., Tropper, P., Pomella, H., Angerer, T., Degenhart, G., Hauzenberger, C., Münker, C., Schmitt, A. K., and Fügenschuh, B.: Determining the speed of intracontinental subduction – preliminary results of zoned garnet geochronology in micaschists from the Schneeberg and Radenthein Complexes, Eastern Alps, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9515,, 2021.

Silvio Ferrero, Jay J. Ague, Patrick J. O'Brien, Bernd Wunder, Laurent Remusat, Martin A. Ziemann, and Jennifer Axler

Inclusions of relic high pressure melts provide information on the fate of crustal rocks in the deep roots of orogens during collision and crustal thickening, including at extreme temperature conditions exceeding 1000°C. However, discoveries of high pressure melt inclusions are still a relative rarity among case studies of inclusions in metamorphic minerals. Here we present the results of experimental and microchemical investigations of nanogranitoids in garnets from the felsic granulites of the Central Maine Terrane (Connecticut, US). Their successful experimental re-homogenization at ~2 GPa confirms that they originally were trapped portions of deep melts and makes them the first direct evidence of high pressure during peak metamorphism and melting for these felsic granulites. The trapped melt has a hydrous, granitic, and peraluminous character typical of crustal melts from metapelites. This melt is higher in mafic components (FeO and MgO) than most of the nanogranitoids investigated previously, likely the result of the extreme melting temperatures – well above 1000°C. This is the first natural evidence of the positive correlation between temperature and mafic character of the melt, a trend previously supported only by experimental evidence. Moreover, it poses a severe caveat against the common assumption that partial melts from metasediments at depth are always leucogranitic in composition. NanoSIMS measurement on re-homogenized inclusions show significant amounts of CO2, Cl and F. Halogen abundance in the melt is considered to be a proxy for the presence of brines (strongly saline fluids) at depth. Brines are known to shift the melting temperatures of the system toward higher values, and may have been responsible for delaying melt production via biotite dehydration melting until these rocks reached extreme temperatures of more than 1000°C, rather than 800-850°C as commonly observed for these reactions.

How to cite: Ferrero, S., Ague, J. J., O'Brien, P. J., Wunder, B., Remusat, L., Ziemann, M. A., and Axler, J.: High pressure, halogen-bearing melt in ultra-high temperature felsic granulites of the Central Maine Terrane, Connecticut (US), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9657,, 2021.

Carmen Aguilar, Pavla Štípská, Francis Chopin, Karel Schulmann, Pavel Pitra, Prokop Závada, Pavlína Hasalová, and Jean-Emmanuel Martelat

High-pressure granitic orthogneiss of the south-eastern Orlica–Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif) shows relics of a shallow-dipping S1 foliation, reworked by upright F2 folds and a mostly pervasive N-S trending subvertical axial planar S2 foliation. Based on macroscopic observations, a gradual transition perpendicular to the subvertical S2 foliation from banded to schlieren and nebulitic orthogneiss was distinguished. All rock types comprise plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, white mica, biotite and garnet. The transition is characterized by increasing presence of interstitial phases along like-like grain boundaries and by progressive replacement of recrystallized K-feldspar grains by fine-grained myrmekite. These textural changes are characteristic for syn-deformational grain-scale melt percolation, which is in line with the observed enrichment of the rocks in incompatible elements such as REEs, Ba, Sr, and K, suggesting open-system behaviour with melt passing through the rocks. The P–T path deduced from the thermodynamic modelling indicates decompression from ~15−16 kbar and ~650–740 ºC to ~6 kbar and ~640 ºC. Melt was already present at the P–T peak conditions as indicated by the albitic composition of plagioclase in films, interstitial grains and in myrmekite. The variably re-equilibrated garnet suggests that melt content may have varied along the decompression path, involving successively both melt gain and loss. The 6–8 km wide zone of vertical foliation and migmatite textural gradients is interpreted as vertical crustal-scale channel where the grain-scale melt percolation was associated with horizontal shortening and vertical flow of partially molten crustal wedge en masse.

How to cite: Aguilar, C., Štípská, P., Chopin, F., Schulmann, K., Pitra, P., Závada, P., Hasalová, P., and Martelat, J.-E.: Syn-deformational melt percolation through a high-pressure orthogneiss and the exhumation of a subducted continental wedge (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, NE Bohemian Massif), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2251,, 2021.

Padmaja Jayalekshmi, Tapabrato Sarkar, Somnath Dasgupta, and Rajneesh Bhutani

The Bastar Craton at the interface of Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) contains a mélange of rocks from both the Archean cratonic domain and the adjacent Proterozoic mobile belt domain marking a broad shear zone, known as the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone (TBSZ). The TBSZ preserves a very rare occurrence of high-grade metamorphosed Archean cratonic rocks, whose ancestry has been constrained by Nd model ages. This study presents the petrological and geochemical characterization of mafic granulites and orthopyroxene bearing granitoids from the shear zone and its implications on the tectonic evolution of the craton – mobile belt boundary. Detailed petrographic, geothermobarometric and P-T pseudosection studies indicate that the Bastar cratonic rocks underwent high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism along a clockwise P-T path, reaching ~900°C and 9-10 kbar. The originally amphibolite facies rocks, metamorphosed through dehydration-melting of hornblende (mafic rocks) and biotite (felsic rocks), to attain the peak P-T conditions. We suggest that this high-grade metamorphism was due to the subduction/underthrusting of the Bastar Craton beneath the EGB, supported by the available seismic data, which resulted from far-field stress related to the Kuunga orogeny in an intraplate setting.

How to cite: Jayalekshmi, P., Sarkar, T., Dasgupta, S., and Bhutani, R.: High-pressure granulite facies metamorphism of Archean Bastar craton at the interface of Eastern Ghats Belt: Implications for cratonic subduction/underthrusting, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6976,, 2021.

Elena Sorokina, Roman Botcharnikov, Yuriy Kostitsyn, Delia Rösel, Tobias Häger, Mikhail Rassomakhin, Nataliya Kononkova, Alina Somsikova, Jasper Berndt, Tomas Lüdwig, Elena Medvedeva, and Wolfgang Hofmeister

Gem corundum (mainly ruby) occurrences are commonly associated with orogenic belts. Corundum deposits of metamorphic origin are known as robust indicators of continent-continent collision tectonic events. Although sapphire-bearing primary magmatic deposits are also found in orogenic belts, their link to continental collision process remains poorly understood. Here we show that primary igneous blue sapphire occurrences in the Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex of Ilmen Mountains in Uralian orogenic belt are indicative of the continent-continent collision processes among Kazakhstania, Laurussia, and Siberia 330 – 250 Ma ago (Sorokina et al. 2017).

The results of geochemical, mineralogical, and geochronological research of corundum syenite pegmatites demonstrate that in situ primary magmatic corundum-bearing mineral assemblages can be used to evaluate the formation conditions and the time constraints of magmatic processes imposed by tectonic activity during orogenesis.

Thus, the corundum syenite pegmatites have recorded a multistage evolution of the Ilmenogorsky complex. They crystallized at temperatures of 700 – 750°C at 275 and 295 Ma ago (in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating) within the timeframe of the continental collision of the Uralian orogeny. The isotopic signatures show a geochemical link of these deposits to nepheline syenites – miaskites of the main igneous body in Ilmenogorsky complex. While, some corundum syenite-pegmatites express the metamorphic overprint at temperatures of 700 – 780°C occurred 249 ± 2Ma ago (TISM Rb-Sr isotopy) during limited post-collision stretching period in the area of Ilmenogorsky complex (Sorokina et al. 2021). Hence, these results imply that primary magmatic corundum deposits can be used as an important indicator of continental collision events.


1.              Sorokina E.S., Botcharnikov R., Kostitsyn Yu.A., Rösel D., Häger T., Rassomakhin M.A., Kononkova N.N., Somsikova A.V., Berndt J., Ludwig T., Medvedeva E.V., Hofmeister W. (2021). Sapphire-bearing magmatic rocks trace the boundary between paleo-continents: a case study of Ilmenogorsky alkaline complex, Uralian collision zone of Russia. Gondwana research 2021 (in press).

2.  Sorokina, E.S., Karampelas, S., Nishanbaev, T.P., Nikandrov, S.N., Semiannikov, B.S., (2017). Sapphire Megacrysts in Syenite Pegmatites from the Ilmen Mountains, South Urals, Russia: New Mineralogical Data. Canadian Mineralogist 55, 823–843

How to cite: Sorokina, E., Botcharnikov, R., Kostitsyn, Y., Rösel, D., Häger, T., Rassomakhin, M., Kononkova, N., Somsikova, A., Berndt, J., Lüdwig, T., Medvedeva, E., and Hofmeister, W.: Sapphire-bearing magmatic rocks as indicators of the continental collision tectonic events: a case study of Uralian orogenic belt, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9122,, 2021.

Wenbin Kang and Wei Li

Numerous lenses of garnet amphibolite occur in the garnet-bearing biotite-plagioclase gneiss belt in the Baishan area of the Beishan Orogen, which connects the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Mongolia-Xing’anling Orogen to the east. According to the microstructures, mineral relationships, and geothermobarometry, four stages of mineral assemblages have been identified as follows: (1) a pre-peak stage, which is recorded by the cores of garnet together with core-inclusions of plagioclase (Pl1); (2) a peak stage, which is recorded by the mantles of garnet together with mantle-inclusions of plagioclase (Pl2) + amphibole (Amp1) + Ilmenite (Ilm1) + biotite (Bt1), developed at temperature-pressure (P-T) conditions of 818.9–836.5 °C and 7.3–9.2 kbar; (3) a retrograde stage, which is recorded by garnet rims + plagioclase (Pl3) + amphibole (Amp2) + orthopyroxene (Opx1) + biotite (Bt2) + Ilmenite (Ilm2), developed at P-T conditions of 796.1–836.9 °C and 5.6–7.5 kbar; (4) a symplectitic stage, which is recorded by plagioclase (Pl4) + orthopyroxene (Opx2) + amphibole (Amp3) + biotite (Bt3) symplectites, developed at P-T conditions of 732 ± 59.6 °C and 6.1 ± 0.6 kbar. Moreover, the U-Pb dating of the Beishan garnet amphibolite indicates an age of 301.9 ± 4.7 Ma for the protolith and 281.4 ± 8.5 Ma for the peak metamorphic age. Therefore, the mineral assemblage, P-T conditions, and zircon U-Pb ages of the Beishan garnet amphibolite define a near-isothermal decompression of a clockwise P-T-t (Pressure-Temperature-time) path, indicating the presence of over thickened continental crust in the Huaniushan arc until the Early Permian, then the southern Beishan area underwent a continental crust tectonic thinning process.

How to cite: Kang, W. and Li, W.: Metamorphism and geochronology of garnet amphibolite from the Beishan Orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from P-T path and zircon U-Pb dating, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2,, 2020.

Hifzurrahman, Pritam Nasipuri, Mohd Baqar Raza, and Ab Majeed Ganaie

A part of Palaeoproterozoic granite-gneiss complex, commonly known as Wangtu Gneissic Complex (WGC), exposed in Wangtu-Karcham-Akpa region along the Sutlej valley, northwest lesser Himalaya, India. The core part of this gneissic complex is exposed as the undeformed granitoid body. The basement of WGC is still more or less in its primeval condition. The Paleoproterozoic thermal evolution of the North Indian Continental Margin is uncertain as the Lesser Himalayan granites are viewed either as a subduction-zone volcanic arc or rift-related magmatism during the Columbia assembly or disintegration process. Integrated mineralogical, geochemical analyses, temperature calculations of Ti solubility in biotite and zircon, and computational phase equilibria modelling of the Wangtu Gneissic Complex (WGC), Himachal Himalaya show a peraluminous existence for most WGC rocks that crystallize at a temperature of ~650°C at a pressure of ~1.0-1.1 GPa. The WGC magmatic zircons' U-Pb ages indicate two significant age groups at 1867 Ma and 2487 Ma.

The U-Pb zircon data and model phase equilibria for metasedimentary rock show the generation of S-type peraluminous magma parental to the WGC, by melting pre-existing supracrustal rocks at ~ 1800 Ma, at temperature ~ 850-900 ° C and pressure 1.1-1.2 GPa, identical to P-T conditions found in modern-day subduction zone settings. Also, TDM model ages vary between 3.07 Ga and 2.28 Ga, and f Sm/Nd values (-0.4930 to -0.3510) of the studied samples suggest a contribution of Achaean crust. This study shows that the North Indian Continental Margin was an active subduction zone during the Paleoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent assembly.

How to cite: Hifzurrahman, , Nasipuri, P., Raza, M. B., and Ganaie, A. M.: Evolution of Wangtu Gneissic Complex and its paleogeographic implications in Columbia assembly: insights from geochemistry, geochronology, and computational phase-equilibria study, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14868,, 2021.

Mauricio Calderon, Catalina Zúñiga, Francisco Hervé, Thomas Theye, Gonzalo Galaz, Diego Rojo, and Rodrigo Suárez

The Cordillera de Darwin Metamorphic Complex (CDMC) comprise metamorphosed supracrustal rocks and metaplutonic suites which records a unique tectonic evolution among the metamorphic complexes of the southernmost Andes. The pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions determined in garnet-bearing schists in the Central Domain of the CDMC indicate a clockwise P-T path of metamorphism reaching burial depth as high as 12 kbar at ca. 620°C. This metamorphic event has been related to the closure of a marginal back-arc basin (Rocas Verdes Basin) and collision of an ensialic magmatic arc with the continent in the late Cretaceous. We focus on garnet-biotite schists intercalated within a huge block consisting of repeated sequences of metabasalts and amphibolites (Rocas Verdes Ophiolites), located in the Western Domain of the CDMC, at Seno Martínez. The chemical zonation of small garnet porphyroblasts (diameter of ca. 300 um) record two stages of metamorphism. Garnet is almost almandine in composition with lesser amounts of Ca, Mn and Mg.  The concentric zonation is characterized by relatively lower contents of Fe-Mg and higher contents of Ca-Mn in the core. Garnet bear tiny inclusions of clinozoisite, which is also present as isolated grains in the foliated matrix. Laths of biotite define the main foliation and have a nearly constant composition characterized by XFe of ca. 0.6. Two generations of phengitic white mica are identified on basis of Si content ( varying between 3.20-3.30 (early generation) and of ca. 3.15 (late generation). To reconstruct the P-T conditions of metamorphism through thermodynamic modeling using the Perple_X software package, the bulk rock and mineral composition were considered. Using compositional isopleths of XFe, XMg, XCa and XMn in zoned garnet, Si content in white mica and XFe in biotite allow the constrain two stages of metamorphism (M1 and M2). The P-T conditions of M1, represented by the composition of the garnet core, are restricted to ca. 8 kbar and 400°C. M2 is restricted to ca. 7.5 kbar at 480°C, determined with the composition of the garnet rim, XFe in biotite and Si content in late phengitic white mica. Our preliminary results indicate that ophiolitic rocks and interleaved garnet-bearing schists were tectonically buried and metamorphosed in a relatively hot subduction interface characterized by a geothermal gradient of ca. 16°C/km, prior to the collision of the ensialic magmatic arc. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the Fondecyt grant 1161818.

How to cite: Calderon, M., Zúñiga, C., Hervé, F., Theye, T., Galaz, G., Rojo, D., and Suárez, R.: Barrovian-type metamorphism in the western domain of the Cordillera Darwin Metamorphic Complex, Fuegian Andes, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5612,, 2021.

Ab Majeed Ganaie, Hifzurrahman, Pritam Nasipuri, and Kausik Satpathi

The Pakhal basin occurs as two parallel NW-SE trending sub-basins (Western and Eastern) located at the East-Dharwar Craton (EDC) and the Bastar Craton junction. The metasedimentary rocks exposed at the western side of the basin are known as the Pakhal belt, whereas those exposed on the eastern sides are known as the Albaka belt. The aggregate thickness of the sediments is nearly 6000 meters. Researchers have studied the geochemical affinities of Pakhal and Albaka rock, which proved to be crucial to understand the basin-architecture, source of sediments, and basin evolution in the context of rifting of the Dharwar and the Bastar craton However, the timing of inversion of tectonics and subsequent basin convergence is not studied.

Xenoliths of metasedimentary rocks are exposed within the EDC granites near the Pakhal basin. Aggregates of biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, and quartz constitute these metasedimentary rocks. Monazite, zircon, and iron-oxide are present as accessory minerals. The XMg Biotite (22 Opfu) varies from 0.86-0.10 and Ti content of biotite varies between 0.26-0.34 apfu. The mica is mostly muscovite with mean Si (22 Opfu.) content of 6.28 apfu. The XAb of plagioclase is constrained to be 0.97 apfu. The P-T conditions of metasedimentary xenoliths are constrained by using conventional geothermobarometers and P-T pseudosection analysis. The Ti content in biotite yield peak temperature 6500C for the stabilization of biotite. The P-T pseudosection analysis and subsequent modeling of compositional parameters imply a temperature window of 600-700 0C and pressure 0.6-1.0 GPa for the stability of biotite-muscovite-plagioclase-quartz assemblages. ~ 50 μm monazites grains are dispersed throughout the studied sample. The ThO2 content in the monazite grains varies between 1.7-5.8 wt%. Compositionally, the monazite grains are mostly La-Ce-Nd monazite in a tripartite classification. In a histogram distribution, the U-Th-Pb total spot ages exhibit two prominent peaks, at ~ 1295 Ma and ~ 1111 Ma. When combined with the P-T pseudosection analysis, the monazite ages imply rifting and opening the basin at ~ 1295 Ma. The ~ 1111 Ma monazite growth is correlated with granite emplacement and amalgamation of the Dharwar and the Bastar craton during Neoproterozoic Rodinia assembly.

How to cite: Ganaie, A. M., Hifzurrahman, , Nasipuri, P., and Satpathi, K.: Petrology, phase equilibria and In-situ U-Th-Pbtotal monazite geochronology of metasedimentary rocks from Pranhita-Godavari Basin and its implication in Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Supercontinent Assembly, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14948,, 2021.

Yu Guo

  The Kuruqtag area, located at the northeastern margin of the Tarim Craton, where the Precambrian metamorphic basement exposed, is ideal for studying the Precambrian geological evolution of the Tarim Craton. Previous zircon U-Pb chronology studies revealed that the metamorphic basement recorded a Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal event and suggested it associates with the Paleoproterozoic Nuna/Columbian supercontinent convergence event. However, the extensive range of metamorphic ages obtained from different studies (ranging from 1750-2000 Ma) and the lack of detailed P-T path corresponding to different metamorphic ages make it difficult to constrain the evolutionary framework of the Tarim craton during the Paleoproterozoic, which in turn affects future comparative regional studies.

  To constrain the P-T path, in this study, we performed detailed petrography, mineral chemical, and phase equilibrium modeling of metapelite collected from the khondalite series in the western part of the Kuruqtag (a garnet-sillimanite-cordierite-biotite gneiss with metamorphic age ~1850 Ma) and obtained the following results.

  Through petrographic studies, at least three phases of mineral assemblages can be used to invert the P-T path experienced by the metapelite. They are    M1 (peak metamorphic stage):represented by fine-grained biotite remnant (Bi Ⅰ) + fine-grained plagioclase(Pl Ⅰ) and quartz+ Ilmenite + , occurring as inclusions within the metamorphic garnet, and equilibrated mineral assemblages is: Grt(core) + Bi Ⅰ + Sill + Kfs + Pl Ⅰ + Qz + Ilm. M2 (isothermal depression stage), represented by cordierite occurring in the garnet rim or with spinel in the matrix, inferred equilibrated mineral assemblages is Grt(rim)+Bi Ⅰ +Cd+Kfs+Pl ⅠⅠ+Ilm+Sp.M3 (isothermal depression stage), is marked by the appearance of new growth of biotite(Bi ⅠⅠ) and the conversion of Sill to And. 

The P-T conditions for the mineral assemblage evolution (M1 → M3) are constrained by a P-T pseudosection constructed in the Na2O -CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O- TiO2-O2 chemical system. The resulting P-T path is clockwise from the M1 stage (840°C, 4 Kbar) through the isothermal depression path to M2 (840-850°C,5 Kbar) and then through the near-isobaric cooling path to the M3 stage (650°C, 3.5-4 Kbar).

How to cite: Guo, Y.: Petrography and phase equilibrium modeling of Paleoproterozoic metapelite in the Kuluktag area of Tarim Craton, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11000,, 2021.