GM6.5

EDI
Coastal subsidence: Natural and anthropogenic drivers

Low-lying coastal areas can be an early casualty to the acceleration of sea-level rise, especially where enhanced by land subsidence. An ever increasing number of studies indicates that land subsidence due to natural and anthropogenic causes has induced damage to wetland ecosystems in many countries worldwide, and increased flooding hazard and risk. Coastal subsidence causes include excessive groundwater extraction from aquifers, peat oxidation due to surface water drainage through land reclamation, urbanization and agricultural use, as well as sediment starvation due to construction of dams and artificial levees. Contrary to the global processes behind sea-level rise, natural and anthropogenic coastal subsidence is primarily a local phenomenon, and causes and severity may vary substantially from place to place.

The combination of geological and historical measurements with remote sensing data is required to understand all drivers of coastal vertical land motion and the contributions to past, present, and future subsidence. Understanding coastal subsidence requires multidisciplinary expertise, including measuring and modeling techniques from geology, geodesy, natural hazards, oceanography, hydrogeology, and geomechanics. In this session, we aim to bring together all the involved disciplines. We invite contributions on all aspects of coastal subsidence research and applications, including recent advances on: i) measurement through ground-based, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques, ii) numerical models and future projections, iii) their applicability to distinguish between the different drivers contributing to land subsidence, and iv) quantification of coastal hazards associated with relative sea-level rise. In particular, efforts towards characterizing human intervention on coastal vertical land motion are welcomed.

Co-organized by G3/NH5
Convener: Makan A. KaregarECSECS | Co-conveners: Francesca Cigna, Simon Engelhart, Thomas FrederikseECSECS
vPICO presentations
| Wed, 28 Apr, 14:15–15:00 (CEST)

vPICO presentations: Wed, 28 Apr

Chairpersons: Makan A. Karegar, Francesca Cigna, Thomas Frederikse
14:15–14:17
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EGU21-2944
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ECS
Philip S.J. Minderhoud, Claudia Zoccarato, Riccardo Xotta, and Pietro Teatini

Accurate land subsidence quantifications are of growing importance as relative sea-level rise in unconsolidated coastal environments is increasingly dominated by subsidence. Land subsidence, especially in unconsolidated settings, is the result of a complex interplay and sum of a range of different subsurface processes. As these processes can be spatially and temporally very variable, it requires more than (point and/or land surface) measurements to accurately quantify subsidence, especially when projections of subsidence are required for example to assess future relative sea-level rise. This requires first of all a thorough understanding of subsidence drivers and subsurface processes in a 4D perspective (3D including time) and secondly data interpretation methods and tools to handle the complex coupling of these interrelated processes to enable spatial-temporal quantification and projection of coastal subsidence.

We present a set of novel approaches, with which we aim to move our capacity to accurately capture and simulate the highly dynamic behaviour of subsidence processes. The approaches range from novel field experiments to advanced interpretation of sedimentary information in coastal-deltaic setting to gain important input for numerical modelling, and to newly-developed state-of-the-art 3D numerical simulators. Through these combined methodologies we aim to improve our capacity to assess both natural subsidence processes, like natural compaction, and anthropogenic-induced processes, like aquifer-system compaction following overexploitation in unconsolidated settings. This will ultimately contribute, for example through scenario modelling of anthropogenic drivers, to create reliable future projections of land subsidence which will enable sound projections of relative sea-level rise.

How to cite: Minderhoud, P. S. J., Zoccarato, C., Xotta, R., and Teatini, P.: How to tackle spatial variability and temporal non-linearity in land subsidence in unconsolidated coastal environments?, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2944, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2944, 2021.

14:17–14:19
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EGU21-2889
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Highlight
Marco Anzidei, Giovanni Scicchitano, Giovanni Scardino, Christian Bignami, Cristiano Tolomei, Antonio Vecchio, Enrico Serpelloni, Vincenzo De Santis, Carmelo Monaco, Maurilio Milella, Arcangelo Piscitelli, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, and Luca Pizzimenti

The global sea-level rise (SLR) projections for the next decades are the basis for developing flooding maps that depict the expected hazard scenarios. However, the spatially variable land subsidence has generally not been considered in the current projections. In this study, we use geodetic data from global navigation satellite system (GNSS), synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements (InSAR) and sea-level data from tidal stations to show subsidence rates and SLR along the coast between Catania and Marzamemi, in south-eastern Sicily (southern Italy). This is one of the most active tectonic areas of the Mediterranean basin, which is affected to accelerated SLR, continuous coastal retreat and increasing effects of flooding and storms surges. We focus on six selected areas, which show valuable coastal infrastructures and natural reserves where the expected SLR in the next years could be a potential cause of significant land flooding and morphological changes of the coastal strip. Through a multidisciplinary study, the multi-temporal flooding scenarios until 2100, have been estimated. Results are based on the spatially variable rates of vertical land movements (VLM), the topographic features of the area provided by airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections of SLR in the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. In addition, from the analysis of the time series of optical satellite images, a coastal retreat up to 70 m has been observed at the Ciane river mouth (Siracusa) in the time span 2001-2019. Our results show a diffuse land subsidence locally exceeding 10 ± 2.0 mm/yr-1 in some areas, due to compacting artificial landfill, salt marshes and Holocene soft deposits. Given ongoing land subsidence a high end of RSLR in the RCP8.5 at 0.52± 0.05 m and 1.52±0.13 m is expected for 2050 AD and 2100 AD, respectively, with a projected area of about 9.7 km2 that will be vulnerable to inundation in the next 80 years.

How to cite: Anzidei, M., Scicchitano, G., Scardino, G., Bignami, C., Tolomei, C., Vecchio, A., Serpelloni, E., De Santis, V., Monaco, C., Milella, M., Piscitelli, A., Mastronuzzi, G., and Pizzimenti, L.: Relative sea-level rise scenario for 2100 along the coasts of south eastern Sicily by GNSS and InSAR data, satellite images and high-resolution topography, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2889, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2889, 2021.

14:19–14:21
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EGU21-3671
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ECS
Seo-Woo Park and Sang-Hoon Hong

Land subsidence is often occurred by compaction of alluvial sediments due to groundwater extraction and threatens invaluable lives and properties. Space-based interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observation has been widely used to estimate surface displacement precisely. Especially, Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique with SAR Interferometry (InSAR) could serve to monitor a time-series of the land subsidence. In this study, the SBAS with L-band ALOS PALSAR and C-band Sentinel-1 observations have been applied to investigate the land subsidence in Noksan reclaimed land, Busan, South Korea. The average velocity showing the largest displacement is -3.40 cm/year from ALOS PALSAR and -2.17 cm/year with Sentinel-1 dataset at the line of sight (LOS) direction. An annual subsidence rate of -2.77 cm/year was estimated assuming that the surface has been deformed linearly for the data acquisition period.

How to cite: Park, S.-W. and Hong, S.-H.: Monitoring on land subsidence in reclaimed land with space-based synthetic aperture radar observations., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3671, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3671, 2021.

14:21–14:23
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EGU21-3734
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ECS
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Highlight
Wahyu Luqmanul Hakim, Seul Ki Lee, and Chang-Wook Lee

Floods in Pekalongan, Indonesia often occur due to the overflowing of river water during heavy monsoon rain. While the northern coast area of Pekalongan which located adjacent to the Java sea was affected by coastal floods due to sea-level rise. The flood conditions in every area were exacerbated by land subsidence and lead to coastal inundation. Monitoring land subsidence in Pekalongan becomes important to predict the further possible land subsidence occurrence area and mitigate the possible hazard caused by land subsidence. The analysis of land subsidence is much easier since the existence of radar satellites. This study used Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) datasets from the Sentinel-1 radar satellite between 2017 and 2020 in descending tracks. The data was processed through a time-series Interferometry SAR (InSAR) method based on the Stanford Methods for Persistent Scatterer (StaMPS) algorithm to provide accurate measurements over large areas by improving the selection of coherent pixels and reducing atmosphere noises. The result of persistent scatterer points then spatially clustered using Optimized Hot Spot Analysis (OHSA) to estimate significant points statistically and define them as the hot spot points. The results of time-series vertical deformation in Pekalongan were compared with the GPS station measurements. The comparison showed a good correlation in deformation patterns between time-series InSAR and GPS measurements. Our study revealed that the land subsidence in Pekalongan occurred mostly in settlement areas under the young alluvium soil which did not support the maximum compression from many buildings. Another cause of land subsidence in Pekalongan was the excessive groundwater extraction in the settlement areas could reduce the effective stress of pore pressure and lead to compaction in the aquifer areas. The time-series method that using the StaMPS algorithm and Optimized Hot Spot Analysis in this study can be applied for monitoring land subsidence in another area and from all-terrain.

How to cite: Hakim, W. L., Lee, S. K., and Lee, C.-W.: Mapping Land Subsidence in Pekalongan, Indonesia using Time Series Interferometry and Optimized Hot Spot Analysis with Sentinel-1 SAR Data , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3734, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3734, 2021.

14:23–14:28
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EGU21-12174
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ECS
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solicited
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Highlight
Maryam Yousefi, Glenn Milne, Shaoyang Li, Kelin Wang, Alan Bartholet, Ryan Love, and Lev Tarasov

The Pacific Coast of Central North America is a geodynamically complex region subject to various geophysical processes with different patterns of vertical land motion. It includes two distinct tectonic regimes: the Cascadia subduction zone and the strike-slip San Andreas fault system. The vertical land motion in this region reflects not only tectonic activity of these plate boundaries, but also isostatic signals associated with different loading effects such as the (de)glaciation of North American ice sheets and the more contemporary, anthropogenically-related groundwater extraction and mountain glacier mass loss. These processes occur over a broad range of timescales and are observed by a variety of measuring techniques.

Here we combine geological measurements of relative sea level (RSL) change with contemporary observations of vertical land motion inferred from geodetic data to decipher and thus better understand the contribution from various individual processes. Our results suggest that contemporary vertical land motion is dominated by Cascadia interseismic deformation and the isostatic response to the retreat of the North American ice sheets but is also influenced by other contemporary processes. We present some model results that illustrate the contributions of the above-mentioned processes to RSL projections along this coastline.  

How to cite: Yousefi, M., Milne, G., Li, S., Wang, K., Bartholet, A., Love, R., and Tarasov, L.: Observations of uplift and subsidence along the North American Pacific coast – illuminating the geodynamic complexity of an active margin, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12174, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12174, 2021.

14:28–14:30
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EGU21-6369
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ECS
Kay Koster, Thibault Candela, Joana Esteves Martins, Peter Fokker, Aris Lourens, Willem Dabekaussen, Madelon Molhoek, Merijn De Bakker, Manon Verberne, and Andrei Bocin-Dumitriu

The coastal plains of the Netherlands are subject to anthropogenic and natural subsidence with rates which are an order of magnitude higher than sea-level rise. Because one-third of the Netherlands lies below mean sea level, subsidence may threaten the country’s subsistence with major socio-economic consequences. Subsidence is a normal natural process but is overprinted and accelerated by anthropogenic activities which drives deep or shallow processes. Deep processes are caused by the extraction of hydrocarbons and salt, whereas shallow processes are primarily caused by lowering of phreatic groundwater levels. At present, the relative contribution of each process to total subsidence (i.e. natural plus anthropogenic) is unclear. Such information is important for stakeholders to support decision making on subsidence mitigation and it should be substantiated with independent scientific studies.

We present the outline of a hybrid Artificial Intelligence (AI) big data and model workflow to disentangle different subsidence forcing and we report on preliminary results for an area covering a gas field in the peat-rich Friesland coastal plain. The proposed workflow is a hybrid approach between a knowledge-based physical model and machine-learning techniques. The big input data comprises a suite of static (structural model) and time-dependent subsurface data (phreatic groundwater level, reservoir pressure), and geodetic measurements. Geomechanical models provide the connection between the drivers (groundwater levels and reservoir pressures) and the surface movement.

How to cite: Koster, K., Candela, T., Esteves Martins, J., Fokker, P., Lourens, A., Dabekaussen, W., Molhoek, M., De Bakker, M., Verberne, M., and Bocin-Dumitriu, A.: Unraveling anthropogenic causes of subsidence in the coastal plain of Friesland (NL) , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6369, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6369, 2021.

14:30–14:32
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EGU21-4856
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ECS
Selena Baldan, Philip S.J. Minderhoud, Claudia Zoccarato, and Pietro Teatini

The Vietnamese Mekong River Delta has been formed by the deposition of soft, fine-grained sediments during the last thousands of years. Natural compaction of these unconsolidated deposits over time and with increased overburden load is one of the main drivers of subsidence in this delta. High rates of natural compaction may have a considerable increased flood vulnerability of the lowly elevated delta plain and ultimately result in permanent inundation.

Following the loading history of accumulating sediments during the Holocene delta evolution, it is possible to estimate delta-wide present-day natural compaction rates. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide reliable input data on Holocene sedimentation rate throughout the Mekong Delta for a novel 3D numerical model to simulate delta formation and its dynamic evolution during the late Holocene. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to first take into account previous compaction that already happened to the sediments in the past to estimate the original sedimentation rate of Holocene sediments.

We employed a 1D decompaction module to compute the original, uncompacted thickness of Holocene delta sequences from lithological borelogs to estimate the amount of virgin sediment that has been deposited in time. The original thickness of Holocene sediments was determined after investigating geomechanical properties of Holocene deposits and decompaction of lithological boreholes spread over the delta. To determine the sedimentation rate for the borelogs with missing dating information, the age was estimated by using a linear distance interpolation of age isochrones starting from a limited number of boreholes, where both stratigraphy and sediment ages are available.

As a final step, the estimated sedimentation rates from each of the borelogs are interpolated to arrive at delta-wide sedimentation rates and lithology during the Late Holocene. This provides the required input data for the 3D model to simulate natural consolidation during the delta evolution and accurately assess present natural compaction rates.

How to cite: Baldan, S., Minderhoud, P. S. J., Zoccarato, C., and Teatini, P.: Determining sedimentation rates by accounting for past compaction in the Mekong Delta as input for 3D delta evolution modelling, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4856, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-4856, 2021.

14:32–14:34
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EGU21-3727
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ECS
Kento Akitaya and Masaatsu Aichi

This study tried to visualize the predictive uncertainty while predicting future land subsidence caused by the groundwater pumping. Because land subsidence modeling is highly uncertain, it is impossible to determine the distribution of subsurface physical property values uniquely. Therefore, we prepared various local optimal solutions through the inversion analysis with a genetic algorithm in order to visualize land subsidence prediction uncertainty. The inversion analysis was conducted using the long-term land subsidence monitoring data at Kawajima in the Kanto Plain, Japan. In this study site, the seasonal groundwater level fluctuations have caused plastic compaction in summer and elastic expansion in winter every year. Obtained multiple sets of subsurface properties were within the range of typical values in the existing literature and satisfactorily reproduced the observed subsidence, showing that the inversion analysis worked well. In addition, the groundwater level scenario analysis was conducted using obtained property sets. This revealed that the subsidences predicted for a sudden groundwater level drop and rapid recovery scenario are more volatile than the subsidences predicted for the stable scenario. This means that it is important to have multiple sets of subsurface properties to predict future land subsidence caused by unprecedented groundwater level fluctuations.

How to cite: Akitaya, K. and Aichi, M.: Visualizing uncertainty of one-dimensional land subsidence prediction by preparing various local optimal solutions with a genetic algorithm, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3727, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3727, 2021.

14:34–14:36
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EGU21-7698
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Highlight
Michele Crosetto, Marco Anzidei, Giovanna Forlenza, José Navarro, Petros Patias, Charalampos Georgiadis, Fawzi Doumaz, Maria Lucia Trivigno, Antonio Falciano, Michele Greco, Enrico Serpelloni, Antonio Vecchio, Qi Gao, and Anna Barra

Here we show and discuss the first results arising from the SAVEMEDCOASTS-2 Project (Sea Level Rise Scenarios along the Mediterranean Coasts - 2, funded by the European Commission ECHO), which aims to respond to the need for people and assets prevention from natural disasters in the Mediterranean coastal zones placed at less than 1 m above sea level, which are vulnerable to the combined effect of sea-level rise and land subsidence.

We use geodetic data from global navigation satellite system (GNSS), synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements (InSAR), Lidar and tide gauge data, and the latest IPCC - SROCC projections of sea-level rise released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, to estimate the Relative Sea Level Rise to realize marine flooding scenarios expected for 2100 AD in six targeted areas of the Mediterranean region.

We focus on the Ebro (Spain), Rhone (France), and Nile (Egypt) river deltas; the reclamation area of Basento (Italy), the coastal plain of Thessaloniki (Greece), and the Venice lagoon (Italy). Results, from Copernicus Sentinel-1A (S1A) and Sentinel-1B (S1B) sensors, highlighted the variable spatial rates of land subsidence up to some cm/yr in most of the investigated areas representing a relevant driver of local SLR. All the investigated zones show valuable coastal infrastructures and natural reserves where SLR and land subsidence are exacerbating coastal retreat, land flooding, and storm surges.

The hazard implications for the population living along the shore should push land planners and decision-makers to take into account scenarios similar to that reported in this study for cognizant coastal management.

How to cite: Crosetto, M., Anzidei, M., Forlenza, G., Navarro, J., Patias, P., Georgiadis, C., Doumaz, F., Trivigno, M. L., Falciano, A., Greco, M., Serpelloni, E., Vecchio, A., Gao, Q., and Barra, A.: Land subsidence and sea-level rise for six coastal zones of the Mediterranean region: implications for flooding scenarios for 2100 from the SAVEMEDCOASTS-2 project, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7698, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7698, 2021.

14:36–14:38
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EGU21-10968
Niki Evelpidou, Alexandros Petropoulos, Anna Karkani, and Giannis Saitis

Coastal areas include various landforms, such as dunes, lagoons and wetlands, which constitutes them as areas of particular environmental and geomorphological values. Coastal lagoons and dunes are of great environmental importance, given that, among others, they provide habitat for rare species of flora and fauna, but they also contribute to the protection of the coastal zone from sea level rise, storms, etc. Although these features are unique elements for sustainable development and are of great importance to the natural environment and economy, due to their relatively small size, they are one of the most vulnerable and threatened ecosystems. Such a case is the western coast of Naxos Island, hosting several wetlands bordering with low-lying sand dunes.

Naxos island lies in the center of the Aegean Sea, being part of the Cyclades Island group. The western coasts of Naxos include a number of natural features, which have been inherited from their palaeogeographical evolution over the last 10,000 years. Typically, the western coastal zone is composed of a sandy beach, bordered by low lying sand dunes, lagoons and an alluvial plain. These systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable, due to natural processes such as intensity of waves, but also due to human interventions that have blocked sediment input to the coastal zone and the increasing touristic development. The erosion of the dunes, the intense storms, the sea level rise, extreme events such as storms or tsunamis, and the increased tourist "raid", will lead to marine flooding not only to the beach, but also to the lagoons and many acres of land (rural, residential areas).

The aim of our study is to assess the vulnerability of the western coasts of Naxos to sea level rise, considering both natural and anthropogenic pressures. For this purpose, we used a series of methodologies for the environmental and geomorphological study of the coastal zone and the shallow submarine area, which included: a) photointerpretation of aerial photographs from 1960 until today, b) systematic seasonal aerial monitoring by drone, since 2015, c) mapping of the coastal zone and topographic sections using DGPS and d) dune mapping and sampling, e) sampling of underwater beachrocks. Through our analysis we aim to better elucidate the impact of the relative sea level rise in the study area.

How to cite: Evelpidou, N., Petropoulos, A., Karkani, A., and Saitis, G.: Coastal changes through time is the only constant: Case study of west coast of Naxos Island, Cyclades, Greece, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10968, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10968, 2021.

14:38–14:40
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EGU21-10710
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ECS
Makan A. Karegar, Simon E. Engelhart, Jürgen Kusche, Glenn A. Milne, and Sarah L. Bradley

Karegar et al. (2016, GRL) showed that independent estimates of vertical land motion from geodetic and geologic techniques are critical for understanding coastal surface motion caused by geological versus human-induced processes along the Atlantic coast of North America. Motivated by these results, we extend our analysis to the British Isles where good quality and spatially dense constraints are available from a continuous GNSS network and a state-of-the-art Holocene sea-level database. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) along the Atlantic coast of North America causes the land surface to sink (up to -1.5 mm/yr), exacerbating tidal-induced flooding effects of sea-level rise. The British Isles are also subjected to proglacial forebulge collapse associated with the GIA response to the ancient Fennoscandian and British-Irish Ice Sheets. Here, we present an up-to-date and precise analysis based on continuous GNSS (combined GPS and GlONASS observations) and geologic records of late Holocene sea-level change to examine residuals between rates on these different timescales to determine if there is a significant residual and, if so, the processes responsible for the rate change.

How to cite: A. Karegar, M., E. Engelhart, S., Kusche, J., A. Milne, G., and L. Bradley, S.: Reconciling geodetic and geologic estimates of coastal vertical land motion around the British Isles, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10710, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10710, 2021.

14:40–15:00