EGU22-1067, updated on 27 Mar 2022
EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Cobalt and REE distribution at the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden

Nils Jansson1, Ingeborg Hjorth1, Filip Ivarsson2, Thomas Aiglsperger1, Amir M. Azim Zadeh1, Ellen Kooijman3, Melanie Kielman-Schmitt3, Foteini Drakou4, and Gabriela Kozub-Budzyń5
Nils Jansson et al.
  • 1Luleå University of Technology, Sweden (
  • 2Zinkgruvan Mining AB, 696 81 Zinkgruvan, Sweden
  • 3Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Frescativägen 40, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden
  • 4Department of Geology, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • 5AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protecition, Al. Mickwiewicza 30, Kraków, Poland

The metamorphosed, stratiform, c. 1.9 Ga Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag deposit is one of Europe’s largest producers of Zn. Since 2010, disseminated Cu mineralization is also mined from dolomite marble in a hydrothermal vent-proximal position in the stratigraphic footwall. Local enrichments of Co and REE exist in the vent-proximal mineralization types, albeit their distribution is poorly known. This contribution provides new data on the distribution of Co and REE within the Zinkgruvan deposit.

LA-ICP-MS analysis suggest that lattice-bound cobalt in sphalerite range between 44 ppm and 1372 ppm, with the lowest and highest values occurring in distal and proximal mineralization, respectively. Proximal Co-rich sphalerite is always Fe-rich. Lattice-bound Co also occur in pyrrhotite; ranging from 52 ppm in distal ore to 1608 ppm in proximal ore. There is a concurrent increase in lattice-bound Ni from 3 ppm to 529 ppm. In proximal ore, Co is also hosted by cobalt minerals such as costibite (27.37 wt.% Co), safflorite (16.21 wt.% Co), nickeline (7.54 wt.% Co), cobaltite (32.74 wt.% Co) and cobaltpentlandite (25.49 wt.% Co). Automated quantitative mineralogy suggest that these minerals are highly subordinate to sphalerite (<70.11%) and pyrrhotite (<14.69%), amounting to <2.88% cobalt minerals with safflorite being most common (up to 2.67%). Cobalt deportment calculations suggest that the proportion of whole-rock Co that is lattice-bound to sphalerite and pyrrhotite ranges from 7.80% to 100%, with sphalerite being the main host. Whole-rock As and Ni contents pose a strong control on whether Co occurs lattice-bound or as Co minerals.

LA-ICP-MS analysis show that accessory apatite in proximal, marble-hosted Cu mineralization carries a few thousand ppm ∑REE, but locally up to c. 1.6 wt.% ∑REE. The apatite can be subdivided into two types. Type 1 apatite is characterized by dumbbell-shaped chondrite-normalized REE profiles with relative enrichment of in particular Sm-Tb, depletion of Yb-Lu relative to La-Pr, local positive Gd anomalies, and weak positive to negative Eu anomalies. Type 2 apatite is characterized by flat to negatively sloping REE profiles from La to Gd and relative HREE depletion. Additional REE is hosted by monazite. Type 1 apatite was only found as a gangue to Cu mineralization. The Type 1 apatite REE signature is characteristic of hydrothermal apatite, and a direct genetic association with vent-proximal Cu mineralization can be inferred.

Comparison with published REE contents in apatite suggest that vent-proximal Zinkgruvan apatite is locally as REE-rich as apatite from Kiruna-type apatite iron oxide deposits, and more REE-rich than apatite in other metamorphosed sediment-hosted sulphide deposits in the world, such as the Gamsberg deposit (RSA).

How to cite: Jansson, N., Hjorth, I., Ivarsson, F., Aiglsperger, T., M. Azim Zadeh, A., Kooijman, E., Kielman-Schmitt, M., Drakou, F., and Kozub-Budzyń, G.: Cobalt and REE distribution at the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1067,, 2022.