EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The VARION approach to volcanoes: case study on 2021 Etna eruptions

Michela Ravanelli1,2, Federico Ferrara3, Federica Fuso5, Andrea Cannata3,4, Mattia Crespi1, and Giovanni Occhipinti2
Michela Ravanelli et al.
  • 1Geodesy and Geomatics Division, DICEA, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • 2Université de Paris, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France
  • 3University of Catania, Dipartimento Di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche E Ambientali, Catania, Italy
  • 4Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, Catania, Italy
  • 5Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering Antonio Ruberti (DIAG) Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

The 2022 Tonga event highlight the necessity to have more and more knowledge about the activity
of volcanoes. To this point, it is well known that volcanoes explosion can trigger ionospheric
perturbation detectable through the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal [1].

The VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation) algorithm has been
successfully applied to detection of ionospheric perturbations in several real-time scenarios [2, 3].
VARION, thus, estimates sTEC (slant total electron content) variations starting from the single time
differences of geometry-free combinations of GNSS carrier-phase measurements.

The aim of this work is to analyse some Etna explosions occurred in 2021 with the VARION algorithm
in order to better study the coupling between volcanoes and ionosphere. This study can pave the
way to a real-time ionospheric monitoring of Etna volcano.

[1] Manta, Fabio, et al. "Correlation between GNSS‐TEC and eruption magnitude supports the use
of ionospheric sensing to complement volcanic hazard assessment." Journal of Geophysical
Research: Solid Earth 126.2 (2021): e2020JB020726.

[2] Ravanelli, Michela, et al. "GNSS total variometric approach: first demonstration of a tool for
real-time tsunami genesis estimation." Scientific Reports 11.1 (2021): 1-12.

[3] Savastano, Giorgio, et al. "Advantages of geostationary satellites for ionospheric anomaly
studies: Ionospheric plasma depletion following a rocket launch." Remote Sensing 11.14 (2019):

How to cite: Ravanelli, M., Ferrara, F., Fuso, F., Cannata, A., Crespi, M., and Occhipinti, G.: The VARION approach to volcanoes: case study on 2021 Etna eruptions, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13439,, 2022.


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