EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Mineralogy, structure and tectonic significance of quartz veins from the northern Saih Hatat Dome (eastern Oman Mountains)

Andreas Scharf1, Frank Mattern1, Bernhard Pracejus1, Ivan Callegari2, Robert Bolhar3, Sobhi Nasir1, Saja Al-Wahaibi1,2, Laila Al-Battashi1, Marwa Al-Hadhrami1, Thuraiya Al-Harthi1, and Safiya Al-Suqri
Andreas Scharf et al.
  • 1Department of Earth Sciences, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman
  • 2Department of Applied Geosciences, German University of Technology GUtech, P.O. Box: 1816, PC 130, Halban, Sultanate of Oman
  • 3School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Braamfontein, 2001 South Africa

The rocks of the Saih Hatat Dome (SHD) formed during and after two major geological events shaping Arabia: 1) Subduction of continental rocks in the course of the Late Cretaceous Semail Ophiolite obduction onto the Arabian Plate and 2) Exhumation of >16 km and high deformation/folding in the northeastern part of the SHD. The latter resulted in a ~20 km wide recumbent fold (Saih Hatat Fold Nappe). The sub-horizontal fold axis of this fold trends NNE in the northern SHD. The core of the SHD and the recumbent fold consist of dark Neoproterozoic meta-shales and meta-sandstones, while its margin (and upper/lower limbs of the recumbent fold) consist of Permian cliff-forming carbonates.

Within the northern SHD, numerous milky quartz veins occur. We structurally and mineralogical analyzed >500 of these veins, covering an area of ~200 km2. The veins vary in width from one centimeter to a few meters, while the length ranges between several decimeters to several decameters. Associated with the predominant milky quartz, are calcite, siderite, chlorite, albite, anorthite, actinolite, rutile, hematite, goethite, and pyrrhotite. Rare molybdenite aggregates seem to replace carbonate, in which it occurs exclusively. Quartz microstructures include bulging (BLG) recrystallization, sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization, and undulose extinction. Sub-grains and triple junctions in quartz are common. The mineralogy and quartz microstructures indicate maximum peak temperature conditions of ~400-500°C.

At least two sets of veins can be distinguished. Both vein sets occur mostly in clusters and partly form vein swarms. The mineralogy and quartz microstructure of both vein sets is similar. The older set 1 has been folded by the Saih Hatat Fold Nappe. Thus, vein formation predates 76-70 Ma. Furthermore, veins of set 1 are often sub-parallelly oriented to the main foliation of the host rocks, and they may be boudinaged. They may form complicated vein structures. We assume that this vein set initially formed during the Permian Pangean/Tethys rifting. The second vein set is abundant, sub-vertically and strikes consistently E/W to ESE/WNW. These veins cut the overall moderately NW-dipping bedding surfaces of the ambient rocks. Set 2 veins either formed during exhumation of the dome (Late Cretaceous to early Eocene and late Eocene to Oligocene) or they are part of the NW-striking sinistral Hajar Shear Zone, which affected the entire eastern Oman Mountains during the Oligocene to early Miocene. Ongoing U-Pb dating of carbonates and further field survey will further contribute to the understanding of their age and tectonic setting.

How to cite: Scharf, A., Mattern, F., Pracejus, B., Callegari, I., Bolhar, R., Nasir, S., Al-Wahaibi, S., Al-Battashi, L., Al-Hadhrami, M., Al-Harthi, T., and Al-Suqri, S.: Mineralogy, structure and tectonic significance of quartz veins from the northern Saih Hatat Dome (eastern Oman Mountains), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13597,, 2022.


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