EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

GPSFLOW: A Novel Simulator for Modelling Underground Hydrogen, CO2 and Gas Mixture Storage

Zuansi Cai1, Keni Zhang2, and Chaobin Guo3
Zuansi Cai et al.
  • 1Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom of Great Britain – England, Scotland, Wales (
  • 2Jinan University, China
  • 3Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

Underground hydrogen storage can store grid-scale energy for balancing both short-term and long-term inter-seasonal supply and demand. However, there is no numerical simulator which is dedicated to the design and optimisation of such energy storage technology at grid scale. This study develops novel simulation capabilities for GPSFLOW (General Purpose Subsurface Flow Simulator) for modelling grid-scale hydrogen and gas mixture (e.g., H2-CO2-CH4-N2) storage in cavern, deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields.

The accuracy of GPSFLOW is verified by comparisons against the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) online thermophysical database and reported lab experiments, over a range of temperatures from 20-200 oC and pressure up to 1000 bar. The simulator is benchmarked against an existing model for modelling pure H2 storage in a synthetic aquifer. Several underground hydrogen storage scenarios including H2 storage in a synthetic salt cavern, H2 injection into a CH4-saturated aquifer experiment, and hydrogen storage in a depleted gas field using CO2 as a cushion gas are used to test the GPSFLOW’s modelling capability. The results show that GPSFLOW offers a robust numerical tool to model underground hydrogen storage and gas mixture at grid scale on multiple parallel computing platforms.

How to cite: Cai, Z., Zhang, K., and Guo, C.: GPSFLOW: A Novel Simulator for Modelling Underground Hydrogen, CO2 and Gas Mixture Storage, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3064,, 2022.