EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Future Changes in Tropical Cyclone and Easterly Wave Characteristics over Tropical North America

Christian Dominguez
Christian Dominguez
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Change, Atmospheric Sciences, Mexico City, Mexico (

Tropical Cyclones (TCs) and Easterly Waves (EWs) are the most important phenomena in Tropical North America. Hydrometeorological hazards produced 45.5% of all disasters over Mexico during the 1900–2018 period. On average, TCs represent 86.5% of the annual cost of disasters in Mexico, and the main TC hazard is the extreme rainfall they produced. Thus, examining their future changes is crucial for adaptation and mitigation strategies. The Community Earth System Model drove a three-member regional model multi-physics ensemble under the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 emission scenario for creating four future scenarios (2020–2030, 2030–2040, 2050–2060, 2080–2090). These future climate runs were analyzed to determine changes in EW and TC features: rainfall, track density, contribution to seasonal rainfall, and tropical cyclogenesis. Our study reveals that a mean increase of at least 40% in the mean annual TC precipitation is projected over northern Mexico and southwestern USA. Slight positive changes in EW track density are projected southwards 10° N over the North Atlantic Ocean for the 2050–2060 and 2080–2090 periods. Over the Eastern Pacific Ocean, a mean increment in the EW activity is projected westwards across the future decades. Furthermore, a mean reduction by up to 60% of EW rainfall, mainly over the Caribbean region, Gulf of Mexico, and central-southern Mexico, is projected for the future decades. Tropical cyclogenesis over both basins slightly changes in future scenarios (not significant). We concluded that these variations could have significant impacts on regional precipitation. Thus, Mexico should be prepared to face more TC extreme rainfall events. Suggestions for how Mexico can meet the objectives of international risk agendas are discussed.

How to cite: Dominguez, C.: Future Changes in Tropical Cyclone and Easterly Wave Characteristics over Tropical North America, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-851,, 2022.


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