EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Swarm in-situ electron density disturbances over Greenland compared to VTEC disturbances from ground-based GNSS, during three geomagnetic storms

Wojciech Jarmolowski, Enric Monte-Moreno, Paweł Wielgosz, Jacek Paziewski, Manuel Hernandez-Pajares, Wojciech Miloch, Yaqi Jin, Jens Berdermann, Mainul Hoque, Per Høeg, Alberto Garcıa Rigo, Beata Milanowska, Lasse Clausen, Heng Yang, Haixia Lyu, and Raul Orús-Pérez
Wojciech Jarmolowski et al.
  • University of Warmia and Mazury, Institute of Geodesy and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Geoegineering, Olsztyn, Poland (

The objective of the work is to compare geomagnetic storm impact on the ionosphere parameters measured from ground-based GNSS permanent stations and Swarm satellites. The analyses compare the changes of vertical total electron content (VTEC) measured along the entire ionosphere cross-section to the variations of electron density (ED) on the orbit, at ~500 km altitude. The objective is how sensitive are the measures of electric field variations available on the Earth, with respect to those obtained from the satellite orbit. The study applies Swarm in-situ ED measured by Langmuir Probes (LP), topside TEC from onboard Swarm GNSS receivers and vertical TEC determined from ground-based GNSS stations available in the area of the Northern polar cap. Ground and satellite data were processed in different ways. Ground-based VTEC is available at number of stations providing heterogeneous but useful horizontal coverage. Therefore ROTI values were calculated from VTEC as gradient values capable to indicate the disturbances. These ROTI values were interpolated spatially to obtain maps. Swarm passes over the polar cap starting from 45° lasts for several minutes each, and repeat in this region approximately every 1.5 h. Such along-track collected small data samples are useless in horizontal correlation analysis. Therefore Swarm data disturbances, in this case, are extracted with the use of Fourier transform-based filtering and are also analyzed in the spectrograms based on short-term Fourier transform (STFT). The case study has used three geomagnetic storms, namely: the St. Patrick storm of March 17, 2015, the storm on June 22, 2015, and the storm on August 25-26, 2018. The results reveal differences in storm impact on VTEC measured by GNSS on the Earth, with respect to the storm influence on topside TEC and in-situ ED disturbances measured onboard the Swarm. The overall summary statistics provide some preliminary conclusions on different times of the reaction to the storm. Additionally, some interesting differences between FT filtering and a very popular moving average are shown, with respect to Swarm data. The research was done in the frame of the FORSWAR project (Forecasting Space Weather in the Arctic Region) funded by ESA.

How to cite: Jarmolowski, W., Monte-Moreno, E., Wielgosz, P., Paziewski, J., Hernandez-Pajares, M., Miloch, W., Jin, Y., Berdermann, J., Hoque, M., Høeg, P., Garcıa Rigo, A., Milanowska, B., Clausen, L., Yang, H., Lyu, H., and Orús-Pérez, R.: Swarm in-situ electron density disturbances over Greenland compared to VTEC disturbances from ground-based GNSS, during three geomagnetic storms, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8785,, 2022.


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