EGU General Assembly 2022
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the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Validation of DGFI-TUM’s new ionosphere model: case studies for year 2018

Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk1, Beata Milanowska1, Michael Schmidt2, Andreas Goss2, Eren Erdogan2, Wojciech Jarmołowski1, and Paweł Wielgosz1
Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk et al.
  • 1University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM), Poland (
  • 2Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Munich, Germany

In the last decades, advances in satellite technologies, data analysis techniques, and models, and a growing number of analysis centers allow modeling the ionospheric electron content with unprecedented accuracy. International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Associated Analysis Centers (IAAC) continuously provide global ionospheric maps (GIMs) based on processing GNSS data from the ground IGS network. It is a great advantage that these GIMs are often based on very different modeling techniques and thus, are also characterized by different accuracy levels. Due to the dynamic nature of the ionosphere, there is a permanent need to improve the modeling techniques of ionospheric key parameters such as the vertical total electron content (vTEC).

In this presentation, we evaluate a new ionosphere model from DGFI-TUM denoted OTHG, which is a candidate for a new IGS IAAC product. The OTHG model is based on tensor products of trigonometric B-spline functions in longitude and polynomial B-spline functions in latitude for a global representation (Goss et al. 2019). Here, we complement our earlier investigations of the seven analysis center models (Wielgosz et al. 2021) with new results for the OTHG GIMs. For these investigations, we use our own validation methodology presented in Krypiak-Gregorczyk et al. (2017), which is based on GIM-derived slant TEC (sTEC) comparison with carrier phase geometry-free combination of GNSS signals. In the presented study, we use one year of GNSS data collected by 25 globally distributed stations. The overall yearly RMS value is calculated for each product based on all 365 days of continuous observations from all stations. The results show that the overall RMS of the tested GIMs ranges from 0.93 TECU to 1.29 TECU. The OTHG GIMs performed as one of the best. In addition, GIM vTEC comparisons to Jason-2 and Jason - 3 altimetry data are studied. In these analyses, the OTHG GIMs also showed a good performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that  DGFI-TUM is a valuable ionospheric product for the research community.


Goss A., Schmidt M., Erdogan E., Görres B., Seitz F. (2019) High-resolution vertical total electron content maps based on multi-scale B-spline representations. Annales Geophysicae, 37(4), 10.5194/angeo-37-699-2019

Krypiak-Gregorczyk A., Wielgosz P., Borkowski A. (2017) Ionosphere Model for European Region Based on Multi-GNSS Data and TPS Interpolation, Remote Sensing, 9(12), 1221,  DOI:10.3390/rs9121221

Wielgosz P., Milanowska B., Krypiak-Gregorczyk A., Jarmołowski W. (2021) Validation of GNSS‑derived global ionosphere maps for different solar activity levels: case studies for years 2014 and 2018. GPS Solutions 25, 103.

How to cite: Krypiak-Gregorczyk, A., Milanowska, B., Schmidt, M., Goss, A., Erdogan, E., Jarmołowski, W., and Wielgosz, P.: Validation of DGFI-TUM’s new ionosphere model: case studies for year 2018, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8931,, 2022.


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