EGU22-9573, updated on 28 Mar 2022
EGU General Assembly 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Impact of Legislation and Social Acceptance on Wind Potentials in Germany

Stanley Risch1, Noah Pflugradt1, Leander Kotzur1, and Detlef Stolten1,2
Stanley Risch et al.
  • 1Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Techno-economic Systems Analysis (IEK-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
  • 2Chair of fuel cells, RWTH Aachen University, c/o Institute of Techno-economic Systems Analysis (IEK-3) , Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany

In the climate protection act of 2021 Germany has set the goal to become climate neutral by 2045 [1]. To meet this target, the renewable energy sites in Germany must be significantly expanded. At the same time, the acceptance of wind turbines is heavily discussed. For example, the construction of wind turbines inside forests or distances to residential buildings are topics in societal discussions. Furthermore, the different legislation in the individual federal states lead to unequal wind expansion possibilities.

This paper assesses the impact of legislation on the onshore wind energy potential in Germany considering residential buildings for the first time. To this end, different scenarios for high resolution land eligibility analyses are developed with the open-source tool GLAES [2] using a 10 m*10 m resolution and high accuracy GIS-data. Firstly, the impact of different exclusion zones in the analysis is evaluated. The distance to residential land use and the use of forests and protected landscapes are especially influential for the results. Secondly, we investigate the impact of different legislation in the individual German federal states. A comparison to national energy system studies shows that a nationwide application of for example Bavaria’s legislation leads to insufficient wind capacity potentials to reach climate neutrality by 2045. Thirdly, we evaluate the distribution of the wind potential when the current federal states’ legislation is applied which uncovers large inequalities.


[1]    Bundes-Klimaschutzgesetz (KSG). 2021. Accessed: Jan. 05, 2021. [Online]. Available:
[2]    D. Ryberg, M. Robinius, and D. Stolten, ‘Evaluating Land Eligibility Constraints of Renewable Energy Sources in Europe’, Energies, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 1246, May 2018, doi: 10.3390/en11051246.


How to cite: Risch, S., Pflugradt, N., Kotzur, L., and Stolten, D.: Impact of Legislation and Social Acceptance on Wind Potentials in Germany, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9573,, 2022.


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