TS10.2

TS10 EDI
Tectono-thermal evolution of fossil and active sedimentary basins 

Birth, evolution, and demise of sedimentary basins result from the interplay of several factors such as the geodynamic/tectonic regime, stress field, thickness and thermal state of the lithosphere, rheological properties of both basement and sedimentary fill, and faults architecture. Integrated studies, including the analyses of structural setting and thermal maturity of stratigraphic successions, have shown to be successful in unravelling the tectonic evolution of active basins as well as fossil ones that have been later incorporated into orogenic belts.
In this session, we welcome contributions from researchers in all fields of geosciences, applying different analytical methods to the study of worldwide active and fossil sedimentary basins. These methods can include, but are not limited to, structural analyses (both on outcropping and subsurface rocks), thermal maturity assessments, fault dating, geochronological and thermochronological dating, and isotopic analyses on carbonates. Multidisciplinary approaches are greatly welcomed. The aim is to foster discussion on which are the best procedures to better understand the geological processes that drive the tectonic and thermal history of sedimentary basins and their surrounding regions.

Co-organized by SSP1
Convener: Thomas GusmeoECSECS | Co-conveners: Achraf AtouabatECSECS, Andrea Schito, Amanda VergaraECSECS, Chiara AmadoriECSECS
Presentations
| Fri, 27 May, 08:30–09:43 (CEST)
 
Room K2

Presentations: Fri, 27 May | Room K2

Chairpersons: Thomas Gusmeo, Andrea Schito, Amanda Vergara
08:30–08:40
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EGU22-7383
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solicited
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Virtual presentation
Paolo Ballato, Daniel F. Stockli, Jamshid Hassanzadeh, Lisa D. Stockli, and Manfred R. Strecker

Flexural foreland basins represent first-order geological archives that preserve the record of orogenic processes. These detrital archives provide critical insights into tectonic, climatic and environmental evolution as well as variations in source lithologies, isostasy, eustasy and dynamic lithospheric processes. In this study, we combine published geological data (e.g., facies analysis, magnetostratigraphy, sediment provenance, and carbon and oxygen isotopic records from authigenic minerals) with new zircon U-Pb geochronologic and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data from the southern foreland basin of the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. This orogen, resulting from the Neogene Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, experienced topographic growth and exhumation since ~20 Ma and foreland deposition of a thick pile (> 7 km) of continental red beds.

The foreland-basin fill consists of three major systematic coarsening-upward cycles that each exhibits fine-grained siliciclastic strata at the base with high sediment accumulation rates and younger detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He ages (mostly Eocene), followed by coarse-grained sedimentary strata with decreased sediment accumulation rates and older detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He ages (> 100 Ma).

The base of each cycle is interpreted as a pulse of enhanced subsidence driven by tectonic loading associated with the growth of new thrust sheets experiencing erosional unroofing. The top of each cycle is interpreted to reflect wanning tectonic subsidence in response to local intra-basinal uplift (cycle 1) as documented by the sedimentary stratal pattern; uplift of the proximal foreland (cycle 3) as suggested by the age distribution of the detrital zircon U-Pb ages, the shift from fluvial to alluvial fan deposits and recycled apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the deepest exhumed red beds. Within these systematic trends, the top of cycle 2 represents an exception as it appears to record an enhanced phase of sediment supply triggered by wetter climatic conditions as documented by oxygen isotope data from paleosols samples.

Overall, our multidisciplinary approach provides a comprehensive overview of the history of a collisional foreland basin, from the forcing mechanisms controlling its stratigraphic architecture and sedimentary composition to its final incorporation into the orogenic wedge associated with basin uplift and erosion.

How to cite: Ballato, P., Stockli, D. F., Hassanzadeh, J., Stockli, L. D., and Strecker, M. R.: The life cycle of a foreland basin: Insights from the Alborz Mountains (Arabia-Eurasia collision zone), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7383, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7383, 2022.

08:40–08:47
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EGU22-61
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Jennifer Spalding, David Schneider, and Jeremy Powell

Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology can resolve thermal histories over a temperature window that spans 50–150°C. Herein, we present a case study from the Peel Plateau, a foreland basin of the Mackenzie Mountains, northern Canadian Cordillera, where we compare three interpretations from a single AFT sample: 1) the central age, and thermal history modelling of 2) a mono-kinetic population and 3) a multi-kinetic population. The AFT sample is derived from a lithic wacke with an Albian depositional age and yields an AFT central age of 67 ± 9 Ma (n: 39). Despite central ages often being interpreted to reflect a sample’s 'cooling age,' laboratory experiments have demonstrated that fission tracks anneal over a wide temperature range, corresponding to the partial annealing zone (PAZ). AFT ages from samples that have undergone multiple burial and exhumation events likely represent partial annealing due to their protracted residence in the PAZ and require thermal history modelling to derive a meaningful geologic interpretation. It is unlikely the Peel Plateau experienced a simple thermal history with rapid cooling through the PAZ, as a regional unconformity separates the Albian and Cenomanian strata across much of the region. Thus, the central age does not necessarily reflect a meaningful thermal event. Thermal modelling the data as a mono-kinetic population predict peak burial temperatures of 118–166°C at 65–92 Ma, however, the sample fails the χ2, indicating it does not comprise a single statistical age population. Intra-sample age dispersion is often indicative of samples that comprise multi-kinetic population and grain specific chemistry is known to strongly influence apatite’s annealing kinetics. Most notably apatite with high F content will undergo thermal annealing at lower temperatures than apatite with high Cl content, although numerous other elements (e.g. OH, Mn, Fe) are known to effect annealing kinetics. The rmro parameter was developed through laboratory annealing experiments, and accounts for compositional controls on apatite’s kinetic behaviour. Apatite grain chemistry was measured via EMPA methods to calculate rmro values and used to separate AFT samples into two kinetic populations (resulting in pooled ages of 36 ± 5 Ma and 103 ± 12 Ma) that both pass the χ2 test. Pooled ages incorporate information of the grains’ pre-depositional history and U-Pb dating can serve as an additional tool to decipher between different kinetic populations. These populations then act as independent thermochronometers capable of resolving different temperature windows. Compared to thermal history model results from mono-kinetic data, the multi-kinetic model predicts significantly lower burial temperatures of 83–93°C, which may have occurred over a longer duration (33–88 Ma). The central age for this sample overlaps with the timing of peak burial predicted by the multi-kinetic model, therefore does not inform us about the cooling history. Ultimately, the purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of assessing multi-kinetic behaviour in sedimentary samples, as these interpretations provide statistically significant age populations and robust thermal history models. Thermal history models that ignore multi-kinetic behaviour may lead to erroneous geologic interpretations.

How to cite: Spalding, J., Schneider, D., and Powell, J.: Central ages, mono-kinetic, or multi-kinetic? Assessing detrital AFT thermochronology in a Cretaceous foreland basin, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-61, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-61, 2022.

08:47–08:54
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EGU22-10007
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Lise Nakken, Domenico Chiarella, and Christopher A-L. Jackson

The Froan Basin, located on the proximal platform area on the Mid-Norwegian Continental Shelf, contains petroleum-bearing Upper Jurassic syn-rift deposits. Additional isolated Upper Jurassic shallow marine sand bodies have been identified on the Frøya High, but the platform area remains poorly understood in terms of its Late Jurassic tectono-stratigraphic evolution. Improving our understanding, and in particular how fault activity and rift-shoulder uplift influenced rift physiography and the presence of shallow marine reservoirs, is crucial when assessing hydrocarbon prospectivity. In this study, we present a model for the Late Jurassic rift development of the Froan Basin and Frøya High based on seismic interpretation, well data, and reverse subsidence modelling. We show that during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, major footwall uplift and exposed the western margin of the Froan Basin and Frøya High formed an intra-rift footwall island. Shallow marine areas to the east, immediately adjacent to the footwall island, accumulated shoreface sediments supplied from the eroded footwall. We therefore suggest that the extent of the Late Jurassic shallow marine system was controlled by the magnitude of footwall uplift and geomorphology of the western margin of the platform area.

How to cite: Nakken, L., Chiarella, D., and Jackson, C. A.-L.: Development of a Late Jurassic shallow marine system controlled by footwall uplift in the Froan Basin and Frøya High, offshore Mid-Norway, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10007, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10007, 2022.

08:54–09:01
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EGU22-7870
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ECS
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Presentation form not yet defined
Understanding the thermal history of the North Aquitaine platform: implications on vertical motion and karstification
(withdrawn)
Alexandre Ortiz, Eglantine Husson, Jocelyn Barbarand, Eric Lasseur, and Justine Briais
09:01–09:08
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EGU22-3510
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On-site presentation
Naïm Célini, Frederic Mouthereau, Abdeltif Lahfid, Claude Gout, and Jean-Paul Callot

Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) approach is commonly used to calculate thermal peaks recorded by rocks. A first calibration of the RSCM was developed to measure temperatures ranging from 330°C to 640°C (Beyssac et al., 2002). Its applicability was later expanded to lower temperatures from 200°C to 350°C (Lahfid et al., 2010). Here, we apply the RSCM approach to Digne Nappe area - thrust front of the SW Alps - in order to evaluate the thermal evolution of the sub-Alpine domain from rift to the present. About 150 temperatures have been obtained along seven continuous stratigraphic sections sampled along the strike the whole Digne thrust sheet. The base of the Digne thrust sheet (i.e. the Lias syn-rift carbonates) shows temperatures ranging from 250°C to 330°C. These temperatures are 200-240°C in post-rift marls dated to Callovian-Oxfordian and rapidly drop upsection in the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian carbonates and younger Cretaceous rocks to temperatures below 100-120°C. While these temperatures are seen to decrease from bottom to top we note the lack of well-defined apparent geothermal gradients. One of our section (Serre-Ponçon) structurally positioned beneath the Embrunais-Ubaye thrust sheets is remarkable because the temperatures are rather homogeneous, ranging between 300°C and 350°C along the whole 5km-thick sedimentary pile from the Lias until the Eocene. The regional dataset suggests that the thermal history of the sub-Alpine fold-and-thrust belts varies along-strike and requires the succession of several thermal events. The drop of temperatures observed in the Late Jurassic sediments is interpreted to be related to increasing heat flow during crustal thinning associated to the formation of the Alpine Tethys rifted margin.  The high temperatures observed along the Serre-Ponçon specifically indicate a burial beneath the Embrunais-Ubaye thrust sheets during Alpine orogeny, possibly combined with high geothermal gradients inherited from the Mesozoic Alpine Tethys thinning phase.

How to cite: Célini, N., Mouthereau, F., Lahfid, A., Gout, C., and Callot, J.-P.: Tectono-thermal evolution of the External Western Alps (France): evidence for rift-related thermal event, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3510, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3510, 2022.

09:08–09:15
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EGU22-11175
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Virtual presentation
Achraf Atouabat, Sveva corrado, Dominique Frizon de Lamotte, Remi Leprêtre, Geoffroy Mohn, and Andrea Schito

Located in Northern Morocco, the Rif fold and-thrust belt is mainly made by the remnant of the north African paleo-passive margin and its sedimentary infill. We present in this contribution new field observations combined with paleo-thermal analysis to investigate the formation of the Rif orogenic wedge. Three structural domains are recognized from north to south, namely, the Alboran domain assigned to a meso-Mediterranean continental terrane, the Maghrebian flysch domain that corresponds to the sedimentary cover of the Maghrebian Tethys and the External domain (namely Intrarif, Mesorif and Prerif) that belongs to the former north African margin. The Rif fold and-thrust belt suffered an important Cenozoic Alpine compressional deformation starting from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, as a consequence of the closure of the Maghrebian Tethys and the westward translation and docking of the Alboran Domain onto the African margin.

To define the evolution and geometry of thrust sheet stacking and their burial-exhumation paths, a NE-SW regional transect crossing the Maghrebian flysch and the External domains is presented and discussed. A set of 32 samples have been collected for paleo-thermal analysis. The methodological approach consists in combining petrography and Raman micro-spectroscopy on dispersed organic matter, X-ray diffraction of clay minerals and 1D thermal modelling with viable cross section reconstruction and field structural survey.

The highest thermal maturity values along the section (1.00 and 1.15 Ro%) are concentrated in the Cretaceous Intrarif sub-domain (Loukkos and Tangier Intrarifain sub-units) that are structurally squeezed between the Maghrebian flysch domain and the Mesorifain sub-domain. The relationship between organic and inorganic paleo-thermal indicators plotted on Hillier diagram show a thermal signature for the Intrarifain sub-domain typical of continental rift thermal regime. The thermal evolution of the Tangier sub-unit, tectonically overlain by the Numidian-like sandstones has been modelled. The model shows a thermal jump between the two juxtaposed rock units indicating an allochthonous origin of the Numidian-like sandstones, probably detached from the Maghrebian Flysch domain. In the Mesorif sub-domain, data plots on Hillier diagram indicate a continental rift heating regime except for the Lower Miocene Zoumi siliciclastics at the top of it, cropping out between Intrarif and Mesorif sub-domains that falls in a very cold thermal regime, typical of synorogenic basins. The structural relationships between the Cenozoic Zoumi basin and its substratum (Upper Jurassic-Lower Eocene) shows an unconformity where the Paleocene-Eocene is missing, probably indicating a pre-Oligocene compressive phase.

These evidences constrain the geological timing of the Rif belt structuration. According to new models, the whole external Rif deformed between the Early Langhian and Late Tortonian with the front of the chain placed at the boundary between Intrarif and Mesorif, where the Zoumi basin developed during the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times.

How to cite: Atouabat, A., corrado, S., Frizon de Lamotte, D., Leprêtre, R., Mohn, G., and Schito, A.: Alpine tectono-thermal evolution of the North African passive paleo-margin incorporated in the Western Rif belt (Northern Morocco), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11175, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11175, 2022.

09:15–09:22
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EGU22-6545
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Jamaluddin Jamaluddin, Michael Wagreich, and Mostafa Mohamed Sayed

Temperature is the most important parameter in hydrocarbon generation. Well LKB was drilled to test a section in the Sanga Sanga area of the Neogene Kutei Basin in East Kalimantan. The Sanga Sanga Block contains four large to giant hydrocarbon fields in mid- to upper Miocene deltaic sandstones of the Mahakam Delta, Eastern Kalimantan (Indonesia). Well LKB was drilled to a total depth of 2286 m within a Miocene deltaic sequence. Following the measurement of vitrinite reflectance, the samples are scanned in fluorescence and white light modes to obtain sample descriptions. The mean maximum vitrinite reflectance data provide a basis for inferring some aspects of the thermal history of the sedimentary sequence in well LKB. The well intersected with a small portion of the oil mature level. The conventionally defined principal zone of oil generation (oil window) probably lies in the section from about 1066 to 3962 m. The measured maximum formation temperature at 2286 m is 93,9 °C. Assuming a surface temperature of 26 °C, the bottom hole temperature (BHT) corresponds to a geothermal gradient of 34,55 °C/km. Temperature measurements at intermediate levels give a range of geothermal gradients. The highest temperature gradient results from a single mesurement at depth of about 225 m which would indicate a geothermal gradient of 158,1 °C/km. This value is more than three times higher than the gradients obtained from any other measurements downsection. The causes of this extremely high thermal gradient is unknown. Although the presence of faults, overpressured zones, and flux of hot formation water that expelled from deeper parts of the section are possible mechanism, such an extreme geothermal gradient may also be a product of measurement errors that may be related to older reworking and hence it would be more matured. The average geothermal gradient calculated from the other five measurements is more normal by 38,5 °C/km.  Modelling the measured levels of maturation using the logging run temperatures gives maturity levels different from those observed. A compromise model that approximately simulates the observed maturity levels can be obtained by assuming a cover loss of about 914 m of sediments since Pliocene, and geothermal gradients respectively of 38 °C/km and 30 °C/km for pre- and post- Pliocene times, respectively.

How to cite: Jamaluddin, J., Wagreich, M., and Mohamed Sayed, M.: Thermal History of Miocene – Pliocene strata in the Well LKB, Kutei Basin, Indonesia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6545, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6545, 2022.

09:22–09:29
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EGU22-8433
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Mark Wildman, Cristina Persano, Eamon McKenna, Andrew Hattie, and Alison Monaghan

The Midland Valley Basin of Scotland (MVS) is a major NE-SW trending, fault-bounded sedimentary basin in central Scotland, UK, comprised predominantly of Carboniferous and Devonian sedimentary rocks. Changing palaeo-environments of the MVS produced alternating successions of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, limestone and coal. The MVS also experienced folding, fault inversion and development of a widespread unconformity during the latest Carboniferous culmination of the Variscan Orogeny and minor tectonic events thereafter. The MVS’ geological resources played a major role in driving Scotland’s economic, industrial, and cultural development in the 19th - 20th. The region was heavily exploited for coal and hydrocarbon energy resources and material for construction, manufacturing, and agriculture. The MVS basin remains as relevant in the 21st century having been identified as a viable source of low-carbon geo-energy resources (e.g., geothermal energy) and potential for subsurface energy storage (Heinemann et al., 2019).

 

While the geology of the MVS has been well-studied, thermal and burial history reconstructions have typically relied on techniques focused on the maturation of organic matter (e.g., vitrinite reflectance, VR), which lack quantitative information on timing. Moreover, tracing sediment provenance can be challenging but crucial for understanding the tectonic evolution of the surrounding source region. Here, we present the results of a geochronological and thermochronological investigation of the MVS basin designed to better understand sediment pathways to the basin from surrounding upland regions and the post-depositional thermal history of the MVS. Our data includes zircon and apatite U-Pb data and apatite fission-track (AFT) data from across the basin and AFT data from a UK Geoenergy Observatories borehole in Glasgow.

 

With our U-Pb data, we identify distant source areas in Greenland, more local source areas in the Scottish Highlands, and recycling of older sedimentary rocks and reworked material in the basin that change through the tectono-magmatic evolution of the basin. Our AFT data and associated thermal history modelling identify three main thermal events: i) Carboniferous-Permian heating; ii) Permian-Mesozoic cooling, and iii) relatively rapid Cenozoic cooling (McKenna, 2021; Hattie, 2021). These are attributed to post-Carboniferous burial followed by post-Permian exhumation. However, ambiguity in some of our models suggests some heating in the Mesozoic may have occurred and, due to the limitations on the temperature sensitivity of the AFT technique, the timing and rate of Cenozoic cooling is poorly resolved. Through our modelling we explore the influence changing palaeo-geothermal gradients has on our thermal history and whether the lower temperature thermochronometer apatite (U-Th)/He can better resolve the most-recent cooling event.

 

Heinemann, N., Alcalde, J., Johnson, G., Roberts, J. J., McCay, A. T., & Booth, M. G. (2019). Low-carbon GeoEnergy resource options in the Midland Valley of Scotland, UK. Scottish Journal of Geology, 55(2), 93-106.

 

McKenna, Eamon (2021) The Provenance and thermal histories of the Carboniferous Midland Valley of Scotland, PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

 

Hattie, Andrew (2021) Constraining the post-burial history of the central Midland Valley of Scotland using apatite fission track analysis: implications for geothermal energy. MSc(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

How to cite: Wildman, M., Persano, C., McKenna, E., Hattie, A., and Monaghan, A.: Geology, Geochronology and Geoenergy of Sedimentary Basins: Insights from the Midland Valley of Scotland, UK, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8433, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8433, 2022.

09:29–09:36
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EGU22-12468
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Presentation form not yet defined
Manal Ali

The measurements of soil erosion, sediment transport, and soil deposition due to the tectonic activity regions retard the river basin development. The tectonic activity assessment in this area requires the identification of minimum eroded volume (MEV) and the soil loss (Sl) amount. The MEV, LS, and Hi indices have been used to develop relative tectonic activity Index (RTI) to identify probable zones of Hi, MEV, and SL in the Diyala River Basin (DRB). The results show that the north, north-eastern, and northwestern parts of the (DRB) are situated in the high (RTI) zone. The TIN model is used for estimating the MEV in the DRB and the (RUSLE) model is used for estimating the soil loss in the DRB. The MEV results in the DRB vary from 0 to 845 m3 in some areas. The result of soil loss in the DRB is varied from a minimum value of zero to a maximum of 91.34 t/h/y in some areas. The spatial distribution of MEV and SL in the (DRB) is classified into five types (Low Tectonic Activity, Slight Tectonic Activity, Moderate, High, and Extremely Tectonic Activity). From the results, it was observed that about 25.3% and 24.2% of the total study area are located in the very high relative tectonic activity and low relative tectonic activity zones, respectively. The large percentage of soil loss areas are 28.6% and 26.5% of the total study area are located in the very slight and slight, respectively.

How to cite: Ali, M.: The tectonic  activity assessment using minimum eroded volume and soil loss in Diyala river basin area, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12468, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12468, 2022.

09:36–09:43
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EGU22-11719
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Jiaxu Chen and xiaowen Guo

Maturity assessment of solid bitumen is significant for the construction of the thermal evolution history of Sinian carbonate reservoirs in the eastern and central Sichuan Basin because of the absence of vitrinite. Occurrence characteristics of solid bitumen in the Sichuan Basin were investigated by petrography observation. Based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy analyses of solid bitumen, the thermal maturity of solid bitumen in the Sinian reservoir was evaluated, and the thermal history of the Sinian reservoirs in the eastern and central Sichuan Basin was further reconstructed. The results show that solid bitumen occurred within intercrystalline pores, intercrystalline dissolution pores, karst caves, fractures, and stylolites in the eastern and central Sichuan Basin. The FTIR spectrums of solid bitumen are characterized by depleted aliphatic carbon and C=O group, and enrichment of aromatic carbon. The FTIR spectrums of solid bitumen indicate that the thermal maturity of solid bitumen in the Sichuan Basin exceeds at least 1.3%. The calculated Ro of solid bitumen in the eastern Sichuan Basin ranges from 3.8 to 4.09%, that of solid bitumen in the central Sichuan Basin ranges from 3.51 to 3.77%, and that of bitumen inclusions in the central Sichuan Basin varies from 3.54 to 3.64% inferred from Raman spectroscopy analysis. The thermal evolution history of Sinian reservoirs in the eastern and central Sichuan Basin can be divided into two heating–cooling stages. At the end of the second heating stage, that is, the Late Cretaceous, the Sinian reservoir reached the highest temperature of 250 °C in the eastern Sichuan Basin and 225 °C in the central Sichuan Basin.

How to cite: Chen, J. and Guo, X.: Maturity assessment of solid bitumen in the Sinian carbonate reservoirs of the eastern and central Sichuan Basin, China: insights from FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analyses, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11719, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11719, 2022.