BG3.28

EDI
Complex case studies for ecosystem responses to climate and hydrological extremes

The ecological stability, soil degradation, and hydrological extremes are the main driving elements and powerful tools associated with climate change on reducing or increasing the acceleration of climate change.
Climate change is a natural process, but the latest scientific research proves that it is significantly accelerated by human activity. Adequate steps can be taken by humans (for instance land use/land cover changes) in order to reduce the risks and consequences of the effects of climate change. Despite this knowledge, which is well known, progress is still slow, and the negative consequences prevail over the positive remedies.
The session should reflect, discuss, and share scientific knowledge on a local and regional scale with the aim to increase innovative knowledge thanks to multidisciplinary links at national, international, and global levels.
This session is open within a wide range of relevant scientific topics as follows:
• hydrological extremes as one of the main impacts of climate change;
• lack of precipitation or extreme precipitation - how to reduce and decrease these extremes by adequate measures;
• the connection between deteriorating ecological stability and climate change;
• new methods and procedures for reducing existing manifestations of climate change (such as soil degradation, carbon sequestration, changes in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, reduction of overall ecological stability and character of the landscape);
• proposal of measures to prevent the occurrence of the above-mentioned impacts;
• the sustainability of management practices, the importance of appropriate land use management as the main tool for preventing degradation processes, floods, and droughts, improving the condition of forest ecosystems in order to increase the overall character of the landscape.

Co-organized by HS13
Convener: Zuzana Németová | Co-conveners: Borbála Széles, Dejan Stojanovic, Silvia Kohnová, Adrienn Horváth
Presentations
| Wed, 25 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST)
 
Room 2.95

Presentations: Wed, 25 May | Room 2.95

Chairpersons: Zuzana Németová, Adrienn Horváth, Dejan Stojanovic
08:30–08:33
08:33–08:43
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EGU22-2583
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solicited
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Virtual presentation
Jan Szolgay, Anita Keszeliova, Kamila Hlavcova, Zoltan Gribovszki, Peter Kalicz, and Miroslav Kandera

Actual catchment evapotranspiration, which includes all forms of evaporation and transpiration through plants, plays an important role in the water, energy, and carbon cycles. This contribution aims to explore trends in the actual catchment evapotranspiration based on the analysis of the components of the long-term hydrological balance of selected river basins in the Western Carpathians and detect changes attributable to changing landuse and climate conditions. We have used high-quality gridded data sets of precipitation and air temperatures from the CarpathClim project for the water balance. Temporal changes in the catchments’ average air temperature, precipitation, runoff, and their differences (considered as an index of the actual evapotranspiration) have been estimated for 49 years of data and compared between two non-overlapping sub-periods (25 and 24 years). Given that both inputs into the equation of the long-term hydrological balance contain uncertainties, we also used proxy evapotranspiration data modelled according to the Budyko-Tomlain method for comparison. Changes in land use were evaluated from the CORINE project. This allowed us to consider the impact of the rising air temperature and, in part, the local physiographic factors, on the changes in runoff and actual catchment evapotranspiration as the main drivers of changes in the hydrological balance. In particular, the increase in air temperature was found to be statistically significant across the transect. The main conclusion related to water resources management is that the hydrological balance has changed towards an increase in actual catchment evapotranspiration and a decrease in runoff. An increase in the catchment precipitation was present in the trends but was not statistically significant. The Budyko-Tomlain actual evapotranspiration proxy series confirmed the tendencies in the actual catchment evapotranspiration with significant trends. However, local factors of runoff generation, especially catchment storage, can exhibit an influence at higher elevations (approx. above 800 m a.s.l.), thereby partially disguising the expected general tendencies at a given altitude. These factors can both lessen or intensify the changes in runoff and actual catchment evapotranspiration in catchments at similar altitudes. On the other hand, in lower elevations where runoff generation is less intensive, the influence of the climatic factors is decisive. The research was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract Nos. APVV-18-0347 and APVV-20-0374, and the VEGA Agency Grant No. 1/0632/19. The support is gratefully acknowledged.

How to cite: Szolgay, J., Keszeliova, A., Hlavcova, K., Gribovszki, Z., Kalicz, P., and Kandera, M.: Changes in the actual catchment evapotranspiration in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2583, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2583, 2022.

08:43–08:50
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EGU22-3717
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Virtual presentation
Katarina Jeneiova, Zuzana Danacova, Lotta Blaskovicova, Marija Mihaela Labat, and Jana Poorova

Due to climate change, the detection of changes in the long-term hydrological time series is an important topic in water management for timely set up of possible mitigation measures. In this contribution, the mean monthly and yearly discharges in Slovakia were analysed on the data from 43 selected water-gauging stations with hydrological regime minimally affected by human activities. The trend detection analysis of the mean monthly and yearly discharges in period 1961-2020 was concluded by Mann – Kendall trend test at significance level p = 0.05. The results of the trend analysis of the mean yearly discharges point out at the occurrence of statistically significant decreasing trend mainly in the western part of Slovakia. The trend analysis of the mean monthly discharges detected significant decreasing trend in the months of April, May, June, July and August. These results indicate possible changes in the mean monthly and yearly discharges in Slovakia and may be helpful in planning and policy making to mitigate the possible climate change impacts in Slovakia.

Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the Contract no. APVV-20-0374.

How to cite: Jeneiova, K., Danacova, Z., Blaskovicova, L., Labat, M. M., and Poorova, J.: Detection of changes in the mean monthly and yearly discharges in Slovakia , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3717, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3717, 2022.

08:50–08:57
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EGU22-2409
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Virtual presentation
Roman Výleta, Patrik Sleziak, Kamila Hlavčová, Michaela Danáčová, Milica Aleksić, Ján Szolgay, and Silvia Kohnová

Climate change challenges policymakers and river basin authorities to find sustainable management solutions and optimal strategies to avoid undesirable impacts on water resources and the environment. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible impacts of future climate change on water resources in Slovakia. Eight pilot river basins spread throughout the whole territory of Slovakia were selected in this study. To draw more general conclusions, basins were delineated into two different groups, i.e. basins with a mean elevation < 435 m a.s.l. (four basins) and basins with a mean elevation > 435 m a.s.l. (four basins). An HBV bucket-type hydrological model (the TUW model) was used to provide runoff projections. For the model parametrization, we used a cross-calibration strategy based on selecting the most suitable decade in the observation period. The model was calibrated and validated over four periods (1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2019) with rainfall, air temperature and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. Then, the parameters that best reflect the current climate (mainly in terms of the mean daily air temperatures) were used to simulate runoff over the baseline (1981–2010) and three future time horizons (2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100). For the future runoff projections, the model was driven by the precipitation and air temperatures projected by the KNMI and MPI regional climate models under the A1B (moderate) emission scenario. The model performance during the calibration and validation was assessed using four metrics (the objective function, the logarithmic Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, and the volume error). All model performance metrics and visual inspection of hydrographs indicated that the simulated runoff has a good agreement with the observed values.

Our results indicate that the change in climate variables is expected to be more or less the same for both groups of the river basins. Precipitation shows an increasing pattern during spring, autumn, and winter periods. The regional climate model data suggest that the long-term mean monthly air temperatures will rise with the future time horizons. Compared to the baseline (1981–2010), winter runoff (December–February) is projected to increase, with a maximum increase in the period 2071–2100. In the summer season (June–August), the runoff will react in reverse. The values of maximum annual daily runoff are more prominent in lower elevations (i.e., basins < 435 m a.s.l.) than at higher elevations (i.e., basins > 435 m a.s.l.). Our analysis could help develop optimal strategies for water resources management and flood control in the studied basins.

 

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-18-0347, No. APVV-19-0340, No. APVV-20-0374 and the VEGA Grant Agency No. 1/0632/19 and No. 2/0065/19. The financial support by the Stefan Schwarz grant of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is also gratefully acknowledged.

How to cite: Výleta, R., Sleziak, P., Hlavčová, K., Danáčová, M., Aleksić, M., Szolgay, J., and Kohnová, S.: An HBV-model based approach for studying the effects of projected climate change on water resources in Slovakia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2409, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2409, 2022.

08:57–09:04
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EGU22-8034
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ECS
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Adrienn Horváth, Pál Balázs, Bernadett Bolodár-Varga, Péter Csáki, Zoltán Gribovszki, Péter Kalicz, Máté Katona, Renáta Szita, Péter Végh, Dániel Winkler, and András Bidló

The impacts of climate change don’t appear only on natural areas but urbanized areas are also well affected. The unpredictable and extreme weather events

such as the alternation of drought periods and heavy, stormy precipitation events was typical in the last decades. Three settlements were investigated to detect how the extreme weather events influenced the water, sediment, and soil conditions on anthropogenic affected areas. The studied areas are mostly surrounded by mountains and forestlands and crossed by a river or creek; therefore, close-to-nature ideas, climate strategies, and sustainable urban management are needed to prepare against changing conditions. A heavy storm may increase the leaching of contaminants into soil and watercourses. To support the adaptation, city-wide investigations began in the last decade to make further suggestions for future direction based on measurements and experience. Altogether 672 soil samples and 30 sediment samples were analyzed to give a basis for climate strategy and settlement development concept in the future.

Project no. 141623 has been implemented with the support provided by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, financed under the MEC_R_21 funding scheme.

How to cite: Horváth, A., Balázs, P., Bolodár-Varga, B., Csáki, P., Gribovszki, Z., Kalicz, P., Katona, M., Szita, R., Végh, P., Winkler, D., and Bidló, A.: The role of environmental extremes on urbanized areas of Western Hungary, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8034, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8034, 2022.

09:04–09:11
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EGU22-7017
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ECS
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Pál Balázs, Adrienn Horváth, Imre Berki, Mátyás Szépligeti, and Éva Konkoly-Gyuró

Traditional, small scale land use based on landscape potential is mostly less harmful to the ecosystem compared to present high production-oriented practices. However, low-intensity techniques are generally under-represented in the present land management system or even forgotten. We reveal these ancient management methods and practices in a western Transdanubian forest-dominated landscape of the Carpathian basin (Őrség) through interviews with local elderly people, literature review, historical map-based long term land use change detection and landscape character assessment. We evaluate the results from the point of view of the question: how these solutions could be helpful for the fight against biodiversity loss or even climate change.

Acknowledgement: Project no. 141576 has been implemented with the support provided by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, financed under the MEC_R_21 funding scheme.

How to cite: Balázs, P., Horváth, A., Berki, I., Szépligeti, M., and Konkoly-Gyuró, É.: Possible solution of global environmental problems: adaptive landscape management, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7017, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7017, 2022.

09:11–09:18
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EGU22-2306
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Zuzana Sabová, Matúš Tomaščík, Zuzana Németová, Silvia Kohnová, Adam Krajewski, and Kazimierz Banasik

Land degradation caused by anthropogenic activities (deforestation, overgrazing, unsuitable land-use and management practices) negatively influence the well-being of people and also accelerates soil erosion processes. The main evidence for a link between soil degradation and water erosion can be seen in the following elements: increasing rainfall intensity, permafrost thawing, biomass production, tillage, cultivation overgrazing, deforestation/ vegetation clearing, vegetation burning, poorly designed roads and paths to a global extent. Therefore, it is significant to investigate degradation processes in order to point out the possible adverse effects of unsuitable management practices of the landscape in the scale of past and future periods. A future prediction of the development of any processes requires long-term investigation and analysis of the phenomenon predetermined to assess future behaviour. On the contrary, analysis of past processes shows us precipitation patterns and reveals their effect on the generation of degradation processes. The study describes the role of rainfall events on a generation of erosion processes, especially soil water erosion in the catchments located in Poland (Zagożdżonka) and Slovakia (Svacenicky Jarok). A common characteristic of these catchments is the susceptibility to degradation processes, the predominance of arable land and the dominant agricultural use of catchments. In the case of Zagożdżonka catchment (Poland) the modelling period covers the years 1963-2020 with the real measured rainfall events. On the contrary, in the case of Svacenický jarok the future development of degradation processes was analyzed based on the future prediction of rainfall events covering the period 2020-2100 and generated by CLM model (Climate Land Model). In both cases, the simulations were performed using the physically-based EROSION-3D model and three scenarios were created in order to model different land cover, land use, soil types and crops on agricultural land. The first scenario reflects current catchment conditions, the second reflects the best conditions (more forests, fewer pastures and unprotected land) and the third involves worst-case conditions (no protective measures or changes of inappropriate management practices). The results provide insight into the development of degradation processes, illustrate how changes in rainfall patterns affect soil degradation processes in the past and future and take into account different scenarios of management practices together with an analysis of the impact of rainfall events on these processes.

How to cite: Sabová, Z., Tomaščík, M., Németová, Z., Kohnová, S., Krajewski, A., and Banasik, K.: The role of intense rainfall events on the land degradation processes in the Slovak and Polish catchments  , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2306, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2306, 2022.

09:18–09:25
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EGU22-2677
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On-site presentation
Milica Aleksić, Michaela Danáčová, Roman Výleta, Anna Liová, Matúš Tomaščík, and Kamila Hlavčová

The appearance of the water erosion can be found not only in the small mountainous catchments but also in the agricultural hillslopes. Therefore, there is a growing necessity of monitoring and analyzing the potential changes of the features representing water erosion in space and through time. When it comes to monitoring irregular shapes of grooves and gully in the landscape, various modern surveying techniques could be used. The choice of a suitable method and equipment for terrain monitoring depends on the size of the area, its use, the purpose of the research, sufficient accuracy of measurements, weather conditions, and possibly other factors. The field measurements performed in the period 2014 – 2021 will be presented in this abstract. Field measurements were performed in the Myjava hillslope on the selected erosion gully, where throughout the year 2011, seven small wooden check dams were built. The dams had a stabilization purpose. As a part of monitoring, we focused on the dynamics of changes and development of the gully using various modern monitoring and surveying techniques, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning  (TLS), and Unmanned Areal Vehicle (UAV). The process of clogging and deepening of the erosive element was evaluated in the selected profiles.

Moreover, the possibility of implementing further protective measures on minimizing the erosion process was also evaluated. Simulations with the physical erosion model SMODERP were also used in the evaluation. The results showed that the length of the erosion gully increased during the monitoring period. However, the gully is sufficiently stable. Clogging appeared in the locations where the stabilizing elements occurred in both the bottom and transverse profiles.

How to cite: Aleksić, M., Danáčová, M., Výleta, R., Liová, A., Tomaščík, M., and Hlavčová, K.: Monitoring and assessing the developing dynamics of the gully erosion using different mapping techniques, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2677, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2677, 2022.

09:25–09:32
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EGU22-3560
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Virtual presentation
Patrik Sleziak, Michal Danko, Martin Jančo, Ladislav Holko, and Juraj Parajka

Soil moisture plays an important role in the transformation of precipitation into flow and affects the severity of droughts, floods and other hydrological processes such as transpiration and evaporation. Estimation of spatio-temporal dynamics of soil moisture is therefore crucial for all water sectors. The main objective of this study is to compare satellite-derived ASCAT soil moisture data and field soil moisture measurements in an experimental, well-documented catchment (the Jalovecký Creek catchment, Western Tatra mountains, Slovakia). For the comparison, we used data from the period of 2012 – 2019. Measured data are represented by point measurements at two localities: (a) Červenec – open area (1500 m a.s.l., measurements at a depth of 5 cm) and (b) Červenec – forest (1420 m a.s.l., measurements at a depth of 10 cm). The new, experimental version of the ASCAT product provides data with higher spatial and temporal resolutions and improved soil moisture mapping under vegetation. Satellite-derived soil moisture data represented by the Soil Water Index are determined by an exponential filter with characteristic time delays (T in days). T value represents the reduction of the infiltration of the soil moisture dynamics, and therefore, it must be carefully chosen. The suitability of the satellite data in terms of different T values (i.e., T = 1, 2, 5, 10) is assessed by the visual inspection (measurements vs satellite) and correlation coefficient. The agreement between observed ASCAT data and the field soil moisture measurements will be further evaluated using observations of snow accumulation and melt, precipitation, air temperature and global radiation. The study will discuss the factors controlling this agreement.

 

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-19-0340 and the VEGA Grant Agency No. 2/0065/19. The financial support by the Stefan Schwarz grant of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is also gratefully acknowledged.

How to cite: Sleziak, P., Danko, M., Jančo, M., Holko, L., and Parajka, J.: Comparison of measured and satellite-derived ASCAT surface soil moisture data in a small mountain catchment, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3560, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3560, 2022.

09:32–09:39
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EGU22-2283
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On-site presentation
Martin Kubáň, Adam Brziak, and Viera Rattayová

The different approaches for the improvement of the calibration processes of the conceptual hydrological models are annually introduced. In our paper, we focus on the improvement of runoff and soil moisture simulation, by the assimilation of the scatterometer soil moisture to the calibration process of the HBV type rainfall-runoff model. The model was single-calibrated for runoff and multi-calibrated for the combination of the runoff and the combination of the soil moisture data for the root and surface soil zone. We validated the model in the two-period and compare the simulation results between the single and multi-objective approaches. The improvement of the soil moisture simulation was detected in almost 80% of the catchments, in the case of the runoff simulation we detect the improvement in almost 30% of the catchments, mainly in the catchments with a lower mean elevation, narrower terrain, and higher agricultural land percentage.

How to cite: Kubáň, M., Brziak, A., and Rattayová, V.: Scatterometer soil moisture data for the conceptual rainfall-runoff model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2283, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2283, 2022.

09:39–09:46
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EGU22-2406
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Virtual presentation
András Polgár, Karolina Horváth, Tamara Temesi, Pál Balázs, Sándor Faragó, and Veronika Elekne Fodor

Maintaining environmental balance and reducing the damages caused by climate change anomalies are the basic pillars of sustainable agricultural competitiveness. Applying agricultural sector life cycle assessment (LCA) to achieve both internal (comparative) and external (efficiency enhancing) benefits is a priority.

The investigated area (Lajta-Project) is located in Kisalföld plain, specifically in the southern part of Mosoni-sík (plain). 

The main cultivated plant species in this agricultural land (2678-2768 ha) are cereals, maize, hemp and canola. There are, on average, 10-15 crops present during a single cultivation cycle. The area is divided into 56 parcels measuring between 20 and 105 ha. The investigation covers the two decade period between 1991 and 2011. We analysed the cultivation data of 5 crops: canola, winter barley, winter wheat, green maize and maize.

We applied the following methods and models in our life cycle impact assessment: CML2001 (January 2016) method, carbon footprint analysis according to the standard ISO 14067, GaBi impact assessment model for land use and GaBi model for water. In order to represent the overall environmental impact, we used the method of CML2001, Experts IKP (Central Europe).

Significant impact categories resulted from the average cultivated plant values calculated on 1 ha (territorial approach) were: abiotic depletion pot. (ADP fossil), global warming (GWP 100 years) and marine aquatic ecotoxicity pot. (MAETP inf). 

We compared the yearly time series values on 1 ha and the average yearly values of cultivated plants. According to the resulted ratio, we could define the year of above-average level emission and the year of lower level environmental impact. This provides opportunity to draw further conclusions in the time series assessments of the resulting changes in the local flora and fauna.

We also summarized the indicator results of appropriate impact categories according to CML2001 method in the studied area by crops which resulted in the territorial environmental footprints of crops for the total time period, namely the ’super footprint’ values. The calculated carbon footprint value specific to the area was 307,000 kg CO2-equiv. according to ’super footprint’ approach. The calculated values are clear to interpret by comparison with the similar data or average values of other areas or time periods.

The obtained results help to better assess environmental impacts, climate risks, and climate change as they pertain to arable crop production technologies, which advances the selection of appropriate technologies that have been adjusted to environmental sensitivities.

Acknowledgement: Our research was supported by the „Lajta-Project”.

How to cite: Polgár, A., Horváth, K., Temesi, T., Balázs, P., Faragó, S., and Elekne Fodor, V.: Periodic and total carbon footprint values of large-scale agricultural cultivation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2406, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2406, 2022.

09:46–09:53
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EGU22-1905
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Virtual presentation
Krzysztof Fortuniak, Włodzimierz Pawlak, and Mariusz Siedlecki

Reversing the natural feedbacks that limit the rise in temperature is one of the major threats of climate change. One such mechanism is the exchange of carbon gases between the ecosystem and the atmosphere in wetlands. Wetlands cover only about 3% of the Earth's surface, but in natural conditions act as a CO2 sink and store a significant amount of carbon in the soil. The organic carbon accumulated in the Northern peatland is estimated as one-third of the world’s pool of organic carbon, equivalent to more than half the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Climate extremes such as droughts and hot spell, can reduce or even invers this role. The water table drawdown and higher temperatures lead to enhanced peat oxidation and releasing a large portion of peat carbon as CO2. It can switch a peatland from sink to source of carbon. However, some studies suggest that other mechanisms may compensate or even turn away this effect in real peatland ecosystems. Consequently, it is vitally important to empirically verify whether the paradigm of peatland transition from carbon sink to source in hot and dry conditions is valid for natural ecosystems. Despite the growing number of observations, it is hard to find datasets clearly showing such effect in the sense that they were collected in an undisturbed environment, represent for the whole ecosystem scale, and span full annual totals.

In this study we provide a strong empirical confirmation of switching of the mid-European temperate mire from carbon sink to source under extremely dry and hot climate conditions. The analysis is based on eight-year eddy-covariance measurements at site (53°35′30.8′′ N, 22°53′32.4′′ E, 109 m a.s.l.) located in a one of the largest coherent lowland wetlands in Central Europe – the Biebrza National Park (north-eastern Poland). In the analyzed measurement period (2013-2020) the studied ecosystem was affected by severe droughts in 2015 and 2018-2020. In wet years the peatland was a significant sink of CO2 (down to −990 gCO2∙m−2∙yr−1) whereas in dry years we observed a substantial release of CO2(up to +1020 gCO2∙m−2∙yr−1). At the same time, a CH4 emission dropped from 29 gCH4∙m−2∙yr−1 in the wettest year to about 1−4 gCH4∙m−2∙yr−1 in dry years, which does not compensate for the amount of carbon released in the form of CO2(even taking into account higher global warming potential of CH4). At the same time, relatively small differences in the water vapor flux (evapotranspiration) between wet and dry years were observed. It demonstrates that the scenario of positive feedback between wetland carbon release and climate change could be realistic and supports the need of natural wetland preservation or rewetting.

 

Acknowledgements: Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Centre, Poland under project UMO-2020/37/B/ST10/01219 and University of Lodz under project 4/IDUB/DOS/2021. The authors thank the authorities of the Biebrza National Park for allowing the continuous measurements in the area of the Park.

How to cite: Fortuniak, K., Pawlak, W., and Siedlecki, M.: The switching of a mid-European temperate mire from carbon sink to source in extreme climate conditions, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1905, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1905, 2022.

09:53–10:00
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EGU22-5276
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Péter Végh, András Bidló, and Adrienn Horváth

Due to global climate change, carbon-absorbing forests and soils will come to the fore to achieve carbon neutrality as soon as possible. Continuously increasing emissions upset the equilibrium of the atmosphere and manifest themselves in climate change or weather extremes as processes shift. Our research aimed to assess the organic carbon content stored in forest ecosystems under different climatic and forestry conditions. We focused on soil analysis because the volume of soil carbon is closely equal to the amount of carbon stored in the above-ground biomass. In the recent period, we have sampled about 12 designated forest stands to determine the amount of organic carbon stored in the soil of each forest stand. Soil samples were collected by drilling to a depth of 100 cm and 110 cm, respectively. Simultaneously with the soil sampling, the living tree stock of each stand near the sampling point was also assessed. Based on the studies carried out so far in the 12 designated forest stands, the areas can be classified into soil classes Cambisols and Luvisols (WRB 2020). The pH of the soil is mostly acidic (average = 5.2) and the texture can be determined as loam. The soil organic matter (SOM) of 0-40 cm of topsoils is 1.3%, which means ~10 t carbon content by hectares. There is still enough precipitation in the area for vegetation without disturbance; therefore, the carbon balance in the area is currently stable despite stocks are already declining due to the decline of litter amount.

How to cite: Végh, P., Bidló, A., and Horváth, A.: The investigation of soil carbon sequestration and storage in forest sites on different climates in South Zala (Hungary), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5276, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5276, 2022.

Coffee break
Chairpersons: Silvia Kohnová, Borbála Széles
10:20–10:23
10:23–10:33
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EGU22-6810
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ECS
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solicited
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Xiran Li and Olivia Hajek

Covering almost one-third of the land, grasslands play an important role in providing ecosystem functions and services such as carbon cycling. Further, grasslands are considered to be one of the ecosystems most sensitive to drought. As the frequency and intensity of droughts increase globally with climate change, it is urgent to quantify the characteristics and mechanisms of grassland responses to drought events.    
In this study, we studied the response of grassland growth to drought events in the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. This semi-arid grassland is characteristic of many grasslands globally, such as in the entire Eurasian steppe belt. By utilizing remote sensing data (MOD13A1), gridded climate data interpolated from weather station observations (CRU TS4.03), and drought index calculated from the CRU datasets (SPEI03 from SPEI database) at 500m*500m spatial resolution, we found that the semi-arid grasslands in our study area experienced severe droughts in the summers (June, July, and August) of 2007 (SPEI03min = -1.94) and 2017 (SPEI03min = -2.37). Surprisingly, in 2017, the grasslands appeared to be almost unaffected by the extreme drought (EVIano = 0.004), while in 2007, productivity was reduced during drought (EVIano = -0.026). 
To explore why the semi-arid grasslands responded differently to these two summer drought events, partial correlation analysis was done by considering the influence of temperature, precipitation, and SPEI03 on EVI in summer during 2001-2018. The results showed that grasslands are generally significantly correlated to SPEI03 (39.73% pixels with p<0.1) rather than to temperature (13.27% pixels with p<0.1) or to precipitation (11.39% pixels with p<0.1).  However, when we compare the spatial distributions of EVI, temperature, precipitation, and SPEI in summer in 2007 and 2017, a different pattern emerges. Temperature patterns were similar between summer in 2007 and 2017, but precipitation patterns were different, resulting in different SPEI patterns. In regions which showed a significant, positive correlation with precipitation, there was heavier rainfall (100mm/month<precipitation<140mm/month) in 2017 than in 2007 (precipitation<100mm/month). The heavy rains offset the negative effect of heatwave, and enhanced grass productivity in areas with moderate temperature in summer in 2017. These results demonstrate the importance of monthly to seasonal precipitation patterns and provide a reference for management in response to extreme drought events in semi-arid grassland ecosystems.

How to cite: Li, X. and Hajek, O.: Diverse responses of semi-arid grasslands to severe droughts in Inner Mongolia, China, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6810, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6810, 2022.

10:33–10:40
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EGU22-3820
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Zuzana Oravcová and Jaroslav Vido

Drought, as a consequence of climate change, impacts beech ecosystems on their lower altitudinal limit of occurrence in Slovakia. During the growing season, precipitation deficit and its uneven distribution and rising evapotranspiration demands of ecosystems are significant. In this paper, we evaluate drought risk in the beech ecosystem in Kremnica Mountains (Central Slovakia) firstly from a climatological point of view (Climatic Index of Irrigation, CII) and secondly based on water availability in the soil (Relative Extractable Water, REW), while in the latter case we used drought severity classification for drought episodes. The study aimed to describe drought evolution during vegetation seasons 2017 and 2018 and compare its evaluation methods. Results revealed that CII is sufficient to determinate drought onset in the ecosystem. On the other hand, REW is suitable for accurately describing drought evolution in particular soil horizons and severity of drought determination. Furthermore, since CII is based on climatological data, positive values immediately after precipitation recovery might be inaccurate since soil profile require a certain volume of water over a more extended period for full saturation. Therefore, REW is more precise and suitable for drought evaluation because it considers the amount of water in the soil, closely related to plants' water balance.

How to cite: Oravcová, Z. and Vido, J.: Comparison of methods for assessing drought risk in beech ecosystem in central Slovakia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3820, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3820, 2022.

10:40–10:47
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EGU22-3938
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Virtual presentation
Lotta Blaskovicova, Jana Poorova, Zuzana Danacova, and Katarina Jeneiova

The monitoring of hydrological drought is an important part of surface water monitoring and assessment provided by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. The methodology of the on-line evaluation of the mean monthly discharges in selected water-gauging stations (WS) is actually based on selected quantiles of the mean long-term monthly discharges (Qma,1961-2000). However it turns out that in the lowest category (≤ 20% Qma) the occurrence of mean monthly and daily discharges lower than this limit significantly varies among the stations in different regions of Slovakia and/or different regime types and sizes of the rivers. Therefore, in this article, we have focused on the evaluation of the extent of the occurrence of mean monthly and daily discharges bellow selected limits in the reference period 1961-2000 as well as in the period 2001-2020. The results confirmed that the lowest limit 20%Qma (as a limit for extreme hydrological drought) is too low for large part of evaluated WS or at least for part of the months of the year. The extent of months and days bellow selected limits significantly differ also in the period 2001-2020 comparing with the reference period.

How to cite: Blaskovicova, L., Poorova, J., Danacova, Z., and Jeneiova, K.: Possible approach to setting lower discharge limits for the characterization of hydrological drought, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3938, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3938, 2022.

10:47–10:54
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EGU22-6838
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Virtual presentation
Agnieszka Rutkowska, Marzena Osuch, Mirosław Żelazny, Kazimierz Banasik, and Mariusz Klimek

Studies on river intermittence are pivotal in water management because water scarcity impacts, apart from the catchment itself, also neighbouring catchments and water reservoirs.

River intermittence was noticed recently in Poland in small and mid-sized catchments. The objective of the study was to answer questions about whether drying showed an increasing tendency, what might be the drivers of the tendency, and how could anthropogenic activity affect the catchment reaction to drought conditions. The total number of zero-flow days and the maximum length of zero-flow events were analysed at the annual and seasonal scale in terms of metrics of intermittence, temporal trend, association with climatic conditions, and the link with anthropogenic pressure. The Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used in identifying the association between intermittence and the climatic drivers such as precipitation and temperature. Statistical methods, namely the circular statistics, the Spearman correlation coefficient, the Mann-Kendall test for monotonic trend, and the Cucconi and the Lepage tests for step trend were applied in the study.

An increasing trend in the total number of zero-flow days and the maximum length of zero-flow events, as well as the negative correlation with the SPEI was detected in two catchments with natural flow regime. The increasing evapotranspiration was identified there as the possible driver of intermittence because the SPEI often showed a decreasing trend in summer months. In the catchment under strong anthropogenic pressure, the zero-flow occurrence resulted from climatological reasons as well as from the operation of the open-cast brown coal mines. The anthropogenic activity enhanced the reaction of the catchment to drought conditions. Some inhomogeneities in discharges were also detected downstream from the location of the dry river bed because of water transfers from the mine. The catchment response to drought conditions was reflected in the pattern of intermittence for natural catchments and for the catchment under strong anthropogenic pressure.

The pattern of intermittence in the form of circular diagram can serve as an indicator of the degree of anthropogenic influence on runoff conditions.

How to cite: Rutkowska, A., Osuch, M., Żelazny, M., Banasik, K., and Klimek, M.: Climatic and anthropogenic drivers of river intermittence in Poland, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6838, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6838, 2022.

10:54–11:01
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EGU22-7101
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Előd Szőke, Péter Csáki, Péter Kalicz, Péter Kutschi, and Zoltán Gribovszki

Climate change induced droughts are a major threat to riparian ecosystems.  Water scarcity can degrade such types of ecosystems but with reasonable water supply these valuable wetland ecosystems can be preserved or those that have deteriorated can be restored.

In the frame of this research we evaluated the hydrological reconstruction works of the Doroszló meadows habitat. Groundwater monitoring wells were installed at 4 selected locations in the area. Water table values and surface soil moisture were monitored  in parallel. Hydrological parameters  were recorded manually on a weekly basis. Data for the period from April 2019 to October 2021 were processed using  statistical methods such as “treatment-control space-time deviations” and “double mass curve”. 

As a result we found that water supply interventions had a detectable effect on the groundwater level and soil mositure of the area, but some modifying factors had also influenced the hydrology of micro locations. Therefore taking into account local effects is very important in case of the evaluation of a water supply project.

Acknowledgement: Research was supported by TKP2021-NKTA-43 project. Project no. TKP2021-NKTA-43 has been implemented with the support provided by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, financed under the TKP2021-NKTA funding scheme.”

How to cite: Szőke, E., Csáki, P., Kalicz, P., Kutschi, P., and Gribovszki, Z.: Factors influencing hydrology of a riparian woody pasture in western Hungary, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7101, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7101, 2022.

11:01–11:08
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EGU22-2295
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On-site presentation
Milan Cisty and Barbora Povazanova

A water shortage implies various adverse effects on agriculture and various other risks associated with the scale and duration of the rainfall deficit. Water scarcity and droughts directly impact the inhabitants and different economic sectors of a region that directly depend on water, such as agriculture, industry, energy, tourism, or transport.

Quantifying the expected probability characteristics of droughts assists in the planning and managing of water resources. The present work's authors described analyses from the perspective of irrigation system management and have performed a joint analysis of the severity and duration of the most important potential annual irrigation periods by a bivariate copula methodology. Basic climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) were used to determine the two derived variables that characterize dry and hot periods requiring irrigation in this work. Such a period is defined by its duration and the rainfall deficit with respect to the normal period (1960—1990). The hot and dry periods that lasted the longest for each year were identified. The duration was derived from the number of consecutive days with temperatures above 25°C. The hot period identified was extended by precipitation-free days before and after it. This variable is herein referred to as the maximum annual length of the potential irrigation period. The maximum yearly length of the potential irrigation periods and the corresponding rainfall deficit were inputs for a two-dimensional probability analysis by a copula methodology. The study was carried out on an agricultural area in Slovakia with a warm and relatively dry climate - the area of the Danubian Lowland around the municipality of Hurbanovo.

The results of this work indicate that in the context of the case study, the need for irrigation occurs very often. For example, every second year, a period can be expected in which temperatures above 25 °C occur. A dry period usually lasts one month with a moisture deficit of about 30 mm. Precipitation of 80 mm in such a period (which would be needed to maintain this limit) occurs with a probability in the upper quartile, i.e., it is scarce. Even more significant periods of drought can be expected, for example, with a five or 10-year return period. These phenomena result in considerable damage to agriculture yields, which, as is often declared in the domestic water management community, are more significant than the investment needed for the reliable maintenance or reconstruction of irrigation systems.

How to cite: Cisty, M. and Povazanova, B.: Two-dimensional analysis of the irrigation needs in Danubian Lowland in Slovakia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2295, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2295, 2022.

11:08–11:15
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EGU22-5298
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Włodzimierz Pawlak, Krzysztof Fortuniak, and Mariusz Siedlecki

Wetlands occupy a special place in the mosaic of landscapes around the globe, which, as a moist areas covered with vegetation, intensively release methane. Long-term research on vertical methane exchange between wetlands and the atmosphere has shown that the intensity of this process is a function of the climatic conditions at the observation site and the physico-chemical properties of the soil, such as moisture, temperature, pH and oxidation-reduction potential (redox) which reflects the ability of the soil to develop oxidizing or reducing conditions and thus indicates whether soil conditions are currently aerobic or anaerobic, necessary for the development of methanogenesis. Wetlands with a permanently high level of soil moisture content, located in mid-latitudes, are characterized by a clear annual variation in the vertical flux of methane to the atmosphere with clear relation to soil temperature. In recent years, permanently lowered or strongly fluctuating groundwater levels lead to continuous or episodic drying of the soil, which causes a continuous or temporary reduction in the intensity of methanogenesis. Thus, in dry years, the variability of methane fluxes is disturbed and the annual methane emissions is several times lower than in wet years.

In the years 2013-2018, continuous measurements of methane flux (FCH4) were carried out in the marshes of the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland). The results, similar to those from other stations in middle latitudes, showed a clear annual variability of FCH4 in wet years (2013 and 2014) with minimum values in winter and intense methane release to the atmosphere from April to September (up to +0.35 gCH4·m-2·day-1). In dry years (2017 and 2018) in turn, the annual variability was clearly disturbed due to lower groundwater levels.

The aim of the study is to perform a comparative analysis of the variability of FCH4 under typical and reduced soil moisture conditions, as well as an analysis of the temporal variability of the redox potential measured at five depths as a parameter supporting the analysis of the variability of methane fluxes in dry years. The variability of FCH4, disturbed in comparison to the wet years, was analyzed based on the variability of the redox potential in the soil, with particular emphasis on the relationship between the intensity of methanogenesis and the depth at which favorable conditions for methanogenesis appear. In such years, only the occurrence of intense but short-term methanogenesis was observed in April-May (up to + 0.1 gCH4·m-2·day-1), then a rapid decrease in the FCH4 value with the groundwater level falling to values close to those of winter and an irregular appearance of elevated FCH4 values in the period from June to November.

 

Acknowledgements: Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Centre, Poland under project UMO-2020/37/B/ST10/01219 and University of Lodz under project 4/IDUB/DOS/2021. The authors thank the authorities of the Biebrza National Park for allowing the continuous measurements in the area of the Park.

How to cite: Pawlak, W., Fortuniak, K., and Siedlecki, M.: Methane fluxes in relation with redox potential of soil on temperate mire in NE Poland (dry conditions case study), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5298, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5298, 2022.

11:15–11:22
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EGU22-6790
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Ekaterina S. Zhigacheva, Hiroyuki Sase, Tsuyoshi Ohizumi, Makoto Nakata, and Sergey A. Gromov

Acidification of the environment is still an important problem in the Russian Far East. Since the number of studies related to acidification is limited, the monitoring at the Primorskaya, one of the EANET sites, is of interest. The Primorskaya site has a set of continuous monitoring data on air, precipitation, and stream water (SW). The site is located within the watershed of the Komarovka River.

While emissions of major acidifying agents have started decreasing in the Russia Far East and neighboring countries (e.g., China, Korean Peninsula, and Japan), the SW pH has been decreasing continuously alongside increases in concentrations of sulfate and nitrate for the observation period at the Komarovka River. Deposition trends also do not follow the major emission tendencies completely. To understand the mechanism of SW acidification, we tried to estimate the influences of meteorological variability and atmospheric-deposition seasonality on the SW discharge of the Komarovka River. The monitoring data for the period 2005 - 2020 is presented in the study.

Two major climatic seasons can be distinguished at the Komarovka river catchment: the cold season (from October to March) with low precipitation, and the warm season (from April to September) when the major amount of precipitation falls. Although concentrations of major acidifying agents, such as sulfate and nitrate, in precipitation are usually higher in the cold season, the deposition fluxes are higher in the warm season due to the difference in precipitation amounts. While the annual precipitation amount did not show a clear trend, the contribution of precipitation during the warm season was tended to be increased since the early 2010s. Accordingly, the deposition fluxes of sulfate and nitrate were tended to be increasing in the warm season. Similarly, the recent SW fluxes of sulfate and nitrate have become higher in the warm season. It is suggested that the change in precipitation pattern influenced atmospheric deposition and SW fluxes, resulting in SW acidification (Zhigacheva et al. submitted).

Besides the fluxes, SW concentrations in each sampling month showed specific trends, although the SW samples were taken only five times per year according to the hydrological regime: low water in February and November, snow melting period in April, summer low water in June, and high flow in September. Moving weighted mean concentrations of nitrate show an increasing trend at every hydrological phase except for September. Sulfate and calcium concentrations are more stable. We will discuss the effects of hydrological and biological processes on the seasonality and trends of SW chemistry.

How to cite: Zhigacheva, E. S., Sase, H., Ohizumi, T., Nakata, M., and Gromov, S. A.: Effects of changing precipitation pattern on stream water chemistry at a forested catchment in the Russian Far East , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6790, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6790, 2022.

11:22–11:29
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EGU22-2144
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Saša Kostić, Tom Levanič, and Dejan Stojanović

Climate anomalies significantly shape forests around the World. Intensive climate changes (global warming and drought) that have occurred since 20th century have caused more extreme climate events and boosted forest mortality. Different drought resistance in the Quercus sp. was observed among species and tree populations up to the genotype level. Species-specific responses to drought further complicate the understanding of the drought-induced changes in forests. We selected 20 radial growth and six stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) chronologies of Quercus cerris and Q. robur from Serbia. Since both δ13C and radial growth chronologies are influenced by surrounding stressors, including nonlinear climate trends, a more flexible approach to their modeling was required, and we, therefore, chose a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) for data processing. A total of 20 climate and environmental variables were included in models to better understand their relationship and climate predictions/reconstruction.

In the GAMM, a better fit was obtained for δ13C and more xeric Q. cerris (adj. R2 0.646) than for radial growth and Q. robur GAMMs performances. The potential for predicting radial growth and δ13C based on 20 different climate and environmental variables was tested with GAMM. Chronologies were split into two subsets for GAMM calibration and validation. GAMM predictions were calibrated using the first 25 years (1961-1985), while the second subset (1986-2010) was used for model validation. Both oak species showed higher similarity between measured and predicted δ13C, opposite of radial growth. A xeric oak species (Q. cerris) showed higher sensitivity to climatic and environmental factors, reflected in better GAMM prediction potential.

Species-specific differences in radial growth and δ13C were observed. The results presented in this study suggest that xeric oak species such as Q. cerris are more sensitive to environmental factors in both δ13C and radial growth. According to the GAMM results, the more climate-sensitive Q. cerris showed better relationships with the analyzed factors than Q. robur. It was concluded that δ13C responds more strongly and quickly to climatic anomalies than TRW and that the analyzed climatic and environmental factors can be a reliable indicator of cambial productivity and stress periods of both oak species.

 

Keywords: Dendrochronology, Dendrochemistry, Stable carbon isotope, Tree ring, Quercus, Drought, GAMM.

 

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Science Fund of the Republic of Serbia, PROMIS, #6066697, TreeVita. TL acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency - research core funding No. P4-0107 Program research group “Forest Biology, Ecology and Technology” and research grant J4-8216 “Mortality of lowland oak forests - consequence of lowering underground water or climate change?”

Note: This contribution is a summary of a study by Kostić S, Levanič T, Orlović S, Matović B, Stojanović DB. Xeric Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is a more reliable climate indicator than hydric pedunculate oak (Q. robur L.) in the same stand conditions: Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and radial growth approaches (In press)

How to cite: Kostić, S., Levanič, T., and Stojanović, D.: Tree-ring stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and growth chronologies of more xeric Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is reliable climate proxy than hydric pedunculate oak (Q. robur L.) species., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2144, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2144, 2022.

11:29–11:36
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EGU22-4821
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Csaba László Kiss, Zoltán Gribovszki, Zsolt Pinke, Tamás Ács, Zsolt Kozma, and Péter Kalicz

The groundwater uptake of forest stands often generates disputes, especially in today’s drying climate. Forestry in Hungary does not take into account groundwater as a surplus water resource under 2 meters, while other sources show forest groundwater uptake in case of much deeper water table. White method is the most appropriate way to quantify water consumption. It is based on the transpiration-caused diurnal fluctuation of groundwater.

Once in the Great Hungarian Plain, hardwood forests stood along the River Tisza. These riparian ecosystems were supplied significantly by river floods, directly or indirectly. These forests mostly disappeared because of land use changes and water regulation works. One of the relics is the Ohat Forest, a salt steppic oak forest on the edge of the Hungarian Puszta (Hortobágy). Historical maps prove that this area was continuously forested, even before the water regulations.

Because of its dryness, the 2020/21 hydrological year is especially suitable for water uptake analysis. Its yearly rainfall sum was 469.8 mm, compared to the long-term average (more than 500 mm). A groundwater well was settled in the forest on 28th of May 2021, and on 22nd of June 2021 a vented pressure transducer was installed to monitor the water table. Logged time series show diurnal groundwater fluctuation, by which we can estimate the environment-dependent groundwater uptake of the oak forest.

This research was supported by the NRDI Fund FK 20 Grant Project no. 134547 and TKP2021-NKTA-43 project at University of Sopron.

How to cite: Kiss, C. L., Gribovszki, Z., Pinke, Z., Ács, T., Kozma, Z., and Kalicz, P.: Groundwater uptake dynamics of a lowland oak forest in the Great Hungarian Plain, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4821, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4821, 2022.

11:36–11:43
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EGU22-7000
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Blanka Holik, Csenge Nevezi, Kamila Hlavčová, Péter Kalicz, and Zoltán Gribovszki

Riparian vegetation forms have strong dependence on hydrological factors. Forests and meadows in valley locations are strictly protected in many cases. Knowledge of the changes in their water balance in context of climate change is critical in terms of their survival.

We studied the hydrology of a riparian alder forest and a neighbouring wet meadow at the outlet of the Hidegvíz valley experimental catchment (eastern foothills of the Alps). Interception loss (significant element of forest water balance) and groundwater uptake importance were analyzed. LAI and forest structural parameters were measured for calculating interception and remote sensing information were also used. We settled groundwater wells for groundwater level dynamics analysis. Meteorological parameters that we used for this analysis were measured in an open-air plot next to the examined ecosystems.

Remote sensing data is useful for determination of LAI and so vegetation storage capacity dynamically in an interception model. Field interception measurement is important for exact model calibration. Measurements of groundwater levels with high frequency give us the possibility to determine groundwater dynamics and to estimate vegetation water uptake. On the basis of the results, interception loss and groundwater uptake of alder forest are significantly higher, so riparian forests have greater water demand for their survival in the changing climate.

Acknowledgement: Research was supported by TKP2021-NKTA-43 project. Project no. TKP2021-NKTA-43 has been implemented with the support provided by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology of Hungary from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, financed under the TKP2021-NKTA funding scheme.”

How to cite: Holik, B., Nevezi, C., Hlavčová, K., Kalicz, P., and Gribovszki, Z.: Interception and groundwater dynamics of an alder forest and a neighbouring wet meadow, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7000, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7000, 2022.

11:43–11:50
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EGU22-6836
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Weronika Warachowska, Gábor Ungvári, and Andras Kis

The paper aims to investigate the nature of problems related to the implementation of polders as nature based solutions (NBS) for flood risk management in two European river basins – the Tisza and the Warta rivers. The research focuses on economic and institutional challenges related to the implementation of polders and on consequences for existing or potential ecosystems of the polder areas. An important aspect of the research focuses also on investigating the course of social innovations that led to the institutional preconditions needed for enhanced implementation of future investments for multi-purpose NBS for flood risk reduction in river basins located in the Central Europe.

Due to the observed climate change in recent years, in both the Tisza and the Warta river basins, attempts have been made to regulate legal background for water management, in particular for flood risk reduction. As both regions are characterized by an increasing flood risk and significant flood damage related to the former flood events, it is necessary to investigate the possibility of the implementation of effective solutions for flood risk reduction that would be cost effective and at the same time contribute to the preservation of the environment according to the dual expectation of the Flood and Water Framework Directives.

In both regions one of the analyzed and planned for implementation measures were polders that can contribute to significant flood risk reduction in local and regional scale. However, despite significant socio-economical and geographical similarities of both regions, the undertaken actions aimed at implementation of polders brought different (at parts even the opposite) outcomes. While actions undertaken in the Tisza river basin led to establishment of fully operational polders, polders in Poland are still in the plans. However, establishing new infrastructure in Hungary did not solve all problems related to flood risk management.

The following issues related to establishing polders as Nature-Based Solutions will be analyzed:

(i) Costs of establishing polders;

(ii) Formal and legal condition;

(iii) The role of interests and social conflicts;

(iv) Environmental impact.

According to the above, despite comprehensive plans prepared on the basis of the EU Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive, the investments in the Tisza and the Warta river basins brought unexpected outcomes (such us social conflicts, ambiguity of formal and legal conditions or negative environmental impact) that affect the effectiveness of NBS.

Identification and description of the obstacles in the decision-making process related to the flood risk mitigation and characterization of ongoing social transformations in the Tisza and the Warta river cases provide insights for future investments in other Central European countries that face similar societal, environmental and economic challenges.

How to cite: Warachowska, W., Ungvári, G., and Kis, A.: Institutional, economic and ecological challenges of nature-based solutions implementation for flood risk management in two Central-European river basins. , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6836, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6836, 2022.