PS4.1

Paving the Way to the Decade of Venus

In June 2021, NASA and ESA selected a fleet of three international missions to planet Venus. 28 years since the Magellan orbital radar mapping mission, and 37 years since the last Venera/VeGa landing, Venus remains our enigmatic neighbour. Shrouded by its dense atmosphere, the surface is only studied from space at radar frequencies and in a limited number of near-infrared spectral windows. Many significant questions remain on the current state of Venus, suggesting major gaps in our understanding of how our nearest planet's evolutionary pathway diverged from Earth's. Did Venus ever have an ocean, how and when did greenhouse conditions develop, and to what degree do volcanic eruptions still affect the surface and atmosphere today? Comparing the interior, surface and atmosphere evolution of Earth and Venus is essential to understanding what processes have shaped our own planet. This is particularly relevant in a decade where we expect hundreds of Earth- & Venus-size exoplanets to be discovered. The session will also address how these new missions will better understand Venus’ early evolution and past and present habitability.

Convener: Moa Persson | Co-convener: Thomas Widemann
Presentations
| Wed, 25 May, 10:20–11:50 (CEST)
 
Room 1.85/86

Session assets

Session materials

Presentations: Wed, 25 May | Room 1.85/86

Chairpersons: Moa Persson, Thomas Widemann
10:20–10:23
Interior and surface structures
10:23–10:30
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EGU22-7781
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Christelle Saliby, Arthur Briaud, Agnes Fienga, Anthony Memin, Giorgio Spada, and Daniele Melini

The Sun exerts tidal forces that deform the planet Venus, from deformation and mass redistribution in its interior, involving variation in the gravity field. The deformation of the planet induced by tidal forcing can be observed with the periodic variations of its gravity field and the Love number k2. The planet’s deformation is linked to its internal structure, most effectively to its density, rigidity and viscosity.  Hence the tidal Love number k2 can be theoretically estimated  for different planetary models.

The terrestrial planet Venus is reminiscent of the Earth twin planet in size and density, which leads to the assumption that the Earth and Venus have similar internal structures. In this work, the calculation of k2 is done with ALMA, a Fortran 90 program from Spada [2008] which computes the tidal and load Love numbers using the Post-Widder Laplace inversion formula. With a reference Venus model from Dumoulin et al. [2017], we investigate different parameters of the planet’s layers to calculate its frequency dependent tidal k2. We apply a random variation of each layer’s parameters within certain boundaries, which allows a statistical analysis of the possible Venus models that fall into the observed data (Mass, Moment of Inertia and k2). We test the effect of different parameters in the Venus model on the k2 and better understand the different hypotheses for the interior of Venus, as mantle viscosity to core structure (a fluid, solid and part fluid part solid core) .

How to cite: Saliby, C., Briaud, A., Fienga, A., Memin, A., Spada, G., and Melini, D.: The internal structure of Venus and its global deformation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7781, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7781, 2022.

10:30–10:40
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EGU22-7680
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ECS
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solicited
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Anna Gülcher, Taras Gerya, and Laurent Montési

Our neighbouring planet Venus holds key insights into terrestrial planet evolution. At present, there is no mosaic of mobile tectonic plates on the planet, yet Venus’ surface is scarred with many tectonic and volcanic structures. Surface deformation seems to be related to regional-scale tectonic deformation and/or mantle upwellings, but it remains questionable exactly when, and how, Venus is resurfacing. “Coronae” are ~circular crown-like structures with traces of tectonic and volcanic activity. They are commonly proposed to be surface manifestations of mantle plume upwellings and/or magmatism, and may therefore provide fundamental insights to Venus’ interior dynamics through time. The exact processes underlying their development and the reasons for their diverse morphologies have been widely debated in the past, with several key outcomes for the Venus scientific community. 

In this presentation, I focus on our recent 3D numerical studyof plume-induced corona formation [1] and discuss what insights this study gives on the thermal evolution of Venus, as well as its present-day geological activity. The modelled corona morphologies are strongly on the lithospheric structure and the underlying dynamic processes at play. By a detailed comparison the modeling results with observed corona features (data from NASA’s Magellan mission), widespread plume activity on Venus was identified.  Moreover, I present prompting new results on the gravitational signatures of these modelled corona structures, and discuss whether we can distinguish between different stages of corona evolution in the gravity field. These outcomes may be important for future radio science experiments aboard ESA’s EnVision orbiter.

Finally, I’ll touch upon several key directions for future research on these enigmatic coronae structures, which are relevant in light of the upcoming ‘Decade(s) of Venus Science’. While I mainly formulate these key questions form a geodynamical point-of-view, I invite scientists from all disciplines of the Geo- and Planetary sciences to join the discussion on how these unique coronae can provide key information on the evolution of the interior and surface of Earth’s twin planet.


[1] Gülcher, A.J.P., Gerya, T.V., Montési, L.G.J., and Munch, J., (2020). Corona structures driven by plume–lithosphere interactions and evidence for ongoing plume activity on Venus. Nature Geoscience, 13, 547–554. 

How to cite: Gülcher, A., Gerya, T., and Montési, L.: Corona structures as a window into volcano-tectonic activity on Venus: key insights and ways forward, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7680, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7680, 2022.

10:40–10:47
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EGU22-954
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Barbara De Toffoli, Francesco Mazzarini, Ana-Catalina Plesa, Thomas Vaujour, Doris Breuer, and Ernst Hauber

Rifting and rises are prominent landscape features in the roughly triangular area characterized by the presence of three major rises (Atla, Beta and Themis) and two corona-dominated long chasmata (Hecate and Parga). The coronae population associated with these chasmata represents 35% of all Venusian coronae and 56% of coronae associated with fracture zones (Smrekar et al., 2010). We focused on the spatial analysis of the coronae population associated with Parga chasma for identifying the depth of the main thermal anomaly that fed (and maybe still feeds) them.

We explore a formation mechanism for coronae based on the Rayleigh–Taylor (R-T) gravitational instability (Tackley and Stevenson, 1991) of the lithosphere that may occur when a layer of dense fluid overlies a layer of less dense fluid. The R-T gravitational instability theory can be used to draw a relationship between the spacing of volcanic structures and edifices at the surface and the depth of the source of instability beneath the volcanic fields (i.e. the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth where partial melting is initiated and starts the vertical upwelling of material). We performed the analyses both on the entire population and on two sub-groups obtained from automatic clustering based on point spacing analysis. Overall, the results obtained from the analysis of the entire population can be considered a global average while the information extracted from the analyses of the two clusters are to be interpreted as end members. Hence, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth results to be located at 117 ± 10 km underneath Parga.

Additionally, we ran geodynamical models using a variable thermal conductivity and expansivity, and reference viscosities between 1e20 and 1e22 Pa s. These models use an extrusive to intrusive magmatism ratio of 0.1, a typical terrestrial value (Crisp et al., 1984). The intrusive melt is assumed to stall at the base of the crust (~20 km depth; James et al., 2013), since the latter represents a density barrier. According to these models,  a mantle reference viscosity of 1e20 Pa s is best compatible with the geologically inferred lithosphere thickness as well as a thin mechanical thickness as suggested by elastic thickness estimates (e.g., O’Rourke & Smrekar 2018).

As future missions will return higher resolution imagery and topographical information, we suggest the area of Parga chasma as a region of high interest for future data acquisitions. In fact, more detailed data can allow the observation of stratigraphic relationships between rises, rifts, coronae, and volcanoes in order to reconstruct the event sequences. By means of R-T analysis and similar techniques, we would thus be able to refine current analyses and perform more detailed estimates from smaller volcanic features and obtain more precise information about magma reservoir distribution in the subsurface.

How to cite: De Toffoli, B., Mazzarini, F., Plesa, A.-C., Vaujour, T., Breuer, D., and Hauber, E.: Revealing Venus Interior from Coronae Analysis, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-954, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-954, 2022.

10:47–10:54
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EGU22-6178
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Boris Ivanov

Our team has discovered first impact craters under the thick Venusian atmosphere with radar images during the Venera 15/16 mission. Later Magellan radar images of a better quality allowed us to count all impact craters and to find amazing features, splotches, resulted most probably from “airbursts” - total explosive disruption in flight of small celestial bodies. Splotches could have a central feature (possibly caused by terminal impacts of fragments), or could be diffusive patches of increased (bright) or decreased (dark) areas of changed radar reflectivity. The main explanation so far is that atmospheric shock waves, generated by airbursts, somehow change the surface radar reflectivity, e.g. creating smoother (radar dark) or more rough (radar bright) zones due to reflection of shocks. Size of splotches vary from ~10 km to ~200 km, being comparable with the characteristic atmosphere thickness. The exact mechanisms of air shock wave interaction with the surface is still under debates, but promises to help us better understand the presence of dust/sand/pebbles/boulders at the surface of Venus as well as to estimate mechanical properties of surface rocks. We start a small project to support the issue. The project includes the numerical modeling of atmospheric shock waves on Venus due to cratering impacts and due to airbursts. Our modeling is compared with results published in 1990s-2000s. Airbursts are modeled as a hot spheric volume gas explosion 10 to 40 km above the surface in the Venusian stratified atmosphere. In addition to trivial parameters like maximum pressure, dynamic pressure and the wind speed behind the shock front, necessary for the following analysis of a possible “aeolian” motion of surface’s fines, we try to formulate a general picture of shock wave propagation in the atmosphere after an airburst. We find that the large-scale hot gas bubble from the source zone creates a n x 10 km plume (a kind of a classical “mushroom”), which effectively expands laterally at high altitudes, pushing forward an enhanced shock wave. This wave is looking like a gradual conversion of the main shock wave from a hemispheric one to a conic front, returning back to surface. The other trivial (but not discussed quantitatively) phenomenon is the seismic wave, created by an air shock, but finally overrun the atmospheric shock front. It means that the surface air shock front at large distances arrive after the seismic wave shakes the surface. We plan to investigates all these phenomena and compare models with observations. An interesting possibility seems to be satellite observation of rare meteoroid entry to the Venusian atmosphere, as it now available for terrestrial bolides.

How to cite: Ivanov, B.: Impact features on Venus: Modeling craters and splotches, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6178, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6178, 2022.

Past and present habitability
10:54–11:01
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EGU22-4357
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Michael Way, Richard Ernst, and Jeffrey Scargle

The idea of a habitable Venus epoch has gained traction in recent years via 1-D and 3-D General Circulation Modeling (GCM) efforts [1,2,3]. Although recent work has supported an alternative permanent hot and dry scenario [4].  However, the habitable scenario presents us with a conundrum - how does a terrestrial planet transform from temperate to hot-house? For decades it was proposed that the gradual brightening of the sun was the probable cause [5]. Yet 4 billion years ago Venus was receiving nearly 1.4 times the insolation that Earth receives today, and many studies have put Earth at the inner boundary of the habitable zone today [6].  The newer 3-D GCM efforts have demonstrated that if Venus had an early habitable period, that the cloud-albedo feedback responsible for maintaining temperate surface conditions [7] could still be in operation today. From this perspective increasing insolation through time cannot be an answer to the transition from habitable to hot-house. We propose that the 'Great Climate Transition' (GCT) was trigged by simultaneous large igneous provinces (LIPs) akin to those like the Siberian Traps responsible for the End Permian [8].  We have taken the most up to date LIP database for Earth [9] and characterized their distribution through time as random or nearly random. Next we initiate a large suite of Monte Carlo simulations based on this record and generate the likelihood for simultaneous, or environmentally overlapping events in this hypothetical setup. We find the probability of such events to be quite high, a probable cause for Venus' GCT, and a possible harbinger of things to come for Earth.

[1] Grinspoon, D.H. & Bullock, M.A. (2007) AGU https://doi.org/10.1029/176GM12
[2] Way, M. J. et al. (2016) GRL 43, 8376–8383
[3] Way, M. J. and Del Genio, A D.  (2020) JGR Planets 125, e2019JE006276
[4] Turbet et al. (2021) Nature,598,276 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03873-w
[5] Kasting J. F., Pollack J. B. and Ackerman T. P. (1983) Icarus, 57, 335-355
[6] Kopparapu, R.K. et al. (2013) ApJ 765, 131
[7] Yang, J. et al. (2014) ApJ 707, L2
[8] Wignall, P. (2001) Earth Science Reviews, 53 (1-2), 1-33
[9] Ernst R. E. et al. (2021) AGU Geophys. Mon. 255, pp. 3-26

How to cite: Way, M., Ernst, R., and Scargle, J.: Heat-death by volcano - how Venus went rogue?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4357, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4357, 2022.

11:01–11:08
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EGU22-13500
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ECS
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Presentation form not yet defined
How much water on a habitable Venus? Constraints from modern atmospheric O2
(withdrawn)
Alexandra Warren and Edwin Kite
11:08–11:15
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EGU22-3336
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On-site presentation
Cédric Gillmann and Gregor Golabek

The habitability of a terrestrial planet depends on its surface conditions, which can vary greatly during its evolution. Volatile exchanges between the interior, the surface and the atmosphere - the cycles of volatile species or their absence - are largely responsible for these variations and the resulting complex feedback mechanisms between the processes involved. The differences between Earth and Venus climate conditions highlight how similar processes and base characteristics can lead to divergent states after billions of years of evolution. While Venus exhibits hostile conditions and its atmosphere appears mostly desiccated, some hypothetical evolution scenarios suggest it was not always so, and that it could have sustained liquid water oceans for an undefined period of time during its past history. We investigate what mechanisms are likely to be responsible for this type of catastrophic change on Venus and possibly on terrestrial planets, using coupled numerical evolution simulations of planetary evolution, involving mantle dynamics, volcanism, atmospheric greenhouse, escape mechanisms, meteoritic impacts and surface solid-gas exchanges. Increasing solar luminosity (the faint young sun paradox) only marginally affects surface temperature changes. Atmospheric escape could only hide the results of a runaway greenhouse phase by removing water rather than cause the observed climate change. Moreover, it is shown, especially in light of recent measurements interpretation, to be unlikely to be responsible for massive water loss. Large impacts, capable of releasing large amounts of volatiles in the atmosphere, are infrequent and unlikely to occur during late evolution. The smaller impactors do not have enough mass to affect the mantle or atmosphere substantially.  The cause of catastrophic transitions and the means to dessicate the atmosphere of Venus post-runaway greenhouse may be internal. We investigate volcanic gas release based on mantle composition and mantle dynamics over time, as well as oxidation mechanisms of fresh material that can trap volatiles into the surface. Solid surface oxidation is inefficient and appears to be roughly as efficient (within 0.1-1 order of magnitude) as recent atmospheric escape, when considering O removal during the last few billion years. Ashes oxidation could be more efficient but requires explosive volcanism that is not widespread on Venus, given the few traces detected from surface observation. We compare its effects to that on Earth. However, large variations in atmospheric composition and vertical structure resulting from runaway greenhouse could affect all the mechanisms involved in the evolution of terrestrial planets and, under some circumstances lead to a late molten surface phase. Surface exchanges and atmospheric loss would therefore be affected in turn.

How to cite: Gillmann, C. and Golabek, G.: The role of surface volatile exchanges in evolving climate conditions on terrestrial planets, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3336, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3336, 2022.

Atmosphere & Magnetosheath science
11:15–11:22
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EGU22-3676
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On-site presentation
Therese Encrenaz, Thomas Greathouse, Rohini Giles, Thomas Widemann, Bruno Bézard, and Thierry Fouchet

Since 2012, we have been monitoring SO2 and H2O (using HDO as a proxy) at the cloud top of Venus, using the TEXES high-resolution imaging spectrometer at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Maunakea Observatory. Maps have been recorded around 1345 cm-1 (7.4 microns), where SO2, CO2 and HDO are observed, and around 530 cm-1 (19 microns) where SO2 and CO2 are observed. An anti-correlation has been found in the long-term evolution of these two species and SO2 plumes have been identified with an evolution time scale of a few hours. The SO2 distribution as a function of local time seems to show two maxima around the terminator, indicating the possible presence of a semi-diurnal wave (Encrenaz et al. A&A 639, A69, 2020). After a year of interruption due to the Covid crisis, new observations have been performed in July and September 2021.   They show that the SO2 abundance, which had been globally increasing from 2014 until 2019, has now decreased with respect to its maximum value. The new data will be analyzed in the context of the whole dataset.

How to cite: Encrenaz, T., Greathouse, T., Giles, R., Widemann, T., Bézard, B., and Fouchet, T.: Ground-based HDO and SO2 thermal mapping on Venus : An update, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3676, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3676, 2022.

11:22–11:29
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EGU22-3076
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On-site presentation
Constança Freire, Thomas Widemann, Thérèse Encrenaz, Pedro Machado, and João Dias

We have used infrared spectra of the dark side of Venus, recorded by the VIRTIS-H spectrometer (Drossart et al. Proc. SPIE 5543, 175, 2014) aboard Venus Express (Svedhem et al. JGR 113, E00B33, 2008), to analyze the CO (1-0) band around 4.7 µm. The resolving power of VIRTIS-H (about 1200) is sufficient to separate the individual lines of CO. We have selected two sets of spectra, the first one at mid-latitude (43°S) and the other in the polar collar (69-83°S). The CO individual lines appear in absorption in the first case, and in emission in the second case, as a consequence of a temperature inversion occurring at high latitude at the level of the upper cloud top. Synthetic models have been calculated using the Planetary Spectrum Generator (Villanueva et al. JQSRT 217, 86, 2018). Information is retrieved on the thermal vertical profile and the CO vertical distribution at both latitudes. This work illustrates the capabilities of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy for monitoring minor atmospheric species in the mesosphere of Venus, in the perspective of the EnVision mission (Helbert et al. Proc. SPIE 11128, A1112804, 2019).

How to cite: Freire, C., Widemann, T., Encrenaz, T., Machado, P., and Dias, J.: Observations of the (1-0) band of CO in Venus using VIRTIS-H aboard Venus Express, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3076, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3076, 2022.

11:29–11:36
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EGU22-5271
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Antoine Martinez, Sebastien Lebonnois, Ehouarn Millour, Thomas Pierron, Enora Moisan, Gabriella Gilli, and Franck Lefevre

For fifteen years, a Global Climate Model (GCM) has been developed for the Venus atmosphere at “Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace” (IPSL), in collaboration between LMD and LATMOS, from the surface up to 150 km altitude (Lebonnois et al., 2010; 2016). Recently, the vertical grid was extended from 10-5 Pa to 10-8 Pa (~180-250 km) and allows us to simulate the Venusian upper thermosphere. At the same time, improvements were made on the parameterization of non-LTE CO2 near infrared heating rates, on the parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves and a tuning was performed on atomic oxygen production to improve the thermospheric densities and their effects (heating and cooling; Martinez et al., 2022; submitted).

This work focuses on validating the modeled thermospheric structure by comparison using data from the Pioneer Venus, Magellan and Venus Express missions which cover similar and complementary (equator and pole) regions at different periods of solar activity, typically above 130 km in altitude. In particular, we will discuss the importance of atomic oxygen in regulating the thermospheric temperature, the effect of the solar cycle on the upper thermosphere and the effect of non-orographic gravity waves on the diurnal temperature profile.

 

References:

Lebonnois, S., Hourdin, F., Eymet, V., Crespin, A., Fournier, R., Forget, F., 2010. Superrotation of Venus’ atmosphere analyzed with a full general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 115, 6006. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JE003458.

Lebonnois, S., Sugimoto, N., Gilli, G., 2016. Wave analysis in the atmosphere of Venus below 100-km altitude, simulated by the LMD Venus GCM. Icarus 278, 38–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.004.

Martinez et al. 2022, submitted to Icarus

How to cite: Martinez, A., Lebonnois, S., Millour, E., Pierron, T., Moisan, E., Gilli, G., and Lefevre, F.: Venusian Thermosphere variability by IPSL Venus GCM, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5271, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5271, 2022.

11:36–11:43
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EGU22-3903
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Moa Persson and the BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter Venus subsolar region investigation team

The Mercury-bound BepiColombo mission passed by Venus for a second gravity assist maneuver (GAM) on the 10th of August, 2021. During the GAM, the plasma instrumentation on board the two spacecraft Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter (MMO, JAXA), and Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO, ESA), which are stacked together during cruise before orbit insertion at Mercury in 2025, made measurements of the Venusian plasma environment. The entire passage was spent in the Venusian magnetosheath; from the entering of the inbound bow shock at around 12:30 UT, near 8 Rv from the planet, to the exit though the outbound bow shock near the subsolar point at 14:00 UT. This meant that it crossed several different subregions of the magnetosheath, which could be successfully measured and characterised by a combination of the many different plasma instruments on board the MMO and MPO spacecrafts of the BepiColombo mission.

In addition, one day before the Venus GAM for BepiColombo, the Solar Orbiter spacecraft performed a GAM at Venus, with a trajectory after the gravity assist leading upstream of Venus. As a result, the Solar Orbiter provided measurements of the solar wind conditions upstream of Venus during the BepiColombo GAM. Shifting the Solar Orbiter measurements with one hour showed a good correlation between the measurements of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) by the two missions (when both were outside of the Venusian bow shock). Therefore, we conclude that Solar Orbiter was connected along the same Parker Spiral arm as Venus during the BepiColombo GAM, and the Solar Orbiter can be used as an upstream solar wind monitor.

Through the combination of the MPPE (Mercury Plasma/Particle Experiment) instrument package onboard MMO, the SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) instrument package and magnetometer onboard MPO, together with the upstream monitor by Solar Orbiter PAS (Proton Alpha Spectrometer) and magnetic field instruments, we have characterized and analysed the subregions of the Venusian magnetosheath. In this presentation we will give an overview of these observations and discuss the larger context of the results.

How to cite: Persson, M. and the BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter Venus subsolar region investigation team: The scenic tour of the Venusian magnetosheath by BepiColombo, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3903, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3903, 2022.

Future missions
11:43–11:50
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EGU22-8391
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On-site presentation
Thomas Widemann, Richard Ghail, Colin Wilson, Dmitri Titov, Anne Grete Straume, Adriana Ocampo, Tatiana Bocanegra-Bahamon, Lorenzo Bruzzone, Bruce Campbell, Lynn Carter, Caroline Dumoulin, Gabriella Gilli, Jörn Helbert, Scott Hensley, Walter Kiefer, Emmanuel Marcq, Philippa Mason, Alberto Moreira, and Ann Carine Vandaele

On June 10, 2021, the European Space Agency (ESA) announced the selection of EnVision as its newest medium-class science mission. EnVision's overarching science questions are to explore the full range of geoscientific processes operating on Venus [1, 2]. It will investigate Venus from its inner core to its atmosphere at an unprecedented scale of resolution, characterising in particular core and mantle structure, signs of past geologic processes, and looking for evidence of past liquid water. Recent modeling studies strongly suggest that the evolution of the atmosphere and interior of Venus are coupled, emphasizing the need to study the atmosphere, surface, and interior of Venus as a system. The nominal science phase of the mission will last six Venus sidereal days (four Earth years). EnVision will downlink 210 Tbits of science data, using a Ka-/X-band comms system with a 2.5 m diameter fixed high-gain antenna. As a key partner in the mission, NASA provides the Synthetic Aperture Radar, VenSAR.

The EnVision payload consists of five instruments provided by European and US institutions. The five instruments comprise a comprehensive measurement suite spanning infrared, ultraviolet-visible, microwave and high frequency wavelengths. This suite is complemented by the Radio Science investigation exploiting the spacecraft TT&C system. All instruments in the payload have substantial heritage and robust margins relative to the requirements with designs suitable for operation in the Venus environment. This suite of instruments was chosen to meet the broad spectrum of measurement requirements needed to support EnVision science investigations. Two parallel competitive industrial studies will continue in the Definition Phase B1, to complete trade-offs, consolidate requirements and interfaces, produce system specifications,  support development of the science operations, calibration strategies, science products definition under the responsibility of the Future Missions Department (SCI-F) and under the authority of the EnVision Study Manager until Mission Adoption Review (MAR) scheduled in 2024. 

[1] ESA's EnVision Assessment Study Report: sci.esa.int/web/cosmic-vision/envision-assessment-study-report-yellow-book. [2] EnVision mission website: www.envisionvenus.eu.

How to cite: Widemann, T., Ghail, R., Wilson, C., Titov, D., Straume, A. G., Ocampo, A., Bocanegra-Bahamon, T., Bruzzone, L., Campbell, B., Carter, L., Dumoulin, C., Gilli, G., Helbert, J., Hensley, S., Kiefer, W., Marcq, E., Mason, P., Moreira, A., and Vandaele, A. C.: The EnVision Mission to Venus, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8391, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8391, 2022.