AS1.19

Joint Session of the MLT and the predictability of the solar-terrestrial coupling

This joint session invites papers that are related to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It addresses the predictability of the solar-terrestrial coupling, focusing on the role of the sun and the middle atmosphere/thermosphere/ionosphere in climate and space weather. Contributions studying radiation, chemistry, energy balance, atmospheric tides, planetary waves, gravity waves, neutral-ion coupling, and the interaction of the various processes involved are welcome. This includes work on model data as well as measurements from satellites and ground based platforms such as ALOMAR.

Convener: Martin Kaufmann | Co-conveners: Peter Preusse, Franz-Josef Lübken
Presentations
| Tue, 24 May, 15:10–16:34 (CEST)
 
Room 0.11/12

Presentations: Tue, 24 May | Room 0.11/12

Chairperson: Franz-Josef Lübken
15:10–15:16
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EGU22-3019
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Franz-Josef Lübken, Gerd Baumgarten, Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly, and Ashique Vellalassery

Noctilucent clouds (NLC) are often cited as potential indicators of climate change in the middle atmosphere. They owe their existence to the very cold summer mesopause region (~130K) at mid and high latitudes. We analyze trends derived from the Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere Model (LIMA) and the MIMAS ice particle model (Mesospheric Ice Microphysics And tranSport model). We first concentrate on the years 1871-2008 and on middle, high and arctic latitudes, respectively. Model runs with and without an increase of carbon dioxide and water vapor (from methane oxidation) concentration are performed. Trends are most prominent after ~1960 when the increase of both carbon dioxide and water vapor accelerates. Negative trends of (geometric) NLC altitudes are primarily due to cooling below NLC altitudes caused by carbon dioxide increase. Increases of ice particle radii and NLC brightness with time are mainly caused by an enhancement of water vapor caused by the oxidation of methane. Several ice layer and background parameter trends are similar at high and arctic latitudes but are substantially smaller at middle latitudes. Ice particles are present nearly all the time at high and arctic latitudes, but are much less common at middle latitudes. Ice water content and maximum backscatter are highly correlated, where the slope depends on latitude. This allows to combine data sets from satellites and lidars. Furthermore, IWC and the concentration of water vapor at the altitude of maximum backscatter are also strongly correlated. Results from LIMA/MIMAS are consistent with observations. More recently, we have expanded our model runs into the future, namely up to the 2060s. We have used IPCC scenarios regarding future concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane. We find that all NLC parameters, such as occurrence rates and backscatter coefficients increase substantially in this time period. Furthermore, we have studied the extinction of solar radiation by NLC. We will present details regarding the (wavelength-dependent) extinction and the temporal and spatial distribution of this extinction. We will also present new results on the impact of solar cycle induced radiation variability on NLC.

How to cite: Lübken, F.-J., Baumgarten, G., Grygalashvyly, M., and Vellalassery, A.: Will future noctilucent clouds affect Earth's albedo?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3019, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3019, 2022.

15:16–15:22
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EGU22-6114
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Virtual presentation
Boris Strelnikov, Tristan Staszak, Philipp Seither, Martin Friedrich, Markus Rapp, Joan Stude, Ralph Latteck, Toralf Renkwitz, Stefan Löhle, Igor Hörner, Martin Eberhart, Stefanos Fasoulas, Jörg Gumbel, Jonas Hedin, Franz-Josef Lübken, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, Irina Strelnikova, Evgenia Belova, and Marcus Hörschgen-Eggers and the PMWE team

Polar mesosphere winter echoes (PMWE) are relatively strong radar returns which are regularly observed by mesosphere/stratosphere/troposphere (MST) radars at high latitudes in winter. A sounding rocket project PMWE aimed at investigation of this phenomenon by means of high resolution in situ measurements of all the relevant parameters inside and around the volume probed by the MAARSY radar. Two sounding rocket campaigns were conducted at the Andøya Space (AS, 69 °N, 16 °E) in April 2018 and October 2021, respectively. Two instrumented sounding rockets were launched during each rocket campaing. Both EISCAT in Tromsø and SAURA radar located near the launch site were running throughout the campaign periods. RMR-lidar successfully measured temperature and wind fields on the day of rocket launches in October 2021. In this paper we give an overview and some details of the measurements conducted during the two rocket campaigns and discuss first results.

How to cite: Strelnikov, B., Staszak, T., Seither, P., Friedrich, M., Rapp, M., Stude, J., Latteck, R., Renkwitz, T., Löhle, S., Hörner, I., Eberhart, M., Fasoulas, S., Gumbel, J., Hedin, J., Lübken, F.-J., Baumgarten, G., Fiedler, J., Strelnikova, I., Belova, E., and Hörschgen-Eggers, M. and the PMWE team: Sounding rocket project PMWE for investigation of polar mesosphere winter echoes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6114, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6114, 2022.

15:22–15:28
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EGU22-6994
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Antti Salminen, Timo Asikainen, and Kalevi Mursula

During the winter, a strong westerly wind surrounds the cold polar stratosphere, forming the polar vortex. In the northern hemisphere the polar vortex is affected by energetic electron precipitation (EEP) which originates from the magnetosphere and is driven by the solar wind. EEP forms reactive nitrogen and hydrogen oxides, NOx and HOx, which destroy ozone and, thus, affects the radiative and thermal balance in the atmosphere. Several studies have shown that the EEP decreases ozone in the winter polar stratosphere and enhances the polar vortex in the northern hemisphere. This EEP effect on polar vortex is also found to depend on different factors such as the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW). Both the QBO and SSWs are believed to modulate the EEP effect via planetary waves, disturbances originating mainly from the troposphere, but the role of planetary waves in this context has not been studied in detail. In this work we examine the EEP effect on northern polar vortex and its dependence on planetary waves. We use the principal component analysis to examine the intensity and spatial distribution of planetary waves in the northern wintertime stratosphere. We then calculate multi linear regressions to estimate the zonal wind responses to EEP also considering planetary waves. We find that the EEP effect on the northern polar vortex is increased when planetary waves are focused at the equatorward side of the polar vortex, while the overall intensity of planetary waves does not significantly modulate the EEP effect.

How to cite: Salminen, A., Asikainen, T., and Mursula, K.: Planetary waves modulating the effect of energetic electron precipitation on polar vortex, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6994, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6994, 2022.

15:28–15:34
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EGU22-12650
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Presentation form not yet defined
Kateřina Potužníková and Petra Koucká Knížová

State of ionosphere is significantly affected by the dynamics of lower-laying atmosphere. Mesoscale systems are effective sources of atmospheric disturbances that can reach ionospheric heights and significantly alter atmospheric and ionospheric conditions. Large cyclonal systems are recognized to be an efficient source of acoustic and gravity waves that are able to propagate upward and reach the ionospheric heights. Our previous study detected a significant wave-like activity at ionospheric heights following immediately after the cross of the frontal system above the ionospheric station.

In the present paper the effects of the tropospheric variability of standard meteorological parameters associated with the passage of atmospheric frontal systems above the Průhonice station on the upper atmosphere are statistically studied. Our analysis concerns variations in occurrence, height, and critical frequency of sporadic E layer. 

How to cite: Potužníková, K. and Koucká Knížová, P.: A statistical study of the effects of tropospheric variability on the ionosphere parameters, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12650, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12650, 2022.

15:34–15:40
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EGU22-6400
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Liliana Macotela, Mark Clilverd, Jorge Chau, Daniela Banyś, Jean-Pierre Raulin, and Tero Raita

The seasonal variation of the daytime lower ionosphere over the North Atlantic, monitored using the propagation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves, shows an asymmetry when comparing the spring and autumn transitions. The signal variability shows a faster rate of change from summer to winter than from winter to summer, for which the responsible mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we perform a climatological (2008–2021) analysis to determine the northern-hemisphere latitudinal dependence of the spring-fall asymmetry. We employ VLF receivers located in Peru (low-latitude), USA (middle-latitude), UK (middle-latitude), Finland (high-latitude), and Norway (high-latitude). At the same time, we employ neutral mesospheric temperature from MLS, nitric oxide (NO) from SOFIE, and gravity wave (GW) kinetic energy derived from mesospheric horizontal winds. We find that at high-latitude the VLF amplitude variability before summer and during winter follows the seasonal variation of the solar zenith angle, but the measurements during fall do not. After removing the VLF background level, a large deviation is observed during fall, which we call the fall-effect. We explore the processes behind this effect by comparing against mean temperature, NO, and GW seasonal variabilities after removing their respective background levels. We found that the three mesospheric parameters display a fall-effect. Performing a similar analysis for middle latitudes shows that the fall-effect is not clearly observed in both ionospheric and mesospheric parameters. In the case of low-latitudes, no fall-effect is observed. We discuss the possible association between the mesospheric temperature and the VLF variability through collision and absorption. We also discuss the possible role of GW on the D-region.

How to cite: Macotela, L., Clilverd, M., Chau, J., Banyś, D., Raulin, J.-P., and Raita, T.: Latitudinal dependence of the fall-effect observed in the D-region and mesosphere, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6400, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6400, 2022.

15:40–15:46
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EGU22-11804
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ECS
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Presentation form not yet defined
Modeling KHI Tube and Knot Dynamics and Their Impact on Mixing in the Lower Thermosphere
(withdrawn)
Tyler Mixa, David Fritts, and Thomas Lund
15:46–15:52
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EGU22-4146
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Elizaveta Maksakova, Nikolai M. Gavrilov, and Andrey V. Koval

Previous studies disclosed oscillations of ionospheric parameters, in particular, the critical frequency of the F2 layer, f0F2, with periods longer than 2 days. This allows suggestions that planetary waves (PWs) propagating from the lower atmosphere can influence the ionospheric electron density. However, someatmospheric modeling showed that PWs with observed periods may have difficulties for direct propagation to altitudes above 110 km. Since 2018, regular observations of ionospheric parameters with the DPS-4 ionosonde are been performed at the Peterhof Scientific Station of Saint Petersburg State University (60° N, 30° E). In this study, we analyzed results for spectra of oscillations of ionospheric parameters in the range of periods 0.5 – 40 days according to these measurements. In addition to these spectra we analyzed similar spectra obtained from the MERRA-2 data of meteorological reanalysis for different locations in the lower and middle atmosphere. Lomb-Scargle spectra were obtained for 90-day running intervals. They contain maxima at periods 1 day and 0.5 day, which may correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. The spectra also have maxima at periods 2 – 40 days, which can be associated with planetary waves (PWs). The analysis shows that big amplitudes of oscillations with periods τ ~ 2 – 40 d are frequently observed in the northern spring and summer months, when westward stratospheric winds prevent PW propagation from the lower to the upper atmosphere. However, the analysis of atmospheric waveguides revealed that PWs can cross the equator above altitudes of 60 km. Therefore, PWs observed in summer ionosphere can, in prinsiple, propagate from the lower wave sources located in the winter hemisphere.Obtained correlation coefficients between variations of the spectral densities at ionospheric and tropospheric heights at different latitudes demonstrate sufficient statistical confidence for PWs with periods of several days. This gives evidences about possible PW coupling between dynamical processes in the lower atmosphere and ionosphere. The spectral analysis was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant #20-77-10006) and the analysis of PW coupling was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation (agreement 075-15-2021-583). Used ionosonde data were acquired in the “Geomodel” Resource Center of SPbSU.

How to cite: Maksakova, E., Gavrilov, N. M., and Koval, A. V.: Spectra of Tides and Planetary Waves from Ionosonde and MERRA-2 Data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4146, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4146, 2022.

15:52–15:58
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EGU22-776
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Shaun M Dempsey, Phoebe E Noble, Corwin J Wright, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Nicholas J Mitchell

The wind field in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), at heights between 80 and 100 km, is dominated by the global scale oscillations of the atmospheric tides. The tides are crucial to the dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere and hence to understanding the coupling between the lower atmosphere and space. The tides are known to show considerable variability on timescales of days to years, with significant variability at interannual timescales.  However, the nature and causes of this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we present measurements made over the interval 2005 to 2020 of the interannual variability of the 12-hour tide as measured at heights of 80 – 100 km by a meteor radar over the British Antarctic Survey base at Rothera (68°S, 68°W). We use a linear regression analysis to investigate correlations between the 12-hour tidal amplitudes and several climate indices, specifically the solar cycle (as measured by F10.7 solar flux), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) at 10 hPa and 30 hPa, the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and time. Our observations reveal that the 12-hour tide has a large amplitude and a clearly defined seasonal cycle with monthly mean values as large as 35 ms-1. We observe substantial interannual variability with monthly mean tidal amplitudes at 95 km exhibiting an interdecile range in spring of 17.2 ms-1, 12.6 ms-1 in summer, 23.6 ms-1 in autumn and 9.0 ms-1 in winter. We find that F10.7, QBO10, QBO30, SAM and time all have significant correlations at the 95% level, whereas we detect very minimal correlation with ENSO. For example, there is a significant negative correlation between F10.7 solar flux and tidal amplitudes in summer, implying an increase in solar flux is related to a decrease in monthly mean tidal amplitudes in the MLT. These results suggest that the amplitude of the polar 12-hour tide is modulated by the solar cycle, QBO and SAM.

How to cite: Dempsey, S. M., Noble, P. E., Wright, C. J., Moffat-Griffin, T., and Mitchell, N. J.: Interannual variability of the 12-hour tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere in 15 years of meteor-radar observations above Rothera (68o S, 68o W), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-776, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-776, 2022.

15:58–16:04
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EGU22-772
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Phoebe Noble, Corwin Wright, Neil Hindley, Nicholas Mitchell, Chihoko Cullens, Scott England, Nicholas Pedatella, and Tracy Moffat-Griffin

The Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT), at 80-100 km altitude, is critical in the coupling of the middle and upper atmosphere and determining momentum and energy transfer between these two regions. However, despite its importance, General Circulation Models (GCMs) have only recently been extended to the MLT region and remain poorly constrained.

We use a long term meteor radar dataset from Rothera on the Antarctic Peninsula to test the eXtended Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X). This radar has been running continuously since 2005, resulting in a uniquely long, consistent measure of the winds in the MLT that we can use to investigate long term variability. We find that although some characteristic features are represented well in WACCM-X, the model exhibits considerable biases. In particular, the observations show a ~10m/s eastward wind in Antarctic winter whereas the model predicts winds of the same magnitude but opposite direction. We propose that this difference is due to the lack of secondary gravity wave modelling in WACCM-X.

We also find interannual variability in both the observations and the model. In order to understand these differences, we further investigate the role of external climate processes in driving the winds in this region. Using a linear regression method, we quantify how the (observed and modelled) winds in the Antarctic MLT respond to Solar activity, the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). For some indices we find good agreement between the observations and model results while for others we see important differences.

How to cite: Noble, P., Wright, C., Hindley, N., Mitchell, N., Cullens, C., England, S., Pedatella, N., and Moffat-Griffin, T.: Long term trends in winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Rothera (67°S, 68°W) from radar observations and WACCM-X, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-772, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-772, 2022.

16:04–16:10
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EGU22-7126
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Virtual presentation
David Newnham, Mark Clilverd, William Clark, Michael Kosch, Pekka Verronen, and Alan Rogers

Ground-based observations of the ozone (O3) emission line at 11.072 GHz have been made using the Ny Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI) at the UK Arctic Research Station (latitude 78°55’0” N, longitude 11°55’59” E).  Seasonally-averaged O3 vertical profiles in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region from 15 August 2017 to 15 March 2020 have been retrieved over the altitude range 62–98 km.  NAOMI measurements are compared with overlapping Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite observations.  The NAOMI and SABER data are binned into 3-month nominal ‘winter’ (15 December–15 March), ‘autumn’ (15 August–15 November), and ‘summer’ (15 April–15 July) periods.  The NAOMI observations show the same year-to-year and seasonal variabilities as the SABER 9.6 µm O3 data, and winter night-time and twilight volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree to within the measurement uncertainties.  However, for autumn twilight conditions the SABER 9.6 µm O3 secondary maximum VMR is more than 50% higher than NAOMI.  Comparing the two SABER channels which measure O3 at different wavelengths and use different processing schemes, the 9.6 μm O3 autumn twilight VMR values for 2017–19 exceed the corresponding 1.27 μm data with the largest difference (58%) in the 65–95 km altitude range similar to the NAOMI observation.  Summer daytime SABER 9.6 μm mesospheric O3 VMR is also consistently higher than the 1.27 μm measurement, confirming previously reported differences between SABER 9.6 μm measurements and those made by other satellites.

How to cite: Newnham, D., Clilverd, M., Clark, W., Kosch, M., Verronen, P., and Rogers, A.: Comparison of ground-based 11.072 GHz microwave observations of Arctic polar MLT ozone with SABER datasets, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7126, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7126, 2022.

16:10–16:16
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EGU22-10039
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Virtual presentation
Stefan Noll, Wolfgang Kausch, Carsten Schmidt, Michael Bittner, and Stefan Kimeswenger

The nighttime near-infrared radiation of the Earth's atmosphere is mainly produced in the mesopause region between 80 and 100 km by chemiluminescent emission of the OH radical. The line radiation of various vibrational and rotational states is therefore a valuable indicator of the chemistry and dynamics in the upper atmosphere. The vertical emission distribution can significantly change with time. It is also expected that the time-averaged effective emission height depends on the studied OH line due to differences in the radiative lifetimes, the collision-related transition probabilities, and the initial level population after the production of the radical. Although the knowledge of the OH emission layering is important for the interpretation of passing perturbations, the line-specific details are still uncertain. 

We have studied the effective emission heights of about 300 OH lines based on near-infrared spectroscopic data from the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. The line intensities showed very strong variations due to a rising quasi-two day wave during eight nights at the beginning of 2017. With complementary vertically resolved broad-band observations of OH emission from the limb-sounder SABER on the TIMED satellite, we could link the line-dependent wave phases from the fitting of the X-shooter data with emission altitudes. With a period of about 44 h and a vertical wavelength of about 32 km, the observed wave turned out to be an excellent indicator of line-dependent altitude differences, which reached up to 8 km for the investigated lines. In general, the effective emission altitude increases with increasing vibrational and rotational level. Moreover, the derived wave amplitudes imply the presence of a cold thermalised and a hot non-thermalised population for each vibrational level. As the wave amplitudes also showed a strong dependence on local time, significant interactions between the quasi-two-day wave and other perturbations such as tides are likely.

How to cite: Noll, S., Kausch, W., Schmidt, C., Bittner, M., and Kimeswenger, S.: Vertical layering of OH line emission from X-shooter and SABER observations of a passing quasi-2-day wave, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10039, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10039, 2022.

16:16–16:22
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EGU22-4871
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Mikhail Vokhmianin, Timo Asikainen, Antti Salminen, and Kalevi Mursula

Polar vortex is a system of strong westerly winds which forms each winter in the polar stratosphere. Sometimes, roughly every other winter, the polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere experiences a dramatic breakdown after associated warming of the polar stratosphere. Such events are called Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs). SSWs are known to have a significant influence on ground winter weather by leaking cold and harsh air, e.g., to Northern Eurasia and to large parts of North America. It is commonly thought that SSWs are generated by enhanced planetary waves, which propagate from the troposphere to the stratosphere. The waves break in the stratosphere and deposit their momentum there, which decelerates the vortex and leads to its breakdown.

It has been known for a long that the easterly direction of equatorial stratospheric QBO (Quasi-Biennial Oscillation) winds favors a weakening and eventual breaking of the northern polar vortex (the so-called Holton-Tan mechanism). However, it was recently shown that the occurrence rate of SSWs also depends strongly on geomagnetic activity. Breaking of the polar vortex is very likely to occur if the geomagnetic activity is weak and QBO winds are easterly. Weak geomagnetic activity corresponds to a low level of solar wind-driven energetic particle precipitation into the polar stratosphere, while the easterly QBO phase guides the planetary waves preferentially into the polar vortex.

Here we examine the possibility of using these results to predict the occurrence probability of SSWs with a long lead time of several months. We formulate a model, where the SSW probability depends on geomagnetic activity represented by Aa index and on the QBO phase. We evaluate the optimal lead times for geomagnetic activity and the QBO phase, and the optimal altitude level where the QBO has the greatest influence on the SSW probability. We will also estimate the statistical confidence limits for the derived probability.

How to cite: Vokhmianin, M., Asikainen, T., Salminen, A., and Mursula, K.: Long-term prediction of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4871, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4871, 2022.

16:22–16:28
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EGU22-7764
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Virtual presentation
Khompat Satitkovitchai and Roland Ruhnke
The oxidation capacity or self-cleaning in the troposphere is mainly controlled by the existence of the OH radical. The photolysis of ozone into O(1D) and the subsequent reaction with H2O is the primary OH production, which is thus tightly related to the local solar UV actinic flux and hence the overhead ozone column. Globally, the main destruction of OH occurs by the reaction with the greenhouse methane, which lifetime itself is controlled by the concentration of the OH radical. 
In order to improve our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic changes of stratospheric ozone on the oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane, we perform calculations within the ICON-ART framework and report results of long-term simulations with two model configurations concerning stratospheric ozone: a) without interactive ozone, and b) with linearized interactive ozone schemes. The simulations also include a simplified OH chemistry scheme and the CloudJ scheme for the calculation of photolysis rates. With this chemical configurations of ICON-ART two long-term simulations are performed, one AMIP type simulation and one with increased temperatures in the troposphere by 4 K seen by the chemistry. This set of simulations allows to investigate whether the main influence of stratospheric ozone changes on tropospheric oxidation capacity and hence on the lifetime of CH4 is due to changes in the actinic UV flux reaching the troposphere or to tropospheric warming.

How to cite: Satitkovitchai, K. and Ruhnke, R.: Investigations of the effects of anthropogenic stratospheric ozone on tropospheric OH, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7764, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7764, 2022.

16:28–16:34
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EGU22-2446
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Highlight
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Presentation form not yet defined
The CAIRT Earth Explorer 11 mission: A way towards global GW momentum budgets
(withdrawn)
Peter Preusse, Scott Osprey, Inna Polichtchouk, Joern Ungermann, Martyn Chipperfield, Quentin Errera, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Bernd Funke, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Alex Hoffmann, Alizee Malavart, Piera Raspollini, Bjoern-Martin Sinnhuber, Pekka Verronen, and Kaley Walker