Programme group scientific officer:
General Contributions on Earthquakes, Earth Structure, Seismology
The session General Contributions on Earthquakes, Earth Structure, Seismology features a wide range of presentations on recent earthquakes and earthquake sequences of local, regional, and global significance, as well as recent advances in characterization of Earth structure using a variety of methods.
Late-breaking session: The 15 January 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcanic Eruption – Observation, Understanding and Impact of large explosive volcanic eruptions
The 2021-2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai eruption in Tonga was among the largest of recent decades. The event was notable for its high intensity, generating a convective column that rapidly ascended well into the stratosphere; for the atmospheric pressure wave generated by the explosion, which was detected globally; and for generating a tsunami that was observable across Pacific Ocean shorelines. Following a series of preceding seismic and explosive events since December 2021, the sustained phase of the eruption on 15th January was relatively short lived, but the associated pressure wave and tsunami impacts were the most far-reaching since the eruption of Krakatau volcano in 1883. Tsunamis were recorded both locally and in the far-field, but their mechanism(s) remains uncertain; in the near field being from either (or both of) the collapsing eruption column or a phreatomagmatic explosion as the erupting mass mixed with sea water. In the far-field the tsunamis are possibly best explained by the massive atmospheric pressure wave, that is the first instrumentally recorded eruption-generated event of its type, which affected the entire global atmosphere and ionosphere, causing the observed infrasound waves and unusual long-period seismic resonances.
This interdisciplinary late-breaking session welcomes contributions from all disciplines involved in local and global observations of this eruption and its effects, including remote sensing observations and modeling as well as hazard assessment and estimation of damage and long-term consequences.
Volcano-glacier interactions: Arctic, Antarctic, and globally
Glaciers and volcanoes interact in a number of ways, including instances where volcanic/geothermal activity alters glacier dynamics or mass balance, via subglacial eruptions or the deposition of supraglacial tephra. Glaciers can also impact volcanism, for example by directly influencing mechanisms of individual eruptions resulting in the construction of distinct edifices. Glaciers may also influence patterns of eruptive activity when mass balance changes adjust the load on volcanic systems, the water resources and hydrothermal systems. However, because of the remoteness of many glacio-volcanic environments, these interactions remain poorly understood.
In these complex settings, hazards associated with glacier-volcano interaction can vary from lava flows to volcanic ash, lahars, landslides, pyroclastic flows or glacial outburst floods. These can happen consecutively or simultaneously and affect not only the earth, but also glaciers, rivers and the atmosphere. As accumulating, melting, ripping or drifting glaciers generate signals as well as degassing, inflating/ deflating or erupting volcanoes, the challenge is to study, understand and ultimately discriminate these potentially coexisting signals. We wish to fully include geophysical observations of current and recent events with geological observations and interpretations of deposits of past events. Glaciovolcanoes also often preserve a unique record of the glacial or non-glacial eruptive environment that is capable of significantly advancing our knowledge of how Earth's climate system evolves.
We invite contributions that deal with the mitigation of the hazards associated with ice-covered volcanoes in the Arctic, Antarctic or globally, that improve the understanding of signals generated by ice-covered volcanoes, or studies focused on volcanic impacts on glaciers and vice versa. Research on recent activity is especially welcomed. This includes geological observations e.g. of deposits in the field or remote-sensing data, together with experimental and modelling approaches. We also invite contributions from any part of the world on past activity, glaciovolcanic deposits and studies that address climate and environmental change through glaciovolcanic studies. We aim to bring together scientists from volcanology, glaciology, seismology, geodesy, hydrology, geomorphology and atmospheric science in order to enable a broad discussion and interaction.
Merged Sessions: "A trans-disciplinary view of the Tethyan realm through space and time: subduction and collisional zones from the Mediterranean to southeast Asia" and "The Arabian Plate and its surroundings – past and present"
The Tethyan orogenic belt is one of the largest and most prominent collisional zones on Earth. The belt ranges from the Mediterranean in the west to Papua New Guinea in the east. It results from the subduction and closure of multiple basins of the Tethys Ocean and the subsequent collision of the African, Arabian and Indian continental plates with Eurasia. Its long-lasting geological record of the opening and closure of oceanic basins, the accretion of arcs and microcontinents, the complex interactions of major and smaller plates, and the presence of subduction zones at different evolutionary stages, has progressively grown as a comprehensive test site to investigate fundamental plate tectonics and geodynamic processes with multiple disciplines. Advances in a variety of fields provide a rich and growing set of constraints on the crust-lithosphere and mantle structure and their physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the tectonics and geodynamic evolution of the Tethyan orogenic belt.
We welcome contributions presenting new insights and observations derived from different perspectives, including geology (tectonics, stratigraphy, petrology, geochronology, geochemistry, and geomorphology), geophysics (seismicity, seismic imaging, seismic anisotropy, gravity), geodesy (GPS, InSAR), modelling (numerical and analogue), natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanism). In particular, we encourage the submission of trans-disciplinary studies, which integrate observations across a range of spatial and temporal scales to further our understanding of plate tectonics as a planetary process of fundamental importance.
The Arabian Plate recorded several plate reorganizations from the Neoproterozoic to present, including the Cadomian and Angudan orogenies, Late Paleozoic rifting and Alpine Orogeny. Active tectonics are framing the Arabian Plate and produce a variety of structures, including extensional structures related to rifting of the Red Sea and Gulf and Aden, strike-slip structures at the Dead Sea and Owen transform faults and compressive structures related to the Zagros-Makran convergence zone. The Arabian Peninsula contains the planet’s largest hydrocarbon reservoirs, owing to its geological history as Gondwana’s passive margin during the Permo-Mesozoic. Moreover, the Semail Ophiolite as the largest exposed ophiolite on Earth offers a unique example of large-scale obduction and overridden sedimentary basins. This and the spectacular outcrop conditions make the Arabian Peninsula an important and versatile study area. Ongoing research and new methods shed new light on, e.g., mountain building processes and its geomorphological expression as well as hydrocarbon development/migration.
We invite contributions that utilize structural, geophysical, tectonic, geochronological, geomorphological, sedimentary, geochemical/mineralogical, and field geological studies from the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding mountain belts and basins. These studies may include topics dealing with structures/basin analyses of any scale and from all tectonic settings ranging from the Neoproterozoic until today.
Active Tectonics and Geodynamics of the Mediterranean Region
The Mediterranean region holds a plate boundary zone undergoing final closure between two major plates, Africa and Eurasia. The active tectonics and geodynamics of the Mediterranean region result from the interaction of subduction and collision processes, deformation of the slabs, mantle flow, and extrusion of crustal blocks. These geodynamic processes have a transient nature and their changes affect the regional tectonics.
This session focuses on two aspects of the Mediterranean recent active tectonics and geodynamics:
(1) how (active) geodynamic mechanisms define the current structure and recent evolution of Mediterranean Arc systems.
(2) how the surface deformation is accommodated, both on fault local scale (e.g. the seismic cycle and kinematics of active faults) and in the larger (e.g. regional kinematics and relation the surface deformation to the deeper processes).
We welcome contributions from a wide range of disciplines including, but not limited to seismology, tectonic geodesy, remote sensing, paleoseismology, tectonic geomorphology, active tectonics, structural geology, and geodynamic modeling.
We strongly encourage the contribution of early career researchers.
This session is formed by merging of TS sessions: "Active tectonics and geodynamics of the Eastern Mediterranean" & "Recent geodynamic evolution and active tectonics of Mediterranean Arcs"
Alpine-Mediterranean mountain belts and basins from mantle to surface
We invite contributions that address the present and past structure and dynamics of the Alpine orogens of the Mediterranean area. Since 2015, the international AlpArray mission and related projects have generated a plethora of new data to test the hypothesis that mantle circulation driving plates’ re-organization during collision has both immediate and long-lasting effects on the structure, motion, earthquake distribution and landscape evolution in mountain belts. Links between Earth’s surface and mantle have been forged by integrating 3D geophysical imaging of the entire crust-mantle system, with geologic observations and modelling to provide a look both backwards and forwards in time, the 4th dimension. This integrated 4D approach, initially focused on the Alps, has been expanded to the Pannonian-Carpathian and Adriatic areas, and now includes the Apennines and Dinarides. A new initiative, AdriaArray, is underway to shed light on plate-scale deformation and orogenic processes in this dynamic part of the Alpine-Mediterranean chain. The forthcoming Drilling the Ivrea-Verbano zonE (DIVE) project bridges new observations across scales and investigates the evolution of the continental lower crust. This session provides an interdisciplinary platform for highlighting the newest results and open questions of the aforementioned projects, regions and themes.
Mon, 23 May, 13:20–14:50 (CEST), 15:10–18:30 (CEST)
Participatory Citizen Science and Open Science as a new era of environmental observation for society
Citizen science (the involvement of the public in scientific processes) is gaining momentum across multiple disciplines, increasing multi-scale data production on Earth Sciences that is extending the frontiers of knowledge. Successful participatory science enterprises and citizen observatories can potentially be scaled-up in order to contribute to larger policy strategies and actions (e.g. the European Earth Observation monitoring systems), for example to be integrated in GEOSS and Copernicus. Making credible contributions to science can empower citizens to actively participate as citizen stewards in decision making, helping to bridge scientific disciplines and promote vibrant, liveable and sustainable environments for inhabitants across rural and urban localities.
Often, citizen science is seen in the context of Open Science, which is a broad movement embracing Open Data, Open Technology, Open Access, Open Educational Resources, Open Source, Open Methodology, and Open Peer Review. Before 2003, the term Open Access was related only to free access to peer-reviewed literature (e.g., Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002). In 2003 and during the “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities”, the definition was considered to have a wider scope that includes raw research data, metadata, source materials, and scholarly multimedia material. Increasingly, access to research data has become a core issue in the advance of science. Both open science and citizen science pose great challenges for researchers to facilitate effective participatory science, yet they are of critical importance to modern research and decision-makers.
We want to ask and find answers to the following questions:
Which approaches and tools can be used in Earth and planetary observation?
What are the biggest challenges in bridging between scientific disciplines and how to overcome them?
What kind of participatory citizen scientist involvement (e.g. how are citizen scientists involved in research, which kind of groups are involved) and open science strategies exist?
How to ensure transparency in project results and analyses?
What kind of critical perspectives on the limitations, challenges, and ethical considerations exist?
How can citizen science and open science approaches and initiatives be supported on different levels (e.g. institutional, organizational, national)?
Programme group scientific officer:
Advances in fiber-optic sensing technologies for geophysical applications
Recently, there have been significant breakthroughs in the use of fiber-optic sensing techniques to interrogate cables at high precision both on land and at sea as well as in boreholes and at the surface. Laser reflectometry using both fit-to-purpose and commercial fiber-optic cables have successfully detected a variety of signals including microseism, local and teleseismic earthquakes, volcanic events, ocean dynamics, etc. Other laser-based techniques can be used to monitor distributed strain, temperature, and even chemicals at a scale and to an extent previously unattainable with conventional geophysical methods.
We welcome any contributions to recent development in the fields of applications, instrumentation, and theoretical advances for geophysics with fiber-optic sensing techniques. These may include - but are not limited to - application of fiber-optic cables or sensors in seismology, geodesy, geophysics, natural hazards, oceanography, urban environment, geothermal application, etc. with an emphasis on laboratory studies, large-scale field tests, and modeling. We also encourage contributions on data analysis techniques, machine learning, data management, instruments performances and comparisons as well as new experimental field studies.
Direct observation of seismic wavefield gradients – a new approach to seismic experiments
New developments in seismic instrumentation enable highly precise direct point observations of seismic ground motion and its spatial gradients not only in permanent but also in temporary seismic experiments. Considerable improvements in optical and atom interferometry enable new concepts for inertial rotation, translational displacement and acceleration sensing.
Applications of the resulting new type of data range from seismic source and wavefield characterization with single point observations in harsh environments to the correction of tilt effects, e.g. for high performance seismic isolation facilities.
We invite contributions on novel measurement techniques and experiment design, on theoretical advances to the seismic wavefield gradient analysis, as well as on all aspects of applications of ground motion gradient observations in seismology, geodesy, planetary exploration, gravitational wave detection and fundamental physics.
Enhancing seismic network operations from site scouting to waveform services and products
The number and quality of seismic stations and networks continually improves in Europe and worldwide. Current state-of-the-art permanent seismic monitoring means dense deployments of modern broadband velocity and acceleration sensors, often co-located, writing on 24- or 26-bit digitisers, with continuous real-time streaming to data centers. Technological improvements have been accompanied by community developments of standards, protocols, strategies and software to ease and homogenise data acquisition, archival, dissemination and processing. The integration of new data types like those generated by DAS systems, large-N low-cost instrumentation, OBS, GNSS, gravity, infrasound instruments, etc. poses challenges to the existing strategies for data management from acquisition to dissemination. Optimising performance, improving data and metadata quality, enhancing waveform services and products require continued efforts by seismic network operators and managers. In this session we welcome contributions from all aspects of seismic network deployment, operation and management. This includes site selection; equipment testing and installation; planning and telemetry; policies for redundancy in data acquisition; processing and archiving; data and metadata QC; data management and dissemination policies; technical and scientific products; integration of new datasets and communities.
This session is promoted by the EGU sub-division “Seismic Instrumentation & Infrastructure” and ORFEUS (http://orfeus-eu.org/). ORFEUS coordinates waveform seismology in Europe through the collection, archival and distribution (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/eida/; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/strong/) of seismic waveform data, metadata and closely-related derived products. This session facilitates seismological data discovery and promotes open and FAIR data policies.
Underground research facilities for science, research and development
The history of underground research facilities has started with physics experiments looking for shelter from cosmic noise. Nowadays underground facilities are multi- and interdisciplinary, providing a home for geosciences, physics, engineering, biology, architecture, analogue space studies and social sciences to name a few.
We are welcoming all underground research facilities, laboratories, test sites alike to bring your sites to the light.
The history of underground research facilities has started with physics experiments looking for shelter from cosmic noise. Nowadays underground facilities are multi- and interdisciplinary, providing a home for geosciences, physics, engineering, biology, architecture, analogue space studies and social sciences to name a few. We are welcoming all underground research facilities, laboratories, test sites alike to bring your sites to the light.
Geo-infrastructure monitoring: complex data analysis and instrument application
Continues monitoring of infrastructure systems are essential to ensure a reliable movement of people and goods, which involves in the economy growth and human interaction. The wide variety of instruments available allows diverse applications to increase data availability for a better understanding of geotechnical surroundings which are directly linked to the safe operation of infrastructures to prevent catastrophise such as soil erosion, settlements, liquefaction, landslides, seismic activities, flooding and even wildfires close to the highways. Understanding mentioned events are vital to provide a safe infrastructure in extreme climate conditions. This session focus on the application of geosciences and geophysical instrumentation including sensors on the infrastructures monitoring and data analysis from critical infrastructures (e.g., roadways, railway system, bridges, tunnels, water supply, underground utilities, electrical grids, and other embedded facilities in cities). The session aims to increase knowledge on geo-infrastructure management to overcome future challenges associated with the societal and human interaction, present advance knowledge research and novel approaches from various disciplines with a vibrant interaction to economy and human-interaction studies to provide an efficient infrastructure management system. The session is considered inter-and transdisciplinary (ITS) session. The applications and topics include but are not limited to: (1) Advance knowledge of the destructive and non-destructive geoscience and geophysical techniques including contactless and non-contactless techniques such as sensors. (2) Intelligent data analysis approaches to analyse accurate and precise interpretation of big data sets driven from various technologies (e.g., computer vision and image, and signal processing). (3) Influence of the surrounding areas on infrastructure management systems linked to natural events such as soil erosion, settlements, liquefaction, landslides, seismic activities, flooding, wildfires and extreme weather condition. (4) Continuous real-time monitoring to provide smart tools such as an integration of geosciences data with BIM models, Internet of Things, digital twins, robotic monitoring, artificial intelligence, automation systems based on machine learning and computational modelling for better decision-making for infrastructure owner/operators. (5) Human-interaction computer-based aided to generate reliable infrastructures.
International Monitoring System and On-site Verification for the CTBT, disaster risk reduction and Earth sciences
The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) senses the solid Earth, the oceans and the atmosphere with a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors as well as detectors for atmospheric radioactivity. The primary purpose of the IMS data is for nuclear explosion monitoring regarding all aspects of detecting, locating and characterizing nuclear explosions and their radioactivity releases. On-site verification technologies apply similar methods on smaller scales as well as geophysical methods such as ground penetrating radar and geomagnetic surveying with the goal of identifying evidence for a nuclear explosion close to ground zero. Papers in this session address advances in the sensor technologies, new and historic data, data collection, data processing and analysis methods and algorithms, uncertainty analysis, machine learning and data mining, experiments and simulations including atmospheric transport modelling. This session also welcomes papers on applications of the IMS and OSI instrumentation data. This covers the use of IMS data for disaster risk reduction such as tsunami early warning, earthquake hazard assessment, volcano ash plume warning, radiological emergencies and climate change related monitoring. The scientific applications of IMS data establish another large range of topics, including acoustic wave propagation in the Earth crust, stratospheric wind fields and gravity waves, global atmospheric circulation patterns, deep ocean temperature profiles and whale migration. The use of IMS data for such purposes returns a benefit with regard to calibration, data analysis methods and performance of the primary mission of monitoring for nuclear explosions.
Interferometric techniques turn seismic networks into continuous observation devices for (time-varying) Earth structure, volcanic and hydrologic processes, ocean - solid Earth interactions and many more phenomena. Increasingly, seismic interferometry is applied to signals beyond ocean microseismic noise, such as earthquake coda and anthropogenic seismic signals.
Great strides have been taken in obtaining high-resolution images of seismic velocity and other properties, in observing and quantifying the sources of various ambient noise wave types, and in interpreting seismic property variations. Current challenges include the interpretation of signals from less-than-ideally situated sources, e.g. in the context of traffic noise interferometry or ambient noise body waves from localized storms; the interpretation of ambient noise amplitudes for elastic effects and anelastic attenuation; and the spatial localization of seismic property changes.
This session offers a broad space for discussing recent advances in ambient noise seismology and seismic interferometry. We invite abstracts on theoretical and numerical developments as well as novel applications. Topics may include, but are not limited to, studies of ambient seismic sources; ocean wave quantification through ambient noise; urban seismic noise; interferometric imaging; monitoring subsurface properties and quantifying the response of seismic velocity to various stresses and strains; studies of the spatial sensitivity for imaging and monitoring under various source conditions; quantification of site effects, amplification and attenuation; improvements in processing and retrieval of high-quality interferometry observations, and interdisciplinary applications of seismic interferometry.
Fri, 27 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–14:00 (CEST)
New Seismic Data Analysis Methods and Tools for Automatic Characterization of Seismicity
In the last two decades, the number of high quality seismic instruments being installed around the world has grown exponentially and probably will continue to grow in the coming decades. This led to a dramatic increase in the volume of available seismic data and pointed out the limits of the current standard routine seismic analysis, often performed manually by seismologists. Exploiting this massive amount of data is a challenge that can be overcome by using new generation, fully automated and noise-robust seismic processing techniques. In the last years, waveform-based detection, location, and source-parameter estimation methods have grown in popularity and their application have dramatically improved seismic monitoring capability. Moreover, machine learning and deep learning techniques, which are dedicated methods for data-intensive applications, are showing promising results in seismicity characterization applications opening new horizons for the development of innovative, fully automated and noise-robust seismic analysis methods. Such techniques are particularly useful when working with data sets characterized by large numbers of weak events with low signal-to-noise ratio, such as those collected in induced seismicity, seismic swarms and volcanic monitoring operations. This session aims on bringing to light new methods and tools and also optimizations of existing approaches that make use of High Performance Computing resources (CPU, GPU) and can be applied to large data sets, either retro-actively or in (near) real-time, to characterize seismicity (i.e. perform detection, location, magnitude and source-mechanism estimation) at different scales and in different environments. We thus encourage contributions that demonstrate how the proposed methods help improve our understanding of earthquake and/or volcanic processes.
Short-term Earthquakes Forecast (StEF) and multi-parametric time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH)
From the real-time integration of multi-parametric observations is expected the major contribution to the development of operational t-DASH systems suitable for supporting decision makers with continuously updated seismic hazard scenarios. A very preliminary step in this direction is the identification of those parameters (seismological, chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose space-time dynamics and/or anomalous variability can be, to some extent, associated with the complex process of preparation of major earthquakes.
This session wants then to encourage studies devoted to demonstrate the added value of the introduction of specific, observations and/or data analysis methods within the t-DASH and StEF perspectives. Therefore, studies based on long-term data analyses, including different conditions of seismic activity, are particularly encouraged. Similarly welcome will be the presentation of infrastructures devoted to maintain and further develop our present observational capabilities of earthquake related phenomena also contributing in this way to build a global multi-parametric Earthquakes Observing System (EQuOS) to complement the existing GEOSS initiative.
To this aim this session is not addressed just to seismology and natural hazards scientists but also to geologist, atmospheric sciences and electromagnetism researchers, whose collaboration is particular important for fully understand mechanisms of earthquake preparation and their possible relation with other measurable quantities. For this reason, all contributions devoted to the description of genetic models of earthquake’s precursory phenomena are equally welcome.
Fri, 27 May, 08:30–11:47 (CEST), 13:20–14:05 (CEST)
Analysis of complex geoscientific time series: linear, nonlinear, and computer science perspectives
This interdisciplinary session welcomes contributions on novel conceptual and/or methodological approaches and methods for the analysis and statistical-dynamical modeling of observational as well as model time series from all geoscientific disciplines.
Methods to be discussed include, but are not limited to linear and nonlinear methods of time series analysis. time-frequency methods, statistical inference for nonlinear time series, including empirical inference of causal linkages from multivariate data, nonlinear statistical decomposition and related techniques for multivariate and spatio-temporal data, nonlinear correlation analysis and synchronisation, surrogate data techniques, filtering approaches and nonlinear methods of noise reduction, artificial intelligence and machine learning based analysis and prediction for univariate and multivariate time series.
Contributions on methodological developments and applications to problems across all geoscientific disciplines are equally encouraged. We particularly aim at fostering a transfer of new methodological data analysis and modeling concepts among different fields of the geosciences.
Programme group scientific officer:
Earthquake Source Processes: Imaging and Numerical Modeling
This session covers the broad field of earthquake source processes, and
includes the topics of imaging the rupture kinematics and simulating
earthquake dynamics using numerical methods, to develop a deeper
understanding of earthquake source physics. We also invite presentation
that link novel laboratory experiments to earthquake dynamics, and
studies on earthquake scaling properties.
Earthquake sources are imaged using seismic data and surface deformation
measurements (e.g.GPS and InSAR) to estimate rupture properties on
faults and fault systems. Each data set and each method has its strength
and limitations in the context of the source-inversion problem, but the
uncertainties are often not well quantified and the robustness of the
source models not well known.
The session invites contributions that address the source-inversion
problem and provide new methods, innovative applications, and
thought-provoking new ideas. Contributions are welcome that make use of modern
computing paradigms and infrastructure to tackle large-scale forward
simulation of earthquake process, but also inverse modeling to retrieve
the rupture process with proper uncertainty quantification.
Earthquake source imaging, numerical modeling of rupture dynamics, and
source-scaling relations help to understand earthquake source processes.
Furthermore, new numerical modeling approaches for multi-scale
earthquake physics, including earthquake-cycle simulations, may include
fault-zone evolution and even target seismic hazard assessment. The
question that these lines of research are targeting are profound and of
first-order socio-economic relevance:
Which first-order physical processes control, at a given space-time
scale, the macroscopic evolution of dynamic rupture and its seismic
radiation? Is the physics of fault rupture the same for large and small
earthquakes? How can modern earthquake hazard assessment profit from a
deeper understanding of rupture dynamics? Which source processes need to
be considered to better understand, and then model, tsunami generation,
triggering phenomena, induced seismicity and earthquake cycles?
Within this framework our session also provides a forum to discuss case
studies of kinematic or dynamic source modeling of recent significant
Continental rift evolution: from inception to break-up
Continental rifting is a complex process spanning from the inception of extension to continental rupture or the formation of a failed rift. This session aims at combining new data, concepts and techniques elucidating the structure and dynamics of rifts and rifted margins. We invite submissions highlighting the time-dependent evolution of processes such as: initiation and growth of faults and ductile shear zones, tectonic and sedimentary history, magma migration, storage and volcanism, lithospheric necking and rift strength loss, influence of the pre-rift lithospheric structure, rift kinematics and plate motion, mantle flow and dynamic topography, as well as break-up and the transition to sea-floor spreading. We encourage contributions using multi-disciplinary and innovative methods from field geology, geochronology, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, geodesy, marine geophysics, plate reconstruction, or numerical or analogue modelling. Special emphasis will be given to presentations that provide an integrated picture by combining results from active rifts, passive margins, failed rift arms or by bridging the temporal and spatial scales associated with rifting.
Subduction dynamics, volatiles and melts: Investigations from surface to deep mantle
Subduction drives plate tectonics, generating the major proportion of subaerial volcanism, releasing >90% seismic moment magnitude, forming continents, and recycling lithosphere. Numerical and laboratory modeling studies have successfully built our understanding of many aspects of the geodynamics of subduction zones. Detailed geochemical studies, investigating compositional variation within and between volcanic arcs, provide further insights into systematic chemical processes at the slab surface and within the mantle wedge, providing constraints on thermal structures and material transport within subduction zones. However, with different technical and methodological approaches, model set-ups, inputs, and material properties, and in some cases conflicting conclusions between chemical and physical models, a consistent picture of the controlling parameters of subduction-zone processes has so far not emerged.
This session aims to follow subducting lithosphere on its journey from the surface down into the Earth's mantle and to understand the driving processes for deformation and magmatism in the over-riding plate. We aim to address topics such as: subduction initiation and dynamics; changes in mineral breakdown processes at the slab surface; the formation and migration of fluids and melts at the slab surface; primary melt generation in the wedge; subduction-related magmatism; controls on the position and width of the volcanic arc; subduction-induced seismicity; mantle wedge processes; the fate of subducted crust, sediments and volatiles; the importance of subducting seamounts, LIPs, and ridges; links between near-surface processes and slab dynamics and with regional tectonic evolution; slab delamination and break-off; the effect of subduction on mantle flow; and imaging subduction zone processes.
With this session, we aim to form an integrated picture of the subduction process, and invite contributions from a wide range of disciplines, such as geodynamics, modeling, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology, and seismology, to discuss subduction zone dynamics at all scales from the surface to the lower mantle, or in applications to natural laboratories.
Inter- and intraplate seismicity in subduction zones
Since approximately 90% of the seismic moment released by earthquakes worldwide occurs near subduction zones, it is crucial to improve our understanding of seismicity and the associated seismic hazard in these regions. Seismicity in subduction zones takes many forms, ranging from relatively shallow seismicity on outer-rise and splay faults and the megathrust to intermediate-depth (70-300 km) and deep events (>300 km). While most research on subduction earthquakes focuses on the megathrust, all these different seismic events contribute to the seismic hazard of a subduction zone.
This session aims to integrate our knowledge on different aspects of subduction zone seismicity to improve our understanding of the interplay between such events and their relationship to subduction dynamics. We particularly invite abstracts that use geophysical and geological observations, laboratory experiments and/or numerical models to address questions such as: (1) What are the mechanisms behind intraplate seismicity? (2) How do outer-rise and splay fault seismicity relate to the seismogenic behaviour of the megathrust? (3) How do slab dynamics influence both shallow and deep seismicity?
Tsunamis: from source processes to coastal hazard and warning
Tsunamis can produce catastrophic damage on vulnerable coastlines, essentially following major earthquakes, landslides, extreme volcanic activity or atmospheric disturbances. After the disastrous tsunamis in 2004 and 2011, tsunami science has been continuously growing and expanding its scope to new fields of research in various domains, and also to regions where the tsunami hazard was previously underestimated.
The spectrum of topics addressed by tsunami science nowadays ranges from the “classical” themes, such as analytical and numerical modelling of different generation mechanisms (ranging from large subduction earthquakes to local earthquakes generated in tectonically complex environments, from subaerial/submarine landslides to volcanic eruptions and atmospheric disturbances), propagation and run-up, hazard-vulnerability-risk assessment, especially with probabilistic approaches able to quantify uncertainties, early warning and monitoring, to more “applied” themes such as the societal and economic impact of moderate-to-large events on coastal local and nation-wide communities, as well as the present and future challenges connected to the global climate change.
This session, co-organized with OS4, SM4, GMPV9, GM and AS, welcomes multidisciplinary as well as focused contributions covering any of the aspects mentioned above, encompassing field data, geophysical models, regional and local hazard-vulnerability-risk studies, observation databases, numerical and experimental modeling, real time networks, operational tools and procedures towards a most efficient warning, with the general scope of improving our understanding of the tsunami phenomenon, per se and in the context of the global change, and our capacity to build safer and more resilient communities.
Wed, 25 May, 08:30–11:44 (CEST), 13:20–14:23 (CEST)
Seismic and aseismic deformation on seismogenic faults
Tectonic faults accommodate plate motion through various styles of seismic and aseismic slip spanning a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Understanding the mechanics and interplay between seismic rupture and aseismic slip is central to seismotectonics as it determines the seismic potential of faults. In particular, unraveling the underlying physics controlling these styles of deformation bears a great deal in earthquakes hazards mitigation especially in highly urbanized regions. We invite contributions from observational, experimental, geological and theoretical studies that explore the diversity and interplay among seismic and aseismic slip phenomena in various tectonic settings, including the following questions: (1) How does the nature of creeping faults change with the style of faulting, fluids, loading rate, and other factors? (2) Are different slip behaviors well separated in space, or can the same fault areas experience different failure modes? (3) Is there a systematic spatial or temporal relation between different types of slip?
Mon, 23 May, 13:20–14:45 (CEST), 15:10–17:59 (CEST)
EDITH: Deciphering the seismic cycle using different methods/approaches
One of the key challenges in earthquake geology is the characterization of the spatial distribution of fault-slip and its partitioning during the coseismic, interseismic, and post-seismic periods. We now have new approaches and techniques for validating the assumption that repeated seismic cycles accommodate the long-term tectonic strain and for disentangling such a complex strain partitioning in both time and space. In fact, the temporal and spatial slip accumulation for an active fault is essential to understand the hazard posed by the fault. As a matter of fact, destructive earthquakes are infrequent along any active fault and this is an inherent limitation to knowledge towards reconstructing the seismic cycle. For example, the occurrence of the 2021 Alaska earthquake Mw 8.2 within the rupture zone of the Mw 8.2 1938 Alaska earthquake, and 2021 Haiti earthquake Mw 7.2 within the same fault zone of the 2010 earthquake Mw 7.0 (which claimed 300,000 lives), reflects how much the characterization of the seismic cycle and earthquakes’ recurrence is critical for cities and regions which are under the constant seismic threat.
Modern techniques such as Remote Sensing, Geodesy, Geomorphology, Paleoseismology, and Geochronology play a vital role in constraining part of or full seismic cycles, with increased accuracy and temporal coverage of the long-term deformation. To fully understand these observations there is a need for a better understanding and integration of such techniques to be applied across different fault systems, globally.
The goal of this session is to bring together innovative approaches and techniques, to take a comprehensive look at the earthquake cycle for plate boundary fault systems to fault systems sitting far away from the plate boundary.
SM5 – Seismic Imaging Across Scales (from near-surface to global scale, incl. methodological developments)
Programme group scientific officer:
Shallow shear-wave and multicomponent seismic techniques – methodical capability, technical developments, data processing, and case studies
In recent years, the application of shear-wave seismic methods for shallow investigations (<500 m depth) has become more and more popular. Shear waves are utilized for, e.g., structural imaging, geotechnical investigation, and elastic parameter studies, and their evaluation comprises techniques, such as reflection imaging, attribute analysis, converted
wave- and VP/VS analysis, travel-time tomography, or full waveform inversion. For shallow studies particularly, shear-wave techniques have a great potential, since near-surface resolution benefits from low shear-wave velocities. Furthermore, the shear wave reflection signals can easily be extracted from the recorded wave-field at small offsets, which makes shear-wave reflection surveying more cost efficient, compared to P-waves.
Shear-wave surveys can further benefit from sealed ground conditions due to the suppression of Love waves, and, thus, are predesignated for the application in urban areas. Shallow shear-wave and multicomponent seismic methods undergo a continuous technical development of specialized sources and customized equipment, including innovative concepts for acquisition and data processing (e.g. interferometry, converted waves, horizontal-to-vertical-spectral-
ratio). Exciting as well as recording several directions of the ground motion simultaneously (we refer to multicomponent seismic) is also beneficial, since it allows separating vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarized shear wave-fields, which is mandatory, e.g., for 3-D surveys. Wave conversion and scattering effects can be distinguished, and differently polarised shear waves simplify the detection of seismic anisotropy.
This session shall promote the exchange of experience using shear waves in shallow applications and trigger discussions about their potential in seismic imaging. Combined studies integrating P-waves are highly appreciated. With the focus on shear body waves, we invite, but do not restrict, contributions to technical development, data analysis, seismic
processing, and case studies. The latter may comprise, e.g., (a) geotechnical studies, such as examination of soil rigidity or dams, (b) exploration of structures, such as volcanic craters or groundwater resources, (c) analysis of potential geo-hazards like faults, quick clays, landslides, sinkholes, and subrosion features, and (d) more exotic applications, such as the exploration of glacier ice thickness, permafrost or other planets.
Geophysical imaging of near-surface structures and processes
Geophysical imaging techniques are widely used to characterize structures and processes in the shallow subsurface. Methods include active imaging using seismic, (complex) electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating radar methods, as well as passive monitoring based on ambient noise or electrical self-potentials. Advances in experimental design, instrumentation, data acquisition, data processing, numerical modelling, and inversion constantly push the limits of spatial and temporal resolution. Despite these advances, the interpretation of geophysical images often remains ambiguous. Persistent challenges addressed in this session include optimal data acquisition strategies, (automated) data processing and error quantification, appropriate spatial and temporal regularization of model parameters, integration of non-geophysical measurements and geological realism into the imaging process, joint inversion, as well as the quantitative interpretation of tomograms through suitable petro-physical relations.
In light of these topics, we invite submissions concerning a broad spectrum of near-surface geophysical imaging methods and applications at different spatial and temporal scales. Novel developments in the combination of complementary measurement methods, machine learning, and process-monitoring applications are particularly welcome.
Seismic imaging and characterization of crustal faults
Imaging both fluid-filled fault networks and surrounding heterogeneous crust with geophysical methods is especially challenging. In these settings, fluids interact with deformation-induced seismic sources, influencing both nucleation and development of seismic sequences.
Imaging and characterizing both seismogenic structures and elastic and anelastic properties of the surrounding medium is key to understanding wider tectonic and small-scale deformation processes. Understanding the geometry and kinematics of crustal-scale faults from field observations is also critical for many green-energy applications (e.g., geothermal energy, CO2 storage, mining for minerals important for battery production). This session aims to provide an overview of techniques and applications aimed at characterizing both active and ancient seismogenic fault networks at local and regional scales.
In this session we aim to bring together passive and active-source seismologists to discuss new studies that image and characterize seismically active and ancient faults and fault networks. We welcome contributions from velocity tomography, attenuation tomography (coda, t* method, direct wave attenuation), source imaging and characterization (absolute and relative location techniques, focal mechanism and stress drop analysis, …), active-source seismic techniques (reflection, refraction, integrated drilling data, …), along with multidisciplinary studies. We particularly welcome contributions from early-career researchers and those using novel techniques (e.g., data mining and machine learning).
Advances in the understanding of the crustal structure through passive and active seismological methodologies
Active and passive seismological methods are largely employed for characterizing the crustal structure in tectonic or volcanic settings, from the near-surface down to several kilometers of depth and at a global scale.
Active seismic methods (mainly reflection and refraction seismic) have shown to be particularly effective in providing images of the crust, in terms of velocities, seismic tomography, reflection coefficient, and seismic attributes. Although they are commonly used for mineral prospecting purposes, these techniques also provide a fundamental tool for studying the structural and stratigraphic patterns in different geological settings. Nonetheless, active seismic methods show several issues and limitations, mainly due to the cost and availability of the instruments, the difficulties in exploring remote areas, and the loss in resolution with depth.
In this perspective, a fruitful synergy can arise from the combination of active and passive seismic methods, which use earthquakes or ambient noise as a source. For instance, passive seismic is fundamental to detect seismogenic crustal regions, and their attitude to release seismic energy with frequent low-energy earthquakes or few strong events, by studying the b-value of the Gutenberg & Richter Frequency-Magnitude Distribution. Such information could be compared to some extent with the seismo-stratigraphic and structural model inferred from the analysis of active seismic data, for a deeper understanding of the crustal structure.
As a final issue, other geophysical data (e.g. gravimetric, magnetic, or geo-electric) could also provide further useful information, to better constrain the interpretation of seismological data.
Contributions to the session may include challenging applications, where the joint inversion and interpretation of both active and passive seismic data, corroborated by the results deriving from other methodologies, are employed to shed light on not-straightforward complexities in different geological contexts.
Evolution of cratonic lithosphere: Variability, geodynamic interactions and resource potential
Cratons form the ancient, stable cores of most of the Earth’s continents. Knowledge about the present-day architecture of cratons is the key to understand the evolution of continental plates. In addition to that, cratons concentrate many economically relevant mineral deposits, which are indispensable for a modern society. For many cratonic regions however, little is still known about the present-day lithospheric structure and how it evolved since the Archean, mainly due to their remoteness and harsh local environmental conditions. Ongoing data acquisition, as well as the usage and optimization of
remote and passive techniques have shed new light on the lithospheric architecture of cratonic regions. Recent advancements across several disciplines show that cratons are more varied and fragmented than previously assumed, which has strong implications for geodynamic interactions with the convective mantle and long-term stability.
In this session, we welcome contributions across different scales that describe the cratonic lithosphere and its evolution with time, up to the dawn of plate tectonics. We aim to address topics like: characterization and evolution of cratonic crust and lithosphere; coupling between cratonic crust and mantle; mechanisms to form, maintain and destroy cratonic roots; craton-plume interaction; the role of cratons in supercontinent configurations; connection of cratons to mineral deposits.
We would like to raise discussions within a multidisciplinary session and therefore welcome contributions across a wide range of disciplines, including, but not limited to geodynamics, geology, tectonics, seismology, gravity, geochemistry, petrology, as well as joint approaches.
Imaging, modelling and inversion to explore the Earth’s lithosphere and asthenosphere
This session will cover applied and theoretical aspects of
geophysical imaging, modelling and inversion using active- and
passive-source seismic measurements as well as other geophysical
techniques (e.g., gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic) to
investigate properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and asthenosphere,
and explore the processes involved. We invite contributions focused on
methodological developments, theoretical aspects, and applications.
Studies across the scales and disciplines are particularly welcome.
Among others, the session may cover the following topics:
- Active- and passive-source imaging using body- and surface-waves;
- Full waveform inversion developments and applications;
- Advancements and case studies in 2D and 3D imaging;
- Interferometry and Marchenko imaging;
- Seismic attenuation and anisotropy;
- Developments and applications of multi-scale and multi-parameter inversion; and,
- Joint inversion of seismic and complementary geophysical data.
Structure, deformation and dynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system
The geological processes that we infer from observations of the Earth’s surface, together with the landscape features are direct consequences of the dynamic Earth, and in particular, of the interaction between tectonic plates. Seismological studies are key for unraveling the present structure and fabric of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. However, interdisciplinary work is required to fully understand the underlying processes and how features such as anisotropies in the crust, lithospheric mantle or the asthenosphere evolved through time and how they are related. Here we want to gather those studies focusing on seismic anisotropy and deformation patterns that can successfully improve our knowledge of the processes, leading to the observed present geometries (of the crust and the upper mantle). The main goal of the session is to establish closer links between seismological observations and process-oriented modelling studies to demonstrate the potential of different methods, and to share ideas of how we can collaboratively study upper mantle structure, and how the present-day fabrics of the lithosphere relates to the contemporary deformation processes and ongoing dynamics within the asthenospheric mantle.
Contributions from studies employing seismic anisotropy observations, tomography and waveform modeling, geodetic data, numerical and analogue modelling are welcome.
Anisotropy from crust to core: Observations, models and implications
Many regions of the Earth, from crust to core, exhibit anisotropic fabrics which can reveal much about geodynamic processes in the subsurface. These fabrics can exist at a variety of scales, from crystallographic orientations to regional structure alignments. In the past few decades, a tremendous body of multidisciplinary research has been dedicated to characterizing anisotropy in the solid Earth and understanding its geodynamical implications. This has included work in fields such as: (1) geophysics, to make in situ observations and construct models of anisotropic properties at a range of depths; (2) mineral physics, to explain the cause of some of these observations; and (3) numerical modelling, to relate the inferred fabrics to regional stress and flow regimes and, thus, geodynamic processes in the Earth. The study of anisotropy in the Solid Earth encompasses topics so diverse that it often appears fragmented according to regions of interest, e.g., the upper or lower crust, oceanic lithosphere, continental lithosphere, cratons, subduction zones, D'', or the inner core. The aim of this session is to bring together scientists working on different aspects of anisotropy to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. We encourage contributions from all disciplines of the earth sciences (including mineral physics, seismology, magnetotellurics, geodynamic modelling) focused on anisotropy at all scales and depths within the Earth.
Geophysical and in situ methods for snow and ice studies
Geophysical and in-situ measurements offer important baseline datasets, as well as validation for modelling and remote sensing products. They are used to advance our understanding of firn, ice-sheet and glacier dynamics, sea ice processes, changes in snow cover and snow properties, snow/ice-atmosphere-ocean interactions, permafrost degradation, geomorphic mechanisms and changes in englacial and subglacial condition.
In this session we welcome contributions related to a wide spectrum of methods, including, but not limited to, advances in radioglaciology, active and passive seismology, geoelectrics, acoustic sounding, fiber-optic sensing, GNSS reflectometry, signal attenuation and time delay techniques, cosmic ray neutron sensing, ROV and drone applications, and electromagnetic methods. Contributions could be related to field applications, new approaches in geophysical or in-situ survey techniques, or theoretical advances in data analysis processing or inversion. Case studies from all parts of the cryosphere such as snow and firn, alpine glaciers, ice sheets, glacial and periglacial environments, permafrost, or sea ice, are highly welcome.
The focus of the session is to compare experiences in the application, processing, analysis and interpretation of different geophysical and in-situ techniques in these highly complex environments. We have been running this session for nearly a decade and it always produces lively and informative discussion. This session is offered as a fully hybrid vPICO: an engaging presentation format in which all authors will present their research orally as a quick-fire 2-minute overview, and then further present and discuss their research.
Wed, 25 May, 08:30–11:50 (CEST), 13:20–14:50 (CEST)
Lithosphere dynamics and mineral deposits (ILP Task Force 1)
Lithosphere evolution, reflected in the lithosphere structure, controls the deposition of mineral resources, many of which occur in specific geodynamic settings. We invite contributions from various geophysical, geodynamic, geological, and geochemical studies, as well as from numerical modeling, which address the questions how various plate tectonics and mantle dynamics processes modify the lithosphere structure, control ore deposits, and how these processes changed during the Earth's evolution. We particularly invite contributions with focus on regional geophysical studies of the crust and upper mantle.
This session is a part of the International Lithosphere Program Task Force 1. We invite contributions from everyone interested in the topic and invite them to join the ILP TF1.
Programme group scientific officer:
Earthquake swarms and complex seismic sequences driven by transient forcing in tectonic and volcanic regions
Earthquake swarms are characterized by a complex temporal evolution and a delayed occurrence of the largest magnitude event. In addition, seismicity often manifests with intense foreshock activity or develops in more complex sequences where doublets or triplets of large comparable magnitude earthquakes occur. The difference between earthquake swarms and these complex sequences is subtle and usually flagged as such only a posteriori. This complexity derives from aseismic transient forcing acting on top of the long-term tectonic loading: pressurization of crustal fluids, slow-slip and creeping events, and at volcanoes, magmatic processes (i.e. dike and sill intrusions or magma degassing). From an observational standpoint, these complex sequences in volcanic and tectonic regions share many similarities: seismicity rate fluctuations, earthquakes migration, and activation of large seismogenic volume despite the usual small seismic moment released. The underlying mechanisms are local increases of the pore-pressure, loading/stressing rate due to aseismic processes (creeping, slow slip events), magma-induced stress changes, earthquake-earthquake interaction via static stress transfer or a combination of those. Yet, the physics behind such processes and the ultimate reasons for the occurrence of swarm-like rather than mainshock-aftershocks sequences, is still far beyond a full understanding.
This session aims at putting together studies of swarms and complex seismic sequences driven by aseismic transients in order to enhance our insights on the physics of such processes. Contributions focusing on the characterization of these sequences in terms of spatial and temporal evolution, scaling properties, and insight on the triggering physical processes are welcome. Multidisciplinary studies using observation complementary to seismological data, such as fluid geochemistry, deformation, and geology are also welcome, as well as laboratory and numerical modeling simulating the mechanical condition yielding to swarm-like and complex seismic sequences.
Mon, 23 May, 10:20–11:48 (CEST), 13:20–14:05 (CEST)
Induced/triggered seismicity in geo-energy applications: monitoring, modeling, mitigation, and forecasting
Numerous cases of induced/triggered seismicity associated with anthropogenic activity resulting either directly or indirectly from injection/extraction related to geo-resources exploration have been reported in the last decades. Induced earthquakes felt by the general public can often negatively affect public perception of geo-energies and may hinder future geo-energy development. Furthermore, large earthquakes may jeopardize wellbore stability and damage surface infrastructure. Thus, monitoring and modeling processes leading to fault slip, either seismic or aseismic, are critical to developing effective and reliable forecasting methodologies during deep underground exploitation. The complex interaction between injected fluids, subsurface geology, stress interactions, and resulting fault slip requires an interdisciplinary approach to understand the triggering mechanisms and may require taking coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes into account.
In this session, we invite contributions from research aimed at investigating the interaction of the above processes during exploitation of underground resources, including hydrocarbon extraction, wastewater disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, hydraulic fracturing, gas storage and production, mining, and reservoir impoundment for hydro-energy. We particularly encourage novel contributions based on laboratory and underground near-fault experiments, numerical modeling, the spatio-temporal relationship between seismic properties, injection/extraction parameters, and/or geology, and fieldwork. Contributions covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of induced and triggered seismicity at multiple spatial and temporal scales are welcome.
Mon, 23 May, 13:20–14:40 (CEST), 15:10–18:27 (CEST)
Challenges in seismology to understanding volcanic islands and magmatic unrest
Volcanic islands are simultaneously some of the tallest and fastest-forming geological features on Earth and constitute the site of significant geohazards ranging from volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis. Ocean island volcanoes are also some of the most enigmatic features in our planet, as their genesis is still not satisfactorily explained by conventional plate tectonics. The scientific community faces several challenges in studying volcanic islands, particularly in what regards processes taking place at depth. There is still a need to densify seismic networks in volcanic islands, using both land- and seafloor-based stations, to record the signals associated with volcanic and tectonic processes and automatically or manually detect and classify those signals. 3D images from the shallow crust to the deep mantle are crucial to unravel the geodynamic processes behind the generation of volcanism. More accurate quantification of temporal changes in the volcanic systems will help in the forecasting of potential eruptions and the monitoring of existing ones. On top of that, the presence of geothermal systems and induced seismicity from industrial exploration are also critical challenges in volcanic islands due to the system's complexity.
Considering the enormous diversity of interactions in volcanic islands, we welcome contributions from a wide range of studies including: seismo-volcanic monitoring and tracking of magma movements; characterization and location of volcanic tremor; 3D and 4D seismic imaging, including attenuation tomography; seismic ambient noise monitoring; machine learning to detect and classify volcanic earthquakes; active source studies to characterize volcanic flanks and landslides; induced and triggered seismicity in geothermal systems; and seismic sources.
Multi-disciplinary volcano monitoring and imaging with networks
Over the past few years, major technological advances significantly increased both the spatial coverage and frequency bandwidth of multi-disciplinary observations at active volcanoes. Networks of instruments, both ground- and satellite-based, now allow for the quantitative measurement of geophysical responses, geological features and geochemical emissions, permitting an unprecedented, multi-parameter vision of the surface manifestations of mass transport beneath volcanoes. Furthermore, new models and processing techniques have led to innovative paradigms for inverting observational data to image the structures and interpret the dynamics of volcanoes. In particular, machine learning, a type of AI in which computers learn from data, is gaining importance in volcanology, not only for monitoring purposes (i.e., in real-time) but also for later hazards analysis (e.g. modelling tools).
Within this context, this session aims to bring together a multidisciplinary audience to discuss the most recent innovations in volcano imaging and monitoring, and to present observations, methods and models that increase our understanding of volcanic processes.
We welcome contributions (1) related to methodological and instrumental advances in geophysical, geological and geochemical imaging of volcanoes, (2) to explore new knowledge provided by these studies on the internal structure and physical processes of volcanic systems, and (3) to investigate the potential of machine learning techniques to process multispectral satellite data for developing a better understanding of volcanic hazards.
We invite contributors from all geophysical, geological and geochemical disciplines: seismology, electromagnetics, geoelectrics, gravimetry, magnetics, muon tomography, volatile measurements and analysis. The session will include in-situ monitoring and high- resolution remote sensing studies that resolve volcanic systems ranging from near-surface hydrothermal activity to deep magma migration.
Fri, 27 May, 10:20–11:30 (CEST), 13:20–16:20 (CEST)
The sustained low-intensity 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption, Iceland: precursors, nature and impact
The Fagradalsfjall eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland started on 19 March 2021. It provides a unique opportunity to study all aspects of a low-intensity effusive basaltic eruption in great detail using multidisciplinary approaches. The Fagradalsfjall eruption followed a several-week long period of intense seismicity and deformation associated with formation of the feeding dike. The eruption terminated on September 18, 2021, after producing a lava field covering about 4.5 km2. The eruption progressed through several phases, each characterized by different emission sources, eruptive style, intensities, and associated hazards. The eruption may be representative of the formation of a shield volcano, a process that the scientific community has had limited chances to observe in real time.
We welcome submissions on sustained low-intensity basaltic eruptions including (but not limited to) the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption; their plumbling systems, eruptive products, and impacts. We particularly encourage comparative studies across different regions that may help us to better understand the volcanic processes that are active in the Fagradalsfjall eruption.
Topics may include, for example: physical volcanology of eruptive products and eruptive behavior; lava flow modeling; acoustic studies; petrology; geochemistry and interaction with groundwater; studies of volcanic gases; crustal deformation; seismology; volcano monitoring; social effects; health effects; hazard mitigation; tectonic implications; volcano-tectonic interactions; atmosphere-climate interactions, etc.
Programme group scientific officer:
Seismic signals of Earth surface processes: Formation, development, expansion and extinction
Many processes occurring on the Earth’s surface, such as landslides and debris flows, are natural hazards and cause risks for societies. Despite great research efforts, including approaches such as physical modelling, numerical simulation, and on-site monitoring, there are many open questions on these processes. Recently, with the development of environmental seismology, ground shaking measured by seismometers has become a promising tool to obtain quantitative information about surface processes that are difficult to observe otherwise. Therefore, it is possible to use seismic signals recorded by seismometers and geophones to provide new insights into Earth surface processes.
This session focuses on the formation, development, expansion, and extinction of surface processes, as well as their driving mechanism and inner interaction using seismic methods. Using observational, experimental or theoretical approaches, the topics of the presentations include but are not limited to:
(a) Natural seismic sources triggered by external phenomena, including those developing in the cryosphere (ice-quakes) and the hydrosphere (river, sediment transport, ocean).
(b) Natural seismic vibrations induced by geological disasters such as landslides, debris flows, flash floods, and many other hazards.
(c) Seismic wave propagation in the solid Earth due to processes in relation with the external environment, including hydro-meteorological, thermal evolution, and erosion processes.
New data and methods to explore the interplay between natural hazards and social vulnerability
Increasing effects of climate change, urbanization, and increased interconnectedness between ecological, physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk management in a globalised world. Economic losses from natural hazards and climate change are still increasing, and the recent series of catastrophic events across the world together with the COVID-19 crisis has manifested the urgent need to shift from single-hazard-based approaches to new and innovative ways of assessing and managing risk based on a multi-hazard and systemic risk lens. This calls for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collections to integrate the study of multiple natural processes and human influences triggering hazards, including studies of ecological, physical, socioeconomic, political, and technical factors that shape exposure and vulnerability of humans, sectors and systems across borders and scales.
Tackling the above challenges, this session aims to gather the latest research, empirical studies, and observation data that are useful for understanding and assessing the interplay between multiple natural hazards and social vulnerability to: (i) identify persistent gaps, (ii) propose potential ways forward, and (iii) inform resilience building strategies in the context of global change.
Global and continental scale risk assessment for natural hazards: methods and practice
The purpose of this session is to: (1) showcase the current state-of-the-art in global and continental scale natural hazard risk science, assessment, and application; (2) foster broader exchange of knowledge, datasets, methods, models, and good practice between scientists and practitioners working on different natural hazards and across disciplines globally; and (3) collaboratively identify future research avenues.
Reducing natural hazard risk is high on the global political agenda. For example, it is at the heart of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Paris Agreement. In response, the last decade has seen an explosion in the number of scientific datasets, methods, and models for assessing risk at the global and continental scale. More and more, these datasets, methods and models are being applied together with stakeholders in the decision decision-making process.
We invite contributions related to all aspects of natural hazard risk assessment at the continental to global scale, including contributions focusing on single hazards, multiple hazards, or a combination or cascade of hazards. We also encourage contributions examining the use of scientific methods in practice, and the appropriate use of continental to global risk assessment data in efforts to reduce risks. Furthermore, we encourage contributions focusing on globally applicable methods, such as novel methods for using globally available datasets and models to force more local models or inform more local risk assessment.
Physical and data-driven models for seismic risk assessments toward disaster reduction
Earthquake disaster mitigation involves different elements, ranging from analysis of hazards (e.g. physical description of ground shaking) to its impact on built and natural environment, from vulnerability and exposure to hazards to capacity building and resilience, from long-term preparedness to post-event response. The scientific base of this process involves various seismic hazard/risk models, developed at different time scales and by different methods, as well as the use of heterogeneous observations and multi-disciplinary information. Accordingly, we welcome contributions about different types of seismic hazards research and assessments, both methodological and practical, and their applications to disaster risk reduction in terms of physical and social vulnerability, capacity and resilience.
This session aims to tackle theoretical and implementation issues, as well as aspects of communication and science policy, which are all essential elements towards effective disasters mitigation, and include:
⇒ development of physical/statistical models for the different earthquake risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability), including novel methods for data collection and processing (e.g. statistical machine learning analysis)
⇒ earthquake hazard and risk estimation at different time and space scales, including their performance verification against observations (including unconventional seismological observations);
⇒ time-dependent seismic hazard and risk assessments (including contribution of aftershocks), and post-event information (early warning, alerts) for emergency management;
⇒ earthquake-induced cascading effects (e.g. landslides, tsunamis, etc) and multi-risk assessment (e.g. earthquake plus flooding).
The interdisciplinary session will provide an opportunity to share best practices and experience gained with different methods, providing opportunities to advance our understanding of disaster risk in "all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment", while simultaneously highlighting existing gaps and future research directions.
SM8 – Computational, Theoretical Seismology and Big Data
Programme group scientific officer:
Physics-based earthquake modeling and engineering
Numerical modeling of earthquakes provides new approaches to apprehend the physics of earthquake rupture and the seismic cycle, seismic wave propagation, fault zone evolution and seismic hazard assessment.
Recent advances in numerical algorithms and increasing computational power enable unforeseen precision and multi-physics components in physics-based earthquake simulation but also pose challenges in terms of fully exploiting modern supercomputing infrastructure, realistic parameterization of simulation ingredients and the analysis of large synthetic datasets while advances in laboratory experiments link earthquake source processes to rock mechanics.
This session aims to bring together modelers and data analysts interested in the physics and computational aspects of earthquake phenomena and earthquake engineering. We welcome studies focusing on all aspects of seismic hazard assessment and the physics of earthquakes - from slow slip events, fault mechanics and rupture dynamics, to wave propagation and ground motion analysis, to the seismic cycle and inter seismic deformation - and studies which further the state-of-the art in the related computational and numerical aspects.
Mon, 23 May, 14:05–14:50 (CEST), 15:10–18:30 (CEST)
Pattern recognition and statistical models applied to earthquake occurrence
New models based on seismicity patterns, considering their physical meaning and their statistical significance, shed light on the preparation process of large earthquakes and on the evolution in time and space of clustered seismicity.
Opportunities for improved model testing are being opened by the increasing amount of earthquake data available on local to global scales, together with accurate assessments of the catalogues’ reliability in terms of location precision, magnitude of completeness and coherence in magnitude determination.
Moreover, it is possible to reliably integrate the models with additional information, like geodetic deformation, active fault data, source parameters of previously recorded seismicity, fluid contents, tomographic information, or laboratory and numerical experiments of rock fracture and friction. Such integration allows a detailed description of the system and hopefully an improved forecasting of the future distribution of seismicity in space, time and magnitude.
In this session, we invite researchers to submit their latest results and insights on the physical and statistical models and machine learning approaches for the space, time and magnitude evolution of earthquake sequences. Particular emphasis will be placed on:
• physical and statistical models of earthquake occurrence;
• analysis of earthquake clustering;
• spatial, temporal and magnitude properties of earthquake statistics;
• quantitative testing of earthquake occurrence models;
• reliability of earthquake catalogues;
• time-dependent hazard assessment;
• methods for earthquake forecasting;
• data analyses and requirements for model testing;
• pattern recognition in seismology;
• machine learning applied to seismic data; and
• methods for quantifying uncertainty in pattern recognition and machine learning.
Thu, 26 May, 08:30–11:49 (CEST), 13:20–14:05 (CEST)
SM9 – Short Courses in seismology
Programme group scientific officer:
QuakeMigrate: an open-source software package for automatic earthquake detection and location
QuakeMigrate is a new, open-source software package for automatic earthquake detection and location (https://github.com/QuakeMigrate/QuakeMigrate). Our software provides a means for seismologists to extract highly complete catalogues of microseismicity from continuous seismic data, whether their network is installed at a volcano, plate-boundary fault zone, on an ice shelf, or even on another planet. Rather than traditional pick-based techniques, it uses a migration-based approach to combine the recordings from stations across a seismic network, promising increased robustness to noise, more accurate hypocentre locations, and improved detection capability. Cloud-hosted Jupyter Notebooks and tutorials (https://mybinder.org/v2/gh/QuakeMigrate/QuakeMigrate/master) provide an overview of the philosophy and capabilities of our algorithm, and in this session we intend to provide a more hands-on introduction, with a focus on providing a general understanding of the considerations when applying a waveform-based algorithm to detect and locate seismicity.
QuakeMigrate has been constructed with a modular architecture, to make it flexible to use in different settings. We will demonstrate its use in detecting and locating basal icequakes at the Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, volcano-tectonic seismicity during the 2014 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun and 2021 Reykjanes/Fagradalsfjall dike intrusions, and aftershocks from a M5 tectonic earthquake in northern Borneo, which was recorded on a sparse regional seismic network. In each case we will discuss the reasoning behind parameter selections, and the key factors in maximising detection sensitivity while minimising computational cost. We will end the session by exploring sample datasets provided by attendees, with interactive involvement as we tune parameters and use the comprehensive array of automatically generated plots to take a preliminary look at unseen data.
How do seismologists detect earthquakes? How do we locate them? Is seismology only about earthquakes? Seismology has been integrated into a wide variety of geo-disciplines to complement many fields such as tectonics, geology, geodynamics, volcanology, hydrology, glaciology and planetology. This 90-minute course is part of the Solid Earth 101 short course series together with ‘Geodynamics 101’ and ‘Geology 101’ to better illustrate the link between these fields.
In ‘Seismology 101’, we will introduce the basic concepts and methods in seismology. In previous years, this course was given as “Seismology for non-seismologists”, and it is still aimed at those not familiar with seismology -- particularly early-career scientists. An overview will be given on various methods and processing techniques applicable to investigate surface processes, near-surface geological structures, and the Earth’s interior. The course will highlight the role that advanced seismological techniques can play in the co-interpretation of results from other fields. The topics will include:
- the basics of seismology, including the detection and location of earthquakes
- understanding and interpreting those enigmatic “beachballs”
- an introduction to free seismo-live.org tutorials and other useful tools
- how seismic methods are used to learn about the Earth, such as imaging the Earth’s interior (on all scales), deciphering tectonics, monitoring volcanoes, landslides and glaciers, etc...
We likely won’t turn you in the next Charles Richter in 90 minutes but would like to make you aware of how seismology can help you with your research. The intention is to discuss each topic in a non-technical manner, emphasizing their strengths and potential shortcomings. This course will help non-seismologists better understand seismic results and facilitate more enriched discussion between different scientific disciplines. The short course is organised by early-career scientist seismologists and geoscientists who will present examples from their own research experience and high-impact reference studies for illustration. Questions from the audience on the topics covered will be highly encouraged.
Please use the buttons below to download the presentation materials or to visit the external website where the presentation is linked. Regarding the external link, please note that Copernicus Meetings cannot accept any liability for the content and the website you will visit.