EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

The Dynamics of Climate Change Science and Policy in Panama: A Review 

Gustavo Cárdenas-Castillero1, Steve Paton2, Rodrigo Noriega3, and Adriana Calderón4
Gustavo Cárdenas-Castillero et al.
  • 1Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Modeling, Prague, Czechia (
  • 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Luis Clement Avenue, Bldg. 401 Tupper, Balboa, Panama, Panama Republic
  • 3Oficina Regional en Panama, Wetlands International, Calle Jacinto Palacios Cobos Edificio 225, Ciudad del Saber, Clayton, AP 0819-03717, Panama, Panama Republic
  • 4Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Panamá.Urbanización El Cangrejo - Vía Simón Bolívar(Transístmica) con la intersección de la Vía Manuel Espinoza Batista y José De Fábrega.

The local studies and reports indicate that the temperature of Panama has increased by approximately 1°C since the 1970s. More evidence shows a constantly rising sea level in the Guna Yala archipelago, coral bleaching on both coasts, and increasingly more frequent and extreme precipitation events throughout Panama. This study includes an analysis of over 400 scientific publications made by researchers from multiple centres and more than 20 Panamanian official reports due to Panama's mandate and duties under the international climate accords. To summarise the results, the studies were gathered according to the climate change effects by Panamanian locations and analysed posteriorly using Rstudio and ArcMAP. The results indicate a significant increase in climate change research beginning in 2007.

This study identified and examined the essential findings per hydroclimatic region, showing the trends, limitations, collaborations, and international contributions. Climate change research in Panama includes some of the longest-term meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic, and biological studies in the neotropics. The most significant number of identified climate change-related studies were conducted, at least in part, in the Barro Colorado Natural Monument located in central Panama. Other frequently used sites include Metropolitan Natural Park, Soberania Park, the Panama Canal Watershed and the Caribbean coast of Colón and Bocas del Toro, primarily due to research conducted by Smithsonian Tropical Research-affiliated investigators. The tropical forests of Panama are some of the bests studied in the world; however, research has been concentrated in a relatively small number of locations and should be expanded to include additional areas to achieve a more complete and comprehensive understanding of climate change will impact Panama in the future.

How to cite: Cárdenas-Castillero, G., Paton, S., Noriega, R., and Calderón, A.: The Dynamics of Climate Change Science and Policy in Panama: A Review , EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11065,, 2023.