GI6.1 | New frontiers of multiscale monitoring, analysis and modeling of environmental systems

Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented toward collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform and inter-disciplinary surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales. In particular, special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring of high natural risk areas, such as volcanic, seismic, energy exploitation, slope instability, floods, coastal instability, climate changes, and another environmental context.
We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, geology, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote and proximal sensing, volcanology, geotechnical, soil science, marine geology, oceanography, climatology, and meteorology. In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geological and environmental processes are also expected.
Finally, we stress that the inter-disciplinary studies that highlight the multiscale properties of natural processes analyzed and monitored by using several methodologies are welcome.

Co-organized by CL5/ERE1/ESSI4/GMPV1/NH6/NP3
Convener: Raffaele Castaldo | Co-conveners: Antonello BonfanteECSECS, Pietro Tizzani, Nemesio M. Pérez, Andrea BaroneECSECS
Orals
| Mon, 24 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)
 
Room -2.31
Posters on site
| Attendance Mon, 24 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)
 
Hall X4
Posters virtual
| Attendance Mon, 24 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST)
 
vHall ESSI/GI/NP
Orals |
Mon, 14:00
Mon, 10:45
Mon, 10:45

Orals: Mon, 24 Apr | Room -2.31

Chairpersons: Raffaele Castaldo, Andrea Barone, Nemesio M. Pérez
14:00–14:05
14:05–14:15
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EGU23-15190
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GI6.1
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Virtual presentation
Antonio Pepe, Andrea Barone, Pietro Mastro, Pietro Tizzani, and Raffaele Castaldo

This work presents an overview of some applications of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry technology for the detection and analysis of large ground displacements occurring in volcanic areas, with the aim to retrieve the three-dimensional (3-D) ground displacement field (up-down, east-west, north-south). Specifically, the work summarizes and investigates the potential of Bursted Overlapped Interferometry (BOI) that properly combined can allow the retrieval, at different scales of resolution and accuracies, of the north-south components of the ground deformations, which are usually not available considering conventional SAR interferometry techniques. In this context, the almost global coverage and the weekly revisit times of the European Copernicus Sentinel-1 SAR sensors permit nowadays to perform extensive analyses with the aim to assess the accuracy of the BOI techniques. More recently, Spectral Diversity (SD) methods have been exploited for the fine co-registration of SAR data acquired with the Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode. In this case, considering that TOPS acquires images in a burst mode, there is an overlap region between consecutive bursts where the Doppler frequency variations is large enough to allow estimating and compensating for, with great accuracy, potential bursts co-registration errors. Additionally, and more importantly, in the case of non-stationary scenarios, it allows detecting the ground displacements occurring along the azimuthal directions (almost aligned along north-south) with centimeter accuracy. This is done by computing the difference between the right and left interferograms, i.e., the burst overlapped interferogram, and relating it to the ongoing deformation signals.

This work aims to apply the BOI technique in selected volcanic and seismic areas to evaluate the impact of this novel technology for the analysis of quantifying, over small, covered regions, the accumulated ground displacements in volcanic areas. In such regions, the interest is on quantifying the accuracy of integrated BOI systems for the retrieval of 3-D displacements. To this aim, we selected as a test site the Galapagos Island and we analyze with BOI the north-south ground displacements. At the next EGU symposium, the results of the BOI analyses will be presented, thus also providing comparative analyses with the results obtained from the use of potential field method applied on the ground displacements in volcanic areas. More specifically, by adopting this technique, we are able to estimate independently the north-south components of the ground displacement by exploiting the harmonic properties of the elasticity field.

How to cite: Pepe, A., Barone, A., Mastro, P., Tizzani, P., and Castaldo, R.: Synthetic aperture radar burst overlapped interferometry for the analysis of large ground instabilities: Experiments in volcanic regions., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-15190, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-15190, 2023.

14:15–14:25
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EGU23-5223
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GI6.1
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On-site presentation
Ute Weber and Claudia Schuetze and the MOSES-Team

The novel observing system „Modular Observation Solutions for Earth Systems (MOSES)“, is an initiative of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers that aims at investigating the interactions of short-term events and long-term trends across environmental systems. MOSES is a mobile and modular infrastructure and its component measuring systems are managed by the participating research centers. By quantifying energy, water, nutrient and greenhouse gas states and fluxes during events such as heat waves, droughts, heavy precipitation, floods, rapid thaw of permafrost or of ocean eddies, and subsequently along the related event chains, the system delivers data to examine potential long-term impacts of these events and to gain a better understanding of extreme events that are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in a changing climate. In order to obtain comprehensive data sets, a cross-system approach is followed, covering the atmosphere, land surface and hydrosphere. These event-related data sets complement long-term and/or large scale data sets of established national and international monitoring programs and satellite data such as TERENO, ICOS, eLTER, SENTINEL, etc. After a 5-year setup period, MOSES was successfully put into operation in 2022 (Weber et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0158.1).

While long-term trends are typically assessed with stationary observation networks and platforms specifically designed for long-term monitoring, proven event-oriented observation systems and strategies are still missing. Event-oriented observation campaigns require a combination of a) measuring systems that can be rapidly deployed at “hot spots” and in “hot moments”, b) mobile equipment to monitor spatial dynamics in high-resolution, c) in situ measuring systems to record temporal dynamics in high-resolution, and d) interoperable measuring systems to monitor the interactions between atmosphere, land surface and hydrosphere. We will present the observation system and the observing strategy on examples from two past test campaigns: 1) The “Swabian MOSES campaign” of 2021 that captured the formation and evolution of supercells, hail and heavy precipitation and the resulting local flash floods (Kunz et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2022.999593). 2) The MOSES campaign of 2019 that captured the historical low flow situation along the Elbe River and into the German Bight (e.g., Kamjunke et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11778). As an outlook, upcoming national and international campaigns and potential future deployments will be presented.

How to cite: Weber, U. and Schuetze, C. and the MOSES-Team: Event-oriented observation across scales and environmental systems: MOSES started operation., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5223, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5223, 2023.

14:25–14:35
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EGU23-6832
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Rahul Prabhakaran, Ruaridh Smith, Daniel Koehn, Pierre-Olivier Bruna, and Giovanni Bertotti

Karstification is a ubiquitous feature in carbonate rocks. The origins can be hypogenic or epigenic based on the source of the reacting fluids. The presence of karstified lithologies and their spatial heterogeneity poses a major risk in subsurface energy utilization goals (hydrocarbons, geothermal etc). Such dissolution features tend to organize as spatial networks, with their evolution controlled by a complex interplay of several factors, including natural mineralogical variations in host rocks, effects of pre-existing structures, directional history of palaeo-flow paths, and competition between convective transport and dissolution. Accurate quantification of the spatial distribution of karst is difficult owing to resolution issues in 3D data such as seismic and ground penetrating radar. Recent advances in Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) Lidar technology have made possible to acquire karst cave passage geometries at very high-resolution with relative ease compared to conventional terrestrial lidar. In this contribution, we present a unique dataset of more than 80 caves, scanned using SLAM lidar, in Jurassic carbonates from northern Bavaria, Germany. We introduce a methodology for robustly deriving morphometrics of karstic caves using Minkowski tensors and spatial graph theory. The method is based on a combination representation of cave passage skeletons as spatial graphs and 2D passage cross-sections using Minkowski functionals. The enriched topological representation enables detailed analysis of internal spatial variation within a single cave and also comparison with cave geometries from other caves. We derive a typology of cave systems based on the degree of structural control on karstification using the database.

How to cite: Prabhakaran, R., Smith, R., Koehn, D., Bruna, P.-O., and Bertotti, G.: Quantifying karstic geomorphologies using Minkowski tensors and graph theory: Applications to SLAM Lidar data from carbonate caves in Northern Bavaria (Germany), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-6832, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-6832, 2023.

14:35–14:45
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EGU23-13693
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Lucia Rita Pacifico, Annalise Guarino, Gianfranco Brambilla, Antonio Pizzolante, and Stefano Albanese

The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) derived from anthropogenic sources in soil represents a serious issue for animal and human health. These elements can easily move from the geological compartment to the biological compartment through to the food chain. (Jarup, 2003).

The geochemical knowledge of a territory allows to assess the degree of contamination of the environment, to locate the sources of environmental hazard and, possibly, to manage the anomalous concentrations of the PTEs in environmental matrices with the purpose of eliminating or minimizing their negative impact on the health of living beings. (Reimann et al. 2005).

Several studies have been already carried out to determine the distribution patterns of PTEs in the soil of Campania region (Southern Italy) (De Vivo et al., 2022) but little is known about the transfer processes of contaminants from soils to agricultural products.

In light of above, we present the results of a new study whose purpose was to determine the Transfer Factors (TFs) of PTEs from soil to a series of agricultural products commonly grown in Campania.

Considering the complex geological and geomorphological settings of the region and the diffuse presence of an historical anthropization related to the industry, agriculture, and urbanization, TFs were calculated for a relevant number of fruit and vegetable samples (3731 specimens). They were collected across the whole regional territory to detect differences between analysed species and to highlight the spatial changes in TFs occurring for individual species.

The TFs were calculated starting from the quasi-total (based on Aqua Regia leaching) and bioavailable (based on Ammonium Nitrate leaching) concentrations of PTEs in 7000 and 1500 soil samples, respectively.

Preliminary results show that TFs determined for the various agricultural species vary in space and in amount independently from the original elemental concentrations in soils. High values of TFs are found in areas where PTE concentrations in soil are low and vice versa, thus suggesting that multiple regression and multivariate analyses could be performed to investigate if some additional chemical and physical characteristics of soil (pH, grainsize, OM, etc.) could have a relevant weight on the transfer processes of contaminant from the soil to the plant life.

 

References

Järup L. 2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 167–182.

Reimann C., de Caritat P. 2005. Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic sources for elements in the environment: regional geochemical surveys versus enrichment factors. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 337, Issues 1–3, pages 91-107.

De Vivo B. et al. 2022. Monitoraggio geochimico-ambientale dei suoli e dell'aria della Regione Campania. Piano Campania trasparente. Volume 4. Aracne Editore, Genzano di Roma.

How to cite: Pacifico, L. R., Guarino, A., Brambilla, G., Pizzolante, A., and Albanese, S.: Assessing the transfer factors (TFs) of contaminants from soil to plants: the case study of Campania region (Southern Italy), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13693, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13693, 2023.

14:45–14:55
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EGU23-8673
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GI6.1
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On-site presentation
Antonio Eff-Darwich, Germán D. Padilla, José Barrancos, José A. Rodríguez-Losada, Pedro A. Hernández, Nemesio M. Pérez, Antonio J. Álvarez Díaz, Alexis M. González Pérez, Jesús García, José M. Santana, and Eleazar Padrón

Radon, 222Rn, is a radioactive constituent of the surface layer of the atmosphere. The analysis of the temporal and spatial variations in the flux of radon across the soil–air interface is a promising tool to study geo-dynamical processes. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall, or the location of the instrumentation, among others.

Anomalous CO2 degassing has been observed since the end of November 2021 in the neighborhoods of La Bombilla and Puerto Naos, located in the western flank of La Palma, about 5 km distance southwestern of the 2021 Tajogaite eruption vents (Hernández et al. 2022). In order to complement these observations with other independent parameters, a set of radon monitoring stations have been deployed in that area. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the radon signal, we have implemented time-series numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis. A background level for radon emissions at various locations could therefore be defined, by which correlations between radon concentration, gaseous emissions and dynamical processes could be carried out. Some preliminary results corresponding to the first 3 months of data (october-december 2022) are presented.

Hernández, P. A., Padrón, E., Melián, G. V., Pérez, N. M., Padilla, G., Asensio-Ramos, M., Di Nardo, D., Barrancos, J., Pacheco, J. M., and Smit, M.: Gas hazard assessment at Puerto Naos and La Bombilla inhabited areas, Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7705, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7705, 2022.

How to cite: Eff-Darwich, A., Padilla, G. D., Barrancos, J., Rodríguez-Losada, J. A., Hernández, P. A., Pérez, N. M., Álvarez Díaz, A. J., González Pérez, A. M., García, J., Santana, J. M., and Padrón, E.: Are they radon or random signals? Analysis of time series of 222Rn activity concentrations in populated areas of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8673, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8673, 2023.

14:55–15:05
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EGU23-8795
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Joe Carthy, Alejandra Vásquez Castillo, Manuel Titos, Luciano Zuccarello, Flavio Cannavò, and M. Carmen Benitez

The time scale of ground displacement at volcanoes varies between short, sub second seismic events, to days, months or even years. This study is focused on data from seismic and GNSS stations located around Mount Etna. The GNSS and seismic stations operate at different time scales. Data from these different time scales is extracted and combined in order to better understand the subsurface dynamics. The overall aim of this research is to improve volcanic forecasting and monitoring. It does this in a novel way by applying signal processing and machine learning techniques to the rich dataset.

Mount Etna offers an interesting case study as it is a widely monitored volcano with a variety of sensors and with a rich pool of data to analyse. Additionally the volcanic dynamics at Mount Etna are complex. This is a volcano where there is a variety of different sub-surface dynamics due to the movement of both deep and shallow magma. This allows for rich insights to be drawn through the combination of different signal types.

This study looks at combining the information obtained from the seismic array at Mount Etna, with the information obtained from various GNSS stations on the volcano. The seismic array has been able to capture ground velocity data in the frequency range 0.025 Hz to 50 Hz from a range of stations at different locations across the volcano. The GNSS stations measure ground displacement with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, and they allow for longer term ground dynamic analysis.

We analyse different seismic events, and relate the type and number of the seismic events to the long term ground deformation that we see in the recorded GNSS data. Where links between the two signal types have been identified, research is ongoing to establish a direct connection with known volcanic activity on Mount Etna. This will help establish what the relationship that we are seeing signifies. This integration of data from different types of sensors is a significant step into bridging the gap between seismic and quasi-static ground displacement at active volcanoes and should open the path toward more in depth volcanic monitoring and forecasting.

How to cite: Carthy, J., Vásquez Castillo, A., Titos, M., Zuccarello, L., Cannavò, F., and Benitez, M. C.: Integration of Seismic and Quasi-Static Signals for Improved Volcanic Monitoring, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8795, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8795, 2023.

15:05–15:15
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EGU23-12050
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GI6.1
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On-site presentation
Bruno Massa, Guido Maria Adinolfi, Vincenzo Convertito, and Raffaella De Matteis

The city of St. Gallen is located in the Molasse Basin of northeast Switzerland. Mesozoic units of the substratum are affected by a fault system hosting a hydrothermal reservoir. In 2013 a deep geothermal drilling project started in an area close to the city. During a phase of reservoir stimulation, a sequence of more than 340 earthquakes was induced with a maximum magnitude ML 3.5. Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics areas. With this aim, a dataset of the best constrained Fault Plane Solutions (FPSs) was processed in order to qualitatively retrieve stress-fields active in the investigated volume. FPSs were obtained by jointly inverting the long-period spectral-level P/S ratios and the P-wave polarities following a Bayesian approach (BISTROP). Data were preliminarily processed by the Multiple Inverse Method to evaluate the possible dataset heterogeneity and separate homogeneous FPS populations. The resulting dataset was then processed using the Bayesian Right Trihedra Method (BRTM). Considering that hypocentral depths range between 4.1 and 4.6 km b.s.l., in order to emphasize depth-related stresses, we performed a first step of raw stress inversion procedure splitting the data into five subsets, grouping events located inside 100-m depth ranges. Once the presence of stress variations with depth has been excluded, the second step of fine stress inversion procedure was performed on the entire dataset. The stress-inversion procedure highlights an active stress field dominated by a well-constrained NE low-plunging σ3 and a corresponding NW low-plunging σ1. The corresponding Bishop ratio confirms the stability of the retrieved attitudes. Results are in good accordance with the regional stress field derived from regional natural seismicity. Additionally, the retrieved, dominant, stress field is coherent with the regional tectonic setting.

This research has been supported by PRIN-2017 MATISSE project (No. 20177EPPN2).

How to cite: Massa, B., Adinolfi, G. M., Convertito, V., and De Matteis, R.: Stress field analysis from induced earthquakes caused by deep fluid injection: the 2013 St. Gallen (Switzerland) seismic sequence., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-12050, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-12050, 2023.

15:15–15:25
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EGU23-16132
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Maurizio Milano, Giuseppe Cavuoto, Alfonso Corniello, Vincenzo Di Fiore, Maurizio Fedi, Nicola Massarotti, Nicola Pelosi, Michele Punzo, Daniela Tarallo, Gian Paolo Donnarumma, and Marina Iorio

The central‐eastern sector of the Phlegraean Fields caldera, southern Italy, is one of the most intensely studied and monitored volcanic active area of the word. This area reveals typical characters of a high‐ enthalpy geothermal systems. However, recently the presence of two different geothermal reservoirs has been outlined: one located in the central sector dominated by highly active vapours generated by episodic arrival of CO2‐rich magmatic fluids and the other one located in the eastern sector (Agnano zone) characterized by a shallow (400-500 m b.s.l.) still hot reservoir, heated by the upward circulation of deep no magmatic hot vapor.

In this study we present preliminary results deriving from the integration of different geophysical surveys carried out in the Agnano plain area, in the frame of the GEOGRID research project. We acquired high-resolution gravity data along two parallel profiles and we investigated the depth, shape and density contrast of the subsurface structures by the CompactDEXP (CDEXP) method, a multiscale iterative imaging technique based on the DEXP method. The resulting density models, together with DC resistivity and stratigraphic data, outlines the presence of a complex morphology of the Agnano subsoil characterized by a horst-graben structure. The importance of the structural lines identified by geophysical data, is also confirmed by the alignment of correlate outcropping thermal waters.

How to cite: Milano, M., Cavuoto, G., Corniello, A., Di Fiore, V., Fedi, M., Massarotti, N., Pelosi, N., Punzo, M., Tarallo, D., Donnarumma, G. P., and Iorio, M.: Multiscale imaging of low-enthalpy geothermal reservoir of the Phlegraean Fields caldera from gravity and resistivity data., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-16132, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-16132, 2023.

15:25–15:35
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EGU23-15127
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Luigi Bianco, Maurizio Fedi, and Mauro La Manna

We present a multiscale analysis of magnetic data in the archaeological site of San Pietro in Crapolla (Massa Lubrense, near Naples, Italy). The site consists of the ruins of an ancient abbey. We computed the Wavelet Transform of the Gradiometric measurements and decomposed the data at different scales and positions by a multiresolution analysis, allowing an effective extraction of local anomalies. Modelling of the filtered anomalies was performed by multiscale methods known as “Multiridge analysis” and “DEpth from eXtreme Points (DEXP)”.  The first method analyses a multiscale dataset at the zeroes of the first horizontal and vertical derivatives besides the potential field data themselves (ridges).  The Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima  lines converged to buried remains. The field, scaled by a power law of the altitude (DEXP transformation) allowed estimates of source depths at its extreme points. The depth estimations for the buried structures obtained from the two methods are very close each other and fairly agree with those from the modelling of GPR anomalies. On the basis of these results, an archaeological excavation followed our indications and brought to light ancient walls.

How to cite: Bianco, L., Fedi, M., and La Manna, M.: Multiscale magnetic modelling in the ancient abbey of San Pietro in Crapolla, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-15127, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-15127, 2023.

15:35–15:45
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EGU23-10069
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GI6.1
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Andrea Vitale and Maurizio Fedi

We are showing an application of the 3D self-constrained depth weighted inversion of the inhomogeneous gravity field (Vitale and Fedi, 2020) of the Vredefort impact site.

This method is based on two steps, the first being the search in the 3D domain of the homogenous degree of the field, and the second being the inversion of the data using a power-law weighting function with a 3D variable exponent. It does not involve directly data at different altitudes, but it is heavily conditioned by a multiscale search of the homogeneity degree.

The main difference between this inversion approach and the one proposed by Li and Oldenburg algorithm (1996) and Cella and Fedi (2012) is therefore about the depth weighting function, whose exponent is a constant through the whole space in the original Li and Oldenburg and Cella and Fedi approaches, while it is a 3D function in the method which we will discuss here.

The model volume of the area reaches 20 km in depth, while along x and y its extension is respectively 41 by 63 km. The trend at low and middle altitudes of the estimated β related to the main structures is fitting the expectations because the results relate to two main structures, which are geometrically different: the core is like a spheroid body (β ≈ 3) and the distal rings are like horizontal pipes or dykes (1 < β < 2).

With a homogeneous depth weighting function, we recover a smooth solution and both the main sources, the main core and the rings of the impact, are still visible at the bottom of the model (20 km). This is not in agreement with the result by Henkel and Reimold (1996, 1998), which, based on gravity and magnetic inversion supported by seismic data, proposed a model where the bottom of the rings is around 10 km and the density contrast effect due to the core structure loses its effectiveness around 15 km.

Instead, using an inhomogeneous depth weighting function (figure 28) we can retrieve information regarding the position at depth of both core and distal ring structures that better fits the above model. In fact, the bottom of the distal ring structure, that should be around 10 km according to Henkel and Reimold (1996, 1998), is recovered very well using an inhomogeneous depth weighting function, while in the homogeneous case we saw that the interpreted structure was still visible at large depths.

In addition, also the core structure is shallower compared to the homogeneous approach and seems more reliable if we compare it with the model of Henkel and Reimold (1996, 1998).

Instead, the inhomogeneous approach presented in this paper leads naturally us to a better solution because it takes into account during the same inversion process of the inhomogeneous nature of the structural index within the entire domain.

How to cite: Vitale, A. and Fedi, M.: Vredefort impact site modelling through inhomogeneous depth weighted inversion., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10069, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-10069, 2023.

Posters on site: Mon, 24 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | Hall X4

Chairpersons: Andrea Barone, Antonello Bonfante, Raffaele Castaldo
X4.176
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EGU23-13853
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GI6.1
Raffaele Castaldo, Andrea Barone, De Novellis Vincenzo, Pepe Antonio, Pepe Susi, Solaro Giuseppe, Tizzani Pietro, and Tramelli Anna

Geodetic modelling is a significant procedure for detecting and characterizing unrest and eruption episodes and it represents a valuable tool to infer volume and geometry of volcanic source system.

In this study, we analyse the 2009–2013 and the ongoing 2019-2022 uplift phenomena at Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera in terms of spatial and temporal variations of the stress/strain field. In particular, we investigate the characteristics of the inflating sources responsible of these main deformation unrests occurred in the last twenty years. We separately perform for the two considered periods a 3D stationary Finite Element (FE) modelling of geodetic datasets to retrieve the geometry and location of the deformation sources. The geometry of FE domain takes into account both the topography and the bathymetry of the whole caldera. For what concern the definition of domain elastic parameters, we take into account the Vp/Vs distribution from seismic tomography. In order to optimize the nine model parameters (center coordinates, sferoid axes, dip, strike and over-pressure), we use the statistical random sampling Monte Carlo method by exploiting both geodetic datasets: the DInSAR measurements obtained from the processing of COSMO-SkyMed and Sentinel-1 satellite images. The modelling results for the two analysed period are compared revealing that the best-fit source is a three-axis oblate spheroid ~3.5 km deep, similar to a sill-like body. Furthermore, in order to verify the reliability of the geometry model results, we calculate the Total Horizontal Derivative (THD) of the vertical velocity component and compare it with those performed directly on the two DInSAR dataset.

Finally, we compare the modelled shear stress with the natural seismicity recorded during the 2000-2022 period, highlighting high values of modelled shear stress at depths of about 3.5 km, where high-magnitude earthquakes nucleate.

How to cite: Castaldo, R., Barone, A., Vincenzo, D. N., Antonio, P., Susi, P., Giuseppe, S., Pietro, T., and Anna, T.: Analysis and Modelling of 2009-2013 vs. 2019-2022 Unrest Episodes at Campi Flegrei Caldera, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13853, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13853, 2023.

X4.177
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EGU23-3292
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GI6.1
Nemesio M. Pérez, María Asensio-Ramos, José Barrancos, Eleazar Padrón, Gladys V. Melián, Fátima Rodríguez, Germán D. Padilla, Violeta T. Albertos, Pedro A. Hernández, Antonio J. Álvarez Díaz, Héctor de los Ríos Díaz, David Afonso Falcón, and Juan Cutillas

Anomalous CO2 degassing of volcanic origin was observed by the end of November 2021 in the neighborhoods of La Bombilla and Puerto Naos, located in the western flank of La Palma, about 5 km distance southwestern of the 2021 Tajogaite eruption vents (Hernández et al., 2021). In this study zone, continuous monitoring of CO2 concentration in the outdoors ambient air at 200 cm from the surface has reached a daily average of maximum and mean values about 28,000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively. We started recently to perform CO2 concentration and stable isotope surveys in the outdoors ambient air of Puerto Naos at 140 cm from the surface by means of a Delta Ray analyzer installed in an electrical car which was driving through the streets of Puerto Naos. This instrument is a high performance, mid-infrared laser-based, isotope ratio infrared spectrometer (IRIS) which offers the possibility of performing simultaneous determination of δ13C and δ18O in CO2 at ambient concentrations with a precision as low as 0.05‰. One major advantage of IRIS techniques with respect to more traditional ones (e.g., isotopic ratio mass spectrometry -IRMS-) is the possibility to perform (semi)continuous measurements at high temporal resolution. Since October 2022, seven surveys have been performed at Puerto Naos making up a total of about 600 measurements. The observed CO2 concentrations and the δ13C-CO2 values in the outdoors ambient air ranged from 420 to 3,500 ppm and from -9.0 to -3.2 ‰ vs. VPDB, respectively. Survey data analysis showed a good spatial correlation between relatively high CO2 concentrations with δ13C-CO2 values less 13C-depleted (i.e., volcanic CO2). These observations highlight that stable isotope surveys allow to evaluate the impact of volcanic degassing on the air CO2 concentration and provide valuable results to identify the volcanic CO2 gas hazard zones.

Hernández, P. A., Padrón, E., Melián, G. V., Pérez, N. M., Padilla, G., Asensio-Ramos, M., Di Nardo, D., Barrancos, J., Pacheco, J. M., and Smit, M.: Gas hazard assessment at Puerto Naos and La Bombilla inhabited areas, Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7705, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7705, 2022.

How to cite: Pérez, N. M., Asensio-Ramos, M., Barrancos, J., Padrón, E., Melián, G. V., Rodríguez, F., Padilla, G. D., Albertos, V. T., Hernández, P. A., Álvarez Díaz, A. J., de los Ríos Díaz, H., Afonso Falcón, D., and Cutillas, J.: CO2 concentration and stable isotope surveys in the ambient air of populated areas of La Palma (Canary Islands) by means of mobile Delta Ray measurements using an electrical car, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-3292, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-3292, 2023.

X4.178
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EGU23-3620
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GI6.1
|
ECS
Oscar Rodríguez, José Barrancos, Juan Cutillas, Victor Ortega, Pedro A. Hernández, Iván Cabrera, and Nemesio M. Pérez

Throughout the 85 days that lasted the Tajogaite eruption at Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain), observations of SO2 emissions were made using ground-based instruments, in transverse mode, static scanners and on-board drones, as well as by numerous satellite instruments. The initial estimates of the total SO2 emission from the eruption were 2.4 Mt from TROPOMI and 1.2 Mt from the traverse data. These measurements formed part of the official monitoring effort, providing insights into the eruption’s evolution and informing the civil defence response throughout the eruption (Hayer C. et al., 2022; Albertos V. T. et al., 2022). Once the Tajogaite eruption was over, we continued performing a SO2 monitoring release to the atmosphere by the Tajogaite volcanic vent since the low ambient concentrations of SO2 make it an ideal volcanic gas monitoring candidate even during the post-eruptive phase. SO2 measurements had been carried out a using a car-mounted and UAV-mounted ground-based miniDOAS measurements throughout this post-eruptive phase. About 80 measurements of SO2 emission rates were performed from December 15, 2021 to December 17, 2022. The standard deviation of the estimated values obtained daily was ~ 20%. The range of estimated SO2 emission values has been from 670 to 17 tons per day, observing a clear decreasing trend of SO2 emissions during the post-eruptive phase. During the first month of the post-eruptive phase, it was observed that the average value of the estimated SO2 emission was about 219 tons/day, while it dropped to 107 tons/day during the second and third month after the end of the Tajogaite eruption. This average value continued decreasing during the fourth month of the post-eruptive phase, about 67 tons/day, and recently measurements provide an average SO2 emission value of 13 tons/day. These relatively low observed SO2 emissions during the post eruptive of the Tajogaite eruption phase seems to be clearly related to shallow magma cooling processes within the Tajogaite volcanic edificie.

Hayer, C., Barrancos, J., Burton, M., Rodríguez, F., Esse, B., Hernández, P., Melián, G., Padrón, E., Asensio-Ramos, M., and Pérez, N.: From up above to down below: Comparison of satellite- and ground-based observations of SO2 emissions from the 2021 eruption of Cumbre Vieja, La Palma, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12201, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12201, 2022.

Albertos, V. T., Recio, G., Alonso, M., Amonte, C., Rodríguez, F., Rodríguez, C., Pitti, L., Leal, V., Cervigón, G., González, J., Przeor, M., Santana-León, J. M., Barrancos, J., Hernández, P. A., Padilla, G. D., Melián, G. V., Padrón, E., Asensio-Ramos, M., and Pérez, N. M.: Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions by means of miniDOAS measurements during the 2021 eruption of Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5603, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5603, 2022.

How to cite: Rodríguez, O., Barrancos, J., Cutillas, J., Ortega, V., Hernández, P. A., Cabrera, I., and Pérez, N. M.: SO2 emissions during the post-eruptive phase of the Tajogaite eruption (La Palma, Canary Islands) by means of ground-based miniDOAS measurements in transverse mode using a car and UAV, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-3620, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-3620, 2023.

X4.179
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EGU23-3834
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GI6.1
Luca D Auria, Alba Santos, Pedro A. Hernández, Gladys V. Melián, Antonio J. Álvarez Díaz, María Asensio-Ramos, Alexis M. González Pérez, and Nemesio M. Pérez

The 2021 Tajogaite eruption in Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands), which started on Sep. 19, 2021, and lasted 85 days, caused extensive damages because of the lava flows and ash fall. However, since the middle of Nov. 2021, some areas located about 5 km SW of the eruptive center started to be affected by intense diffuse CO2 emission. Among them are the urban centers of La Bombilla and Puerto Naos (Hernández et al., 2022). These emissions prevented the population of these two centers from returning to their houses because of high  concentrations of CO2 in indoor and outdoor environments.

In this work, we model the CO2 dispersion process in Puerto Naos to obtain hazard maps with the maximum CO2 concentrations which can be reached in the town in the outdoor environment. To achieve these results, we combined field observations with numerical modelling. Field surveys were realized in low wind conditions, measuring the CO2 concentration with portable sensors  at 15 and 150 cm from the ground at measurement points spaced approximately 10 m from each other along the streets of Puerto Naos.

We realized numerical modelling using the software TWODEE-2, a code for modeling the dispersion of heavy gases based on the solution of shallow water equations (Folch et al., 2009). For this purpose, we used a detailed digital topographic model, including the edifices of Puerto Naos. Using a trial-and-error approach, we determined the gas emission rates from a set of discrete source points in no-wind conditions. Subsequently, we repeated the numerical modelling, keeping the same sources and simulating all the realistic wind conditions in terms of direction and intensity. For each simulation, we determined the maximum CO2 concentration at different elevations from the ground. This allowed obtaining a hazard map with the maximum CO2 outdoor concentrations for each part of the town

The main results highlight that the outdoor environment is affected by a dense layer of CO2, whose flow is strongly conditioned by the urban infrastructures. Furthermore, we evidenced how even light winds can change the gas concentration pattern radically in a few minutes, evidencing the possibility of sudden changes in the CO2 concentration outdoors with no warning.

Folch A., Costa A., Hankin R.K.S., 2009. TWODEE-2: A shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion on complex topography, Comput. Geosci., doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2007.12.017

Hernández, P. A., Padrón, E., Melián, G. V., Pérez, N. M., Padilla, G., Asensio-Ramos, M., Di Nardo, D., Barrancos, J., Pacheco, J. M., and Smit, M.: Gas hazard assessment at Puerto Naos and La Bombilla inhabited areas, Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7705, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7705, 2022.

How to cite: D Auria, L., Santos, A., Hernández, P. A., Melián, G. V., Álvarez Díaz, A. J., Asensio-Ramos, M., González Pérez, A. M., and Pérez, N. M.: Modeling outdoor dispersion of CO2 at Puerto Naos (La Palma, Canary Islands), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-3834, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-3834, 2023.

X4.180
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EGU23-5750
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GI6.1
Stefano Carlino, Nicola Alessandro Pino, Lisa Beccaro, and Prospero De Martino

Understanding the fault dynamics in volcanic areas is not a simple task, mainly due to both the heterogeneity of volcanic structures and the local stress distribution. The presence of high temperature-high pressure geothermal fluids and relative high strain rates, and the occurrence of viscous processes in the deeper part of the volcano further contribute to generate complex patterns of strain load and release, possibly with aseismic creep and differential movements along the faults.

We present the case of an active fault located Casamicciola Terme town – in northern area of the volcanic caldera of Ischia Island (Southern Italy) – where repeated destructive earthquakes occurred at least since 1769, even causing thousands of victims in a single event, with the last one striking in 2017. To assess a possible mechanism leading to the activation of the Ischia main seismogenic fault, its cyclic nature and the related hazard, we performed a joined analysis of the ground vertical movements, obtained from cGPS (2001-present), DInSAR (2015-2018) time-series, and levelling data of the island (1987-2010). The geodetic data indicate that Casamicciola seismogenic fault is characterized by a complex dynamic, with some pre- and post-seismic aseismic dislocation, along sectors that move differentially, in response to the long-term subsidence of the island. Based on the ground deformation rate and on the distribution of degassing areas, we speculate that fluid pressure variations may have a major role in modulating the apparent non-stationarity of the Ischia stronger earthquakes. Furthermore, we suggest that a punctual monitoring of the distribution in space and time of the aseismic creep could provide clues on the state of strain of the seismogenic fault.

How to cite: Carlino, S., Pino, N. A., Beccaro, L., and De Martino, P.: Aseismic creep and coseismic dislocation at an active fault in volcanic area: the case of Ischia Island, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5750, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5750, 2023.

X4.181
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EGU23-11065
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GI6.1
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ECS
Gustavo Cárdenas-Castillero, Steve Paton, Rodrigo Noriega, and Adriana Calderón

The local studies and reports indicate that the temperature of Panama has increased by approximately 1°C since the 1970s. More evidence shows a constantly rising sea level in the Guna Yala archipelago, coral bleaching on both coasts, and increasingly more frequent and extreme precipitation events throughout Panama. This study includes an analysis of over 400 scientific publications made by researchers from multiple centres and more than 20 Panamanian official reports due to Panama's mandate and duties under the international climate accords. To summarise the results, the studies were gathered according to the climate change effects by Panamanian locations and analysed posteriorly using Rstudio and ArcMAP. The results indicate a significant increase in climate change research beginning in 2007.

This study identified and examined the essential findings per hydroclimatic region, showing the trends, limitations, collaborations, and international contributions. Climate change research in Panama includes some of the longest-term meteorological, hydrological, oceanographic, and biological studies in the neotropics. The most significant number of identified climate change-related studies were conducted, at least in part, in the Barro Colorado Natural Monument located in central Panama. Other frequently used sites include Metropolitan Natural Park, Soberania Park, the Panama Canal Watershed and the Caribbean coast of Colón and Bocas del Toro, primarily due to research conducted by Smithsonian Tropical Research-affiliated investigators. The tropical forests of Panama are some of the bests studied in the world; however, research has been concentrated in a relatively small number of locations and should be expanded to include additional areas to achieve a more complete and comprehensive understanding of climate change will impact Panama in the future.

How to cite: Cárdenas-Castillero, G., Paton, S., Noriega, R., and Calderón, A.: The Dynamics of Climate Change Science and Policy in Panama: A Review, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11065, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-11065, 2023.

X4.182
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EGU23-5689
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GI6.1
Yuichi S. Hayakawa, Tennyson Lo, Azim Zulhilmi, Xinyue Yu, and Xiaoxiao Wang

Following drastic changes in geoenvironmental components by coseismic landslides in mountainous watersheds, more gradual changes can be observed in the elements, including bare-land surface conditions, sediment connectivity, and vegetation recovery on sloping terrains. Such geoenvironmental changes may continue for years to decades, with complex interrelationships among various geomorphological and ecological factors. Their assessments are also crucial for local to regional environmental management. After the occurrence of numerous coseismic landslides triggered by the 2018 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake in northern Japan, geomorphological and geoecological changes were explored using optical and laser sensors on uncrewed aerial systems. Morphological characteristics of the landslide-affected slopes in the watersheds were assessed with structure-from-motion multi-view stereo photogrammetry and light detection and ranging topographic datasets, while vegetation recovery on the slopes was examined with visible-light and near-infrared images. Although spatial relationships among morphological developments, sediment mobility, and vegetation recovery were not clearly observed, their general temporal trends may be correspondent. Dominant processes affecting the morphological developments are supposed to be frost heave in the cold climate and non-frequent high-intensity rainfalls, and these can be conditioning vegetation growth. Such local changes will be further examined on a wider, regional scale. 

How to cite: Hayakawa, Y. S., Lo, T., Zulhilmi, A., Yu, X., and Wang, X.: Post-earthquake geoenvironmental changes in landslide-affected watersheds in Atsuma, Hokkaido (Japan), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5689, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5689, 2023.

X4.183
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EGU23-7265
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GI6.1
Nicholas Frearson, Terry Plank, Einat Lev, LingLing Dong, and Conor Bacon

Ground based remote sensing devices increasingly incorporate low cost single board computers such as a Raspberry Pi to capture and analyze images and data from the environment. Useful and cheap as these devices are, they are not designed for use in extreme conditions and as a consequence often suffer from early failure. Here we describe a system that incorporates a commercially available rugged Edge Computer running embedded Linux that is designed to operate in remote and extreme environments. The AVERT system  (Anticipating Volcanic Eruptions in  Real Time) developed at Columbia University in New York and funded by the Moore Foundation uses solar and wind powered Sensor nodes configured in a spoke and hub architecture currently operating on two volcanoes overseen by the Alaska Volcano Observatory in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Multiple Nodes distributed around the volcanoes are each controlled by an Edge Computer which manages and monitors local sensors, processes and parses their data via radio link to a central Hub and schedules system components to wake and sleep to conserve power. The Hub Edge Computer collects and assembles data from multiple Nodes and passes it via satellite, cellular modem or radio links to servers located elsewhere in the world or cloud for near real-time analysis. The local computer enables us to minimize local power demand to just a few watts in part due to the extremely low power sleep modes that are incorporated into these devices. For instance, a Node incorporating a webcam, IRCam, weather station, Edge Computer, network switch, communications radio and power management relays draws only 4.5W on average. In addition, this level of local computing power and a mature Linux operating environment enables us to run AI algorithms at source that process image and other data to flag precursory indicators of an impending eruption. This also helps to reduce data volume passed across the network at times of low network connectivity. We can also remotely interrogate any part of the system and implement new data schemes to best monitor and react to ongoing events. Future work on the AI algorithm development will incorporate local multisensor data analytics to enhance our anticipatory capability.

How to cite: Frearson, N., Plank, T., Lev, E., Dong, L., and Bacon, C.: Low Power, Rugged Edge Computing provides a low cost, powerful solution for on the ground remote sensing in extreme environments, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7265, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7265, 2023.

X4.184
|
EGU23-151
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GI6.1
|
ECS
Szymon Śledź and Marek Ewertowski

Geomorphological mapping is one of the primary research methods used to collect data on glacial landforms and reconstruct glaciological processes. The most common approach is a combination of field-based and remote mapping using data obtained from various sensors. However, one of the crucial methodical problems is collecting remote sensing data in the appropriate spatial resolution for the analyzed landform, which directly affects the data collection time and costs. This study aims to find the optimal resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs) to map subtle glacial landforms: kame terraces, eskers, flutes, and push moraine. Such landforms contain valuable information about the glacial process–form relationships, however, are often too subtle to be recognized on satellite data, and therefore more detailed data (e.g., UAV-based) are required. By “optimal”, we mean the resolution high enough to enable recognition of the landforms mentioned above, and at the same time, as low as possible to minimize the time spent on data collection during the fieldwork.

To find out the optimal resolution, we used detailed (0.02 – 0.04 m ground sampling distance [GSD]) DEMs of the glacier forelands in Iceland (Kvíárjökull, Fjallsjökull and Svinafellsjökull), created based high-resolution images from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The DEMs were resampled to 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 m GSD and selected glacial landforms were mapped independently by two operators and cross-checked. The results indicate that 2.0 m resolution is insufficient to properly recognize landforms such as pushed moraines or flutes; however, it can be sufficient to detect kame terraces and major glacifluvial channels. For general mapping of locations of forms such as annual pushed moraines or fluting, the 0.5 m resolution is required. However, to obtain geomorphometric characteristics of the landforms (e.g., height, width, volume) resolution between 0.1 and 0.2 m is necessary. Finer resolution (better than 0.05 m GSD) does not increase the ability to detect landforms or better characterize their geometric properties; however, in some cases might be useful to obtain information about clast characteristics. The experiment proved that decimeter-scale spatial resolution is sufficient for mapping of some geomorphological forms (annual pushed moraines, flutes), which allows for planning UAV missions at a higher elevation above the ground and, therefore, minmizing the duration of field surveys. Moreover, some of the more prominent landforms (e.g., kame terraces, larger moraines) can be successfully detected from aerial or satellite-based DEMs (e.g. freely available ArcticDEM) with a resolution of 2.00 m, the use of which reduces the costs of field research to a minimum.

This research was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, Grant Number 2019/35/B/ST10/03928.

How to cite: Śledź, S. and Ewertowski, M.: Optimal resolution of UAV-based digital elevation models (DEMs) for mapping of selected subtle glacial landforms, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-151, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-151, 2023.

X4.185
|
EGU23-5684
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GI6.1
|
ECS
|
Munkhsuren Badrakh, Narantsetseg Tserendash, Erdenejargal Choindonjamts, and Gáspár Albert

The Tsagaan-uul area of the Khatanbulag ancient massif in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is located in the southern part of Mongolia, which belongs to the Gobi Desert. It has a low vegetation cover, and because of this, remotely sensed data can be used without difficulty for geological investigations. Factors such as sparse population and underdeveloped infrastructure in the region further create a need for combining traditional geological mapping with remote sensing technologies. In existing geology maps of the area, the formations are lithologically very diverse and their boundaries were mapped variously, so a need for a more precise lithology-based map arouse.

This study investigated combinations of fieldwork, multispectral data, and petrography for the rock type classification. A random forest classification method using multispectral Sentinel-2A data was employed in order to distinguish different rocks within Proterozoic Khulstai (NP1hl) metamorphic complex, which is dominated by gneiss, andesite, sandstone, limestone, amphibolite, as well as the Silurian terrigenous-carbonate Khukh morit (S1hm) formation, Tsagaan-uul area. Based on the ground samples collected from field surveys, ten kinds of rock units plus Quaternary sediments were chosen as training areas. In addition, morphometric parameters derived from SRTM data and band ratios used for iron-bearing minerals from Sentinel 2 bands are selected as variables in the accuracy of classification. The result showed that gneisses were recognized with the highest accuracy in the Khulstai complex, and limestones and Quaternary sediments were also well predicted. Moreover, the tectonic pattern was also well recognized from the results and compared to the existing maps provided a more detailed geological image of the area. This study emphasized the need for samples as baseline data to improve the machine learning methods, and the method provides an appropriate basis for fieldwork.

 

How to cite: Badrakh, M., Tserendash, N., Choindonjamts, E., and Albert, G.: Random Forest Classification of Proterozoic and Paleozoic rock types of Tsagaan-uul area, Mongolia, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5684, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5684, 2023.

Posters virtual: Mon, 24 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | vHall ESSI/GI/NP

Chairpersons: Andrea Barone, Raffaele Castaldo, Antonello Bonfante
vEGN.22
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EGU23-3819
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GI6.1
José Barrancos, Germán D. Padilla, Gladys V. Melián, Fátima Rodríguez, María Asensio-Ramos, Eleazar Padrón, Pedro A. Hernández, Jon Vilches Sarasate, and Nemesio M. Pérez

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless and odourless gas. It is non-flammable, chemically non-reactive and 1.5 times as heavy as air; therefore, may accumulate at low elevations. CO2 is a toxic gas at high concentration, as well as an asphyxiant gas (due to reduction in oxygen). Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat occurs only at high concentrations. Since the Tajogaite eruption ended on December 13, 2021, high concentrations of CO2 up to 20% (200.000 ppmv) have been observed inside of buildings of the neighborhoods of La Bombilla and Puerto Naos (La Palma, Canary Islands), which are located about 5 km distance from the Tajogaite eruption vent. Anomalous concentrations of CO2 are manily detected in the ground-floor and basement of the buildings in Puerto Naos, and the distribution of relatively high CO2 concentrations  is not homogeneous or uniform throughout the Puerto Naos area (Hernández P.A. et al, 2022).

The purpose of this study was to use the Tunable Laser Diode (TDL) absorption spectroscopy method to monitor the indoor CO2 concentration of the ground-floor of one of the buildings of Puerto Naos. A CO2-TDL was installed on 9 January 2022 and continues measuring the CO2 concentration along an optical path of about 6 meters. During the period January-March 2022, daily averages of CO2 concentrations from fifteen-minute data ranged from 5000 to 25000 ppmv reaching values up to 40000 ppmv (4%). Over time, a clear decreasing trend of the indoor CO2 concentration has been observed at this observation site and the daily CO2 averages from fifteen-minute data during the last 3 months (October-December 2022) ranged from 1000 to 2500 ppmv. This clear decreasing trend over time has not been observed at other observation sites where the concentration of CO2 inside buildings is being monitored. This observation indicates the complexity of the problem and the need to install a dense network of sensors to monitor CO2 for civil protection purposes.

 

Hernández, P. A., Padrón, E., Melián, G. V., Pérez, N. M., Padilla, G., Asensio-Ramos, M., Di Nardo, D., Barrancos, J., Pacheco, J. M., and Smit, M.: Gas hazard assessment at Puerto Naos and La Bombilla inhabited areas, Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7705, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7705, 2022.

How to cite: Barrancos, J., Padilla, G. D., Melián, G. V., Rodríguez, F., Asensio-Ramos, M., Padrón, E., Hernández, P. A., Vilches Sarasate, J., and Pérez, N. M.: Using tunable diode laser (TDL) system in urban environments to measure anomalous CO2 concentrations: the case of Puerto Naos, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-3819, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-3819, 2023.