EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Causal model evaluation of Arctic-midlatitude process during the boreal cold season in CMIP6

Evgenia Galytska1,2, Katja Weigel1,2, Dörthe Handorf3, Ralf Jaiser3, Raphael Köhler3, Jakob Runge4,5, and Veronika Eyring2,1
Evgenia Galytska et al.
  • 1University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Bremen, Germany
  • 2Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 3Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, Germany
  • 4Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Datenwissenschaften, Jena, Germany
  • 5Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Linked to increased sea ice loss, the Arctic region has warmed at least four times faster than the global average over the past 40 years. Mutual links between amplified Arctic warming with changes and variability in midlatitude weather have been discussed in several studies. Nevertheless, the lack of consistent conclusions between observations and model simulations obfuscates the interpretation behind the mechanisms of Arctic-midlatitude teleconnections. To contribute to the understanding of Arctic-midlatitude connections that occur in conditions of amplified Arctic warming, we applied causal discovery to analyse causal and contemporaneous links. Initially, we calculated causal dependencies for monthly mean ERA5 reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature among local and remote processes. Then, by comparing causal graphs detected in reanalyses data with a number of climate model historical simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), we assessed the performance of climate models and evaluated the robustness of the observed Arctic-midlatitude connections in the current climate. By comparing causal graphs from the CMIP6 historical and Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) we estimated future changes in Arctic-midlatitude teleconnections towards the end of the century. In this study, we focus on the differences in the mechanism of Arctic-midlatitude teleconnections that occur during the boreal cold season, i.e. early winter (October-November-December), winter (December-January-February), and late winter (January-February-March). In this study, we will present the major findings of Galytska et al., 2022 discussing how causal model evaluation helps to summarize major differences between causal interdependencies detected in observations and simulated by a number of climate models. Understanding these differences can be the basis for further improvement of the representation of Arctic-midlatitude teleconnections in climate models.


Evgenia Galytska, Katja Weigel, Dörthe Handorf, Ralf Jaiser, Raphael Köhler, Jakob Runge, and Veronika Eyring. Causal model evaluation of Arctic-midlatitude teleconnections in CMIP6. Authorea. October 06, 2022. DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10512569.1


How to cite: Galytska, E., Weigel, K., Handorf, D., Jaiser, R., Köhler, R., Runge, J., and Eyring, V.: Causal model evaluation of Arctic-midlatitude process during the boreal cold season in CMIP6, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11159,, 2023.