EGU23-1833, updated on 22 Feb 2023
EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Coral record from Bicol in the Philippines in 1770-1850 reveals volcanic cooling 

Hodaka kawahata1, Mayuri Inoue2, Mutsumi Chihara3, Fernando P. Siringan4, and Atsuhi Suzuki5
Hodaka kawahata et al.
  • 1Waseda University, The University of Tokyo
  • 2Okayama University
  • 3Kochi University
  • 4University of the Philippines
  • 5Natural Institute of Advanced Industrial and Science Technology (AIST)

Historical variations of surface temperature in relation to anthropogenic warming has been extensively studied to understand and explain changes in the contemporary climate and to estimate future impacts of climate.Inoue and others (in press) reported 228-year records of SST and salinity based on Sr/Ca and d18O analyses with monthly time resolution in Porites coral collected from Bicol, the south of Luzon, Philippines. From the record, we investigated the relationship between the reconstructed temperature and the volcanic eruptions in late 18th and early 19th centuries. There were three great famines during the Edo period (1603-1868), almost corresponding to the Little Ice Age in Japan. Of these, the two were Tenmei-famine in 1782-88 and Tempo-famine in 1833-1837(1839). Both famines killed more than one million people out of a population of 30 million at the time. Our reconstructed SST anomaly fluctuated between -1.5 degree and 1.0 degree. The age model may have the age error of 1 to 3 years before around 1885. Large minima occurred in 1785-1789, 1815-1819, 1822-25, 1827-1830, 1834-1835, and 1843-45. Although Laki eruption, Iceland in 1783 has not been described as large eruption in previous studies, their impact on climatic conditions around the Northern Hemisphere and the globe was widely reported. Local eruption of Asama, Japan in 1783 released volcanic ash over eastern part of Japanese islands, In addition, El Nino event, which often cooled down Japanese islands, occurred around those days. These factors could have been responsible for the coldest anomaly in 1785-1789 recorded in our coral samples. After Tambora eruption in 1815, sharp cooling of around 2.0˚C was observed in our coral sample and almost all over the world. However, this world-scale cooling event have no or little influence on the climate in Japanese islands based upon the historical documents and agriculture records. This indicates that there are areas that do not become exceptionally cold, even by major volcanic eruptions. Large eruption of Galunggung in 1822 brought appreciable degree of cooling anomaly in our coral record. Just after Agung exploded largely in 1843, reconstructed SST significantly dropped. This might be also influenced by another large eruption of Cosiguina in Nicaragua, central America. Cold climate was reported in Japan, New York in USA, Copenhagen, UK in 1840s. It was most likely global in scale in the northern hemisphere.

How to cite: kawahata, H., Inoue, M., Chihara, M., Siringan, F. P., and Suzuki, A.: Coral record from Bicol in the Philippines in 1770-1850 reveals volcanic cooling , EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-1833,, 2023.