EGU General Assembly 2023
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

CO2 net ecosystem flux in Krakow, Poland

Alina Jasek-Kaminska1,2, Miroslaw Zimnoch1, Lukasz Chmura1,2, and Jakub Bartyzel1
Alina Jasek-Kaminska et al.
  • 1AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Department of Environmental Physics, Krakow, Poland (
  • 2Institute of Meteorology and Water Management National Research Institute, Poland

Urban areas, with dynamically changing, varied sources and sinks in highly heterogeneous terrain, are one of the most complicated ecosystems to explore. Being also a significant CO2 net source, they contribute largely to uncertainty in local and global carbon balance calculations. Experimental data are required to verify existing CO2 emission inventories and to become a reliable input to climate models.

Since 2021 an eddy covariance site has operated in Krakow, southern Poland. Site neighborhood includes various anthropogenic sources and sinks such as traffic, household heating, mainly with natural gas, and people themselves. On the other hand, a significant part of the source area is covered in green, with a municipal park and a number of home gardens.

We are presenting a data record from the beginning of the measurements in February 2021 up to the present. As expected, the area is a net CO2 source, emitting on average around 7 kg of CO2 per square meter yearly. Clear diurnal and seasonal patterns of CO2 net flux were observed: morning and evening traffic peaks and negative values during the day due to active photosynthesis; also higher diurnal amplitude during the warm season but on average higher net CO2 emission in winter. Directional flux analysis reveals that 1) the highest emissions come from the area where individual households as well as busy traffic lanes are located; and 2) urban green areas have a potential to become a net CO2 sink during the day in all seasons except winter, however, mean diurnal emission on average remains positive.

This project has been partially supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program CoCO2 under grant agreement No. 958927, "Excellence Initiative - Research University" program at AGH University of Science and Technology, and the subsidy of the Ministry of Education and Science.

How to cite: Jasek-Kaminska, A., Zimnoch, M., Chmura, L., and Bartyzel, J.: CO2 net ecosystem flux in Krakow, Poland, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 24–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7768,, 2023.

Corresponding supplementary materials formerly uploaded have been withdrawn.