SSS3.1 | Soils, sediments and buried structures as the memory of past environmental conditions and human impacts
Soils, sediments and buried structures as the memory of past environmental conditions and human impacts
Co-organized by CL1.2/GM11
Convener: Anna SchneiderECSECS | Co-conveners: Anna Andreetta, Rui Jorge OliveiraECSECS, Oren Ackermann, Pedro Trapero FernándezECSECS, Bento Caldeira, Maria Bronnikova
| Tue, 25 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)
Room 0.15
Posters on site
| Attendance Tue, 25 Apr, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)
Hall X3
Posters virtual
| Attendance Tue, 25 Apr, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)
vHall SSS
Orals |
Tue, 14:00
Tue, 16:15
Tue, 16:15
Soil is the function of soil forming factors. This basic principle of soil genesis lies behind the concept of soil memory: the capability of soil systems to imprint in their intrinsic features (environmental indicators) environmental conditions, thus keeping a memory of both current and past environments. Soils and paleosols can be studied to reconstruct environmental factors that were present during the time of their formation and to disentangle the relative influences of different environmental conditions, both local and regional, on soil formation.
Anthropogenic soils in archaeological settings provide valuable archives for geoarchaeological studies, with their stratigraphy and properties reflecting settlement life cycles (occupation, abandonment, and reoccupation) and land-use history. Land-use legacy soils also have enormous potential for process-related research.
Geophysical prospection and geospatial methods contribute to the detection and delimitation of buried structures as a prior step to an archaeological excavation, to the study of cultural heritage remains, and to paleosol and geoarchaeological studies.
This session is open to all contributions focused on the study of polygenetic soils and sediments; including paleosols, anthropogenic soils, and archaeological structures. The following aspects are of special consideration:
- The use of paleosols as records of present and former environments, both local and regional;
- Studies of soil memory linking pedogenesis and sedimentary processes;
- Anthropogenic soils and paleosols in archaeological contexts;
- Predictions of future soil changes as a result of changes in environmental conditions and/or land use, based on observed past soil responses to environmental changes;
- The methodological progress in the study of soil records (biochemical, geochemical, and micromorphological (sub-)microscopic techniques, interpretation of palaeoenvironmental data such as biomarker and isotope data, remote sensing or modelling methods, );
- Studies that combine geophysics (ground-penetrating radar, magnetics, electrical resistivity tomography, electromagnetic induction, seismics) with geospatial methods (photogrammetry, LIDAR, differential GNSS), to improve the data representation, increasing the understanding of the geophysical results;
- Studies of archaeological sites and structure characterization, with geophysical and geospatial methods, as well innovations in data acquisition and processing methods.

Orals: Tue, 25 Apr | Room 0.15

Chairpersons: Oren Ackermann, Anna Andreetta, Rui Jorge Oliveira
On-site presentation
Daniela Sauer, Nora Pfaffner, Annette Kadereit, Sebastian Kreutzer, Volker Karius, Thomas Kolb, Pascal Bertran, and Mathieu Bosq

Paleosol horizons preserved in loess-palaeosol sections (LPS) provide valuable archives of Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes over time and spatial palaeoenvironmental gradients during the same period. Here, we present the characteristics of paleosol horizons in two LPS near the western edge of the Rhône Rift Valley in southeastern France: (1) the LPS “Baix” (total thickness: 14 m), located about 17 km north of Montélimar (44°42’36”N, 4°43’21”E), thus, in the transition zone between the presently temperate and the Mediterranean region of Europe; (2) the LPS “Collias” (total thickness: 9 m), located in the Uzès Basin, about 15 km northeast of Nîmes (43°57’11.94”N, 4°27’56.71”E), thus, in presently fully Mediterranean climate. Investigation of the paleosol horizons in the main profile at Collias was complemented by those of three smaller nearby LPS, “Collias-North_D112” (43°57’12.55”N, 4°27’55.83”E), “Collias-South_D112” (43°57’12.44”N, 4°27’53.36”E), and “Collias-North” (43°57’21.67”N, 4°28’6.99”E), in order to capture the spatial variability of the characteristics of some key horizons.

To our knowledge, no LPS have been analysed yet in such a transitional position between the presently temperate and Mediterranean climate. Primarily the LPS Baix may provide a crucial link between the rigorously analysed LPS in the presently temperate regions further north (e.g., in northern France, the Alsace region and Germany) and the LPS in the Mediterranean region (e.g., in southern France, Catalonia, Italy and Croatia), including the LPS Collias. Therefore, we aimed to decipher the paleoenvironmental record of the LPS Baix and Collias, and to identify similarities and differences between them. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating provided a chronological frame for both LPS.

The basal part of the LPS Baix starts with reddish Bt(g) horizons of a Stagnic Luvisol, representing the remains of an Eemian to Early Würmian (MIS 5) pedocomplex formed under warm and - at least temporarily - relatively moist conditions. The corresponding pedocomplex in the profile Collias-North_D112 displays an intensive red (chromic) Bt horizon overlain by several Bw horizons formed in reworked soil sediment and underlain by a massive calcrete. In the main profile at Collias, this red horizon has been entirely reworked by slope processes and has regained an angular blocky structure afterwards. Thus, it appears as a dark orange-red Bw horizon. Both, the LPS Baix and Collias include a prominent brown Bw horizon of a truncated Cambisol that developed in middle Pleniglacial (MIS 3) deposits. It is associated with large, elongated, vertically oriented calcium carbonate nodules, indicating that considerable amounts of calcium carbonate must have been leached from the former middle Pleniglacial Cambisol and accumulated in the underlying loess unit. No distinct palaeosols were observed in the Late-Pleniglacial deposits of the LPS Baix and Collias; a slightly brownish colour indicates very weak weathering (several BCk horizons) in the Late-Pleniglacial sediments of both LPS.

How to cite: Sauer, D., Pfaffner, N., Kadereit, A., Kreutzer, S., Karius, V., Kolb, T., Bertran, P., and Bosq, M.: Palaeosols in the loess section of Baix (Rhône Rift Valley, SE-France), compared to those of Collias: a unique Late-Pleistocene record of the transition zone between the presently temperate and the Mediterranean region of Europe, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-15899,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Daniela Alvarez, Carlos A. Torres-Guerrero, Rosa M. Poch, and Frank Preusser

Several types of secondary carbonate accumulations have been reported, but some of them are not completely well defined in the field due to unclear nomenclature. This is the case of the “queras”, reported in several Loess-palaeosol sequences of the Ebro Valley, which have often been described as pseudomycelia. Micromorphologically, they are complex pedofeatures (including calcified root cells, infillings and hypocoatings of carbonates and a decarbonated zone), resulting from calcification/decalcification processess at a microscale. They are composed of a central channel (1-2 mm wide and 2-3 cm long) filled with biosparite crystals (Herrero et al., 1992). The study of these secondary carbonate bioaccumulations are important archives for climatic reconstructions in terrestrial environments and can be used for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The aims of this research are the characterization (morphological, optical and isotopically) of the biocalcifications present in Loess-palaeosols sequences, OSL-dated, to determine the main factors that originate them and their possible use as a palaeoenvironmental proxy. We collected soil samples from seven profile of Loess-palaeosols where the presence of these biocalcifications was recorded. We isolated and manually cleaned complete fragments of queras to describe them and to determine their isotopic composition. For that purpose, we used the queras fraction (sieved fraction of bulk soil between 100-250 µm) removing the residues of micrite with a buffer solution and manually separating the quera fragments with the help of a stereoscope. Thin sections were made to analyse the micromorphology in a petrographic microscope and cathodoluminescence techniques to determine the origin of the calcite. The micromorphology of these biocalcifications is similar in most cases: they present the same number of rows around the central channel (4 to 5), and a decarbonated hypocoating around it, supporting the hypothesis that their origin is derived from the calcification of cells of the root tips as a strategy to acidify the soil surrounding to absorb nutrients. Under cathodoluminescence biosparite has a different behaviour than non-biological calcite crystals. The age of the queras was similar in most horizons and their formation is independent of the age of the loess deposit. The isotopic composition of δ13C correspond mainly to CAM plants and the temperatures of precipitation calculated correspond to a Mediterranean template climate (Cerling and Quade, 1993), implying that the biocalcifications developed in warm environments. Finally, we hope to gain some more certainty of their origin and formation processes from the ongoing analyses of DNA sequencing and pollen recording.

How to cite: Alvarez, D., Torres-Guerrero, C. A., Poch, R. M., and Preusser, F.: Morphology, distribution and origin of soil biogenic carbonates “queras” presents in Loess-palaeosols of Ebro Valley, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14081,, 2023.

Virtual presentation
Abdul Hameed, Pooja Yadav, Rohit Kumar, and Pankaj Srivastava

In the present study we report paleopedology of the fluvial sequences of the Siwalik Group in the Himalayan Foreland Basin, NW Himalaya that formed during ~12 Ma -5.5 Ma. The paleosols formed during this time period are critical to understand weathering and paleopedogenic processes during the evolution of foreland basin over the entire Himalayan range. This work highlights field-characteristics, micromorphology, clay mineralogy, and geochemistry of the ~0.5 km thick Lower Siwalik and ~1.7 km thick Middle Siwalik successions along the Katilu Khad, Kangra sub-basin. In the field, the paleosols are characterized by 1-2 m thick Bw, Bt, Bk, Bss, and BC horizons, blocky and wedge-shaped pedogenic structures, root traces, color mottling, Fe-Mn oxide concretions, slickensides, pedogenic CaCO3 (PC), and bioturbation features. 

Micromorphological observations show the dominance of moderate to well-developed paleopedofeatures in paleosols of the Lower Siwalik in contrast to the moderately to weakly-developed paleopedofeatures in paleosols of the Middle Siwalik. The comparative analysis of various pedogenic features i.e., PC, illuvial clay, mottles, Fe-Mn concretions, microstructures, and bioturbation features confirmed varying degree of the paleopedogenic maturity in the paleosols at different intervals of the Siwalik successions.

Clay mineralogy of the total clay (<2 μm) and fine clay fraction (< 0.2 μm) of the Lower and Middle Siwalik paleosols suggests varying chemical weathering of silicates and change of paleoclimatic conditions during paleopedogenic processes during this time period. The clay mineral assemblage of the total clay and fine clay fraction show the varying distribution of illite, chlorite, kaolinite, smectite, vermiculite and interstratified clay minerals in these paleosols. Large amounts of smectite together with pedogenic carbonates in part of the Lower Siwalik at 12.0 Ma, and at 10.9 Ma and in Middle Siwalik at 9.2 Ma, and at 5.5 Ma suggest arid to semiarid dry climatic conditions Whereas, dominance of kaolin, illuvial features, and dissolution of pedogenic carbonates suggests sub-humid to humid climatic condition at 11.6 Ma, 8.5 Ma, 7.1 Ma, and at 6.5 Ma.

The bulk geochemistry of the paleosols also confirmed varying degree of pedogenic weathering showing high CIA and CIA-K (CIW) values and ~ 800 mm to 1400 mm MAP for paleosols of the Lower and Middle Siwalik. The high MAP (~ 1200 mm to 1400 mm) at ~11.6 Ma, ~8.5 to 8.0 Ma, and 7.1 to 6.5 Ma in paleosols of the Lower Siwalik and Middle Siwalik correspond to increased chemical weathering and paleopedogenesis. While the intervening periods correspond to less MAP (~800 mm to 1100 mm) with large amount PC and less chemical weathering. Based on micromorphology, clay mineralogy, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols it is interpreted that climate change during ~12 Ma to 5.5 Ma is characterized by humid (11.6 Ma) to semiarid (11.0 Ma to 8.5 Ma), and humid-subhumid (8.5 Ma to 6.5 Ma) in response to Himalayan orogeny and its linkage to regional and global atmospheric conditions.

Keywords: Himalayan Foreland Basin, Paleosols, Siwalik, Micromorphology, Clay mineralogy, Geochemistry

How to cite: Hameed, A., Yadav, P., Kumar, R., and Srivastava, P.: Paleopedological evolution of Siwalik succession from Kangra sub-Basin, NW Himalayan: Implications for climate change and weathering conditions, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-838,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Lotem Robins, Joel Roskin, Elle Grono, Revital Bookman, and Itamar Taxel

Based on surveys and three excavation seasons, we report details on one of the first major utilizations of loose aeolian sand for construction and (hypothesized) vegetable agriculture at the Early Islamic Plot-and-Berm (P&B) agroecosystem south of Caesarea Maritima, along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. P&B agroecosystems are an innovative initiative to reconstruct sand bodies and dunefields into agricultural plots sunken between sand berms. These agroecosystems are sporadically found between Iran and Iberia and some are still in use. The plots, usually ~1 m above the groundwater table allowed easy access to the water via shallow wells for irrigation.

Research methods included pedological and sedimentological analyses, micromorphology and compositional analyses such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to detect heating of cultural additives (e.g., fired clays, pyrogenic lime); plant ashes (e.g., deliberate enrichment of fuel and/or recycling of former crop cycles as part of plot maintenance); and pollen and phytolith analysis to detect micro-botanical proxies of crops. Relative chronologies were obtained from portable luminescence profiling (pOSL). OSL ages along with artifacts analysis indicate that the agroecosystem was established during the late 9th or 10th century and functioning until the early decades of the 12th.

Refuse, including ash, carbonate, trace elements and artifacts, extracted from the dumps of Caesarea was combined with local sand to stabilize the berm surface but also partly altered the physical and chemical properties of the sand and increased its fertility, mainly in the plots, to form grey sandy to sandy loam anthrosols. This refuse was combined in different mixtures along the ~5 m thick berm fill and upon its slope and crest surface to stabilize the earthwork and comprise an anti-erosive agent. Similar mixtures were used to support berms and foundations of structures that served for lime production, agroecosystem management and local farming utilities. A 5 m high mound constructed out of interchanging anthrosediments was also piled up within a plot to support a presumable guarding structure. 

Plot anthrosols appear to include a basal, dark grey 20-40 m thick unit, ~ 1 m above the groundwater table that was enrichened with carbonate overlaid by a ~1 m thick grey sand anthrosol. The lower unit probably served for preserving infiltrating irrigation water that was applied to the crops grown atop the light grey anthrosol.

The agroecosystem remained well-preserved and untouched until the mid-20th century. Its pristine preservation is evidence of the ingenious and widespread utilization of refuse for construction and agriculture in sand. The untouched shape of this agrotechnological earthwork in the last millennia is intriguing and may be due to either lack of knowledge, or resources per revenue for similar endeavors.

How to cite: Robins, L., Roskin, J., Grono, E., Bookman, R., and Taxel, I.: Construction and Agriculture in Sand at the Early Islamic Plot-and-Berm Groundwater Harvesting Agroecosystem South of Ancient Caesarea, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10982,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Martin Janovský, Jan Horák, Tomáš Klír, and Laszlo Ferenczi

A multi-element and multivariate geochemical analysis has been carried out at a medieval farm site and village settlement, which belonged to the Cistercian monastery of Plasy (in W Bohemia). The results of our geochemical survey have been evaluated in context of the LiDAR survey covering the same area and the available historic maps (Habsburg Military surveys), which helped to locate relict landscape features and land-use changes. Approximately 300 samples were taken in a grid point pattern within the courtyard of the farm, as well as randomly, in the surrounding areas, in order to identify geochemical signals related to the observable surface phenomena. We have applied different analytical techniques, including PCA, log-transformation and isometrical log-transformation, and through spatial interpolation (IDW) it was possible to link  signals of both anthropogenic and geogenic character to archaeological, cultural and land-use phenomena. The results illuminated more intensive anthropogenic impact in connection to the courtyard area, and the intravillain area of the village, and additionally helped to locate different land-use activities in the  surrounding area (agricultural and possibly industrial). In that regard, this methodology was successfully applied to trace anthropogenic impact beyond narrowly defined archaeological sites. This abstract has been reformulated on the basis of our recently published paper (Horák et al 2023).

Horák, J., Janovský, M.P., Klír, T., Malina, O., Ferenczi, L., 2023. Multivariate analysis reveals spatial variability of soil geochemical signals in the area of a medieval manorial farm. Catena 220.

This abstract is part of the research project: “Monastic manors and the landscape impact of Cistercian estate management: A landscape archaeological and historical ecological study on Plasy Abbey“ financed by the GAČR - Czech Science Foundation, grant No. 21-25061S.

How to cite: Janovský, M., Horák, J., Klír, T., and Ferenczi, L.: Geochemical analysis in the area of a medieval Cistercian manorial farm, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14576,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Yoon Jung Choi

Soil marks are detectable by airborne images due to the difference in soil colour between the archaeological feature and the surrounding background soil. Colour of the soil only represents the visible part of the soil spectrum which contains physical and chemical information of the soil. This study will present a spectral analysis method to prospect soil mark features and buried archaeological remains using airborne image data. This method statistically calculates the difference between the targeted spectrum and the background (non-archaeological) soil spectrum. The difference is quantified by an R-value. If the R value is larger than 1, then the spectral behaviour of the targeted spectrum is different from the spectrum of the background soil and, thus, likely to be an archaeological soil spectrum (soil mark). In this study, the spectral analysis method will be applied to APEX imaging spectroscopy data collected from an archaeological site in Sárvíz Valley, Hungary. Previously, the method was successfully applied to the same archaeological site using soil spectra gathered by a portable hand-held VIS-NIR spectrometer. Here, the results showed clear spectral difference between soil mark features and background soil. This study will 1) compare the results of the method from hyperspectral image and ground-based spectral data, and 2) investigate the most effective waveband for identifying archaeological spectral signatures to verify the effectiveness of the method.

How to cite: Choi, Y. J.: Detection of archaeological soil marks using airborne hyperspectral images, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11168,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Michael Lazar and Uri Basson

As sea levels rose since the end of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ancient coastal communities were often forced to abandon their settlements and move inland. Today, many of these abandoned sites are covered by sand or lay in shallow water. Examining these can shed light on past coastal communities as well as settlement patterns in ancient times. Archaeological excavation along the coast is particularly tricky and often sporadic in nature. Thus, high‐resolution shallow geophysical methods, which have become a standard in archaeological studies since they provide a noninvasive way of imaging the subsurface before an excavation, would seem like a perfect solution. However, most methods are limited in their ability to work near the shoreline – the transitional zone between classical land-based methods and standard marine ones. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), for example, is greatly affected by moisture and salinity and is therefore limited in its ability to work in areas saturated with seawater. Seismic reflection is time consuming to overcome issues of poor vertical and spatial resolution and sensitive to urban noise, while magnetics would provide poor results for sand covered sandstone. Other techniques, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) have been shown to work in coastal areas and in shallow water. However, this method can be slow, as it involves setting up complex arrays for each cross section measured. This study will present the frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) method, which has the potential to overcome these problems and can bridge the gap in knowledge by measuring in the nearshore environment. The ease of use and quick scanning capability means that large areas can be covered in a relatively short time. There are no electrodes or loops to set up. Since it measures swaths, results are obtained in map-view and not cross-section, with little interpolation. Different frequencies penetrate to different depths (lower frequencies corresponding to deeper penetration). Therefore, the result is a series of frequency maps corresponding to the integration of all subsurface data in a specific sampled volume (i.e. down to the frequency-related depths), providing important information on shallow subsurface properties. The use of multiple frequencies allows for the resolving of internal structures within the depth range. Overall, the FDEM method has proven to be a valuable tool for studying coastal archaeology, and it is likely to continue to play an important role in the field in the coming years. Its ability to detect buried objects and structures and to study the geomorphology of submerged landscapes makes it an essential tool for researchers working in this field.

How to cite: Lazar, M. and Basson, U.: Frequency domain electromagnetic methods for coastal archaeology – a new(ish) approach for the detection of ancient settlements, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5919,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Kamal Bayramov, Clara Jodry, Gunel Alizada, Sarvar Mammadov, Vusal Azimov, and Malik Abdullayev

Kurgans are funeral chambers, evidence of burial tradition dating back to the first thousand years BCE, of nomadic populations that covered a vast area in-between Europe and Asia. In Azerbaijan, past archaeological explorations revealed numerous large kurgans from the Early Bronze, which correspond to Kura-Arexed period (ca. 3500-3000 BCE), and relatively smaller burials of Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages. To improve the efficiency of the excavation process, geophysical methods have been widely and effectively applied for many years to provide clear and useful images of archeological targets hidden underground such as kurgans.

In this work, we introduce a multi-method archaeo-geophysical survey done in May 2022 to investigate Early Bronze Age kurgans located in Uzun Rama Steppe of Goranboy region in Azerbaijan. Applied method cover different depth of investigation and resolution to provide a wealth of information on the structure of three kurgans aligned in a North-South direction. It comprises coincidental DC-resistivity and seismic refraction tomographies of 70.5 m with a 1.5 m spacing going over all kurgans, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) 40 m long profile using a 500 MHz antenna on the northern kurgans going from East to West and a magnetic map 24 x 25 m on the southern one.

The DC-resistivity profile shows two layers, a medium resistivity layer (500 to 600 W.m) from the surface to 6 m depth and a very conductive layer (> 10 W.m) under it. The first layer contains three areas of lower resistivity (~ 60 W.m) that are limited in thickness and length. As these three spots are marked by higher height on-site, we interpret them as the three kurgans. The coincidental seismic profile is a lot less detailed (due to physical properties and higher spacing between receiver) and define only three homogeneous layers, a first layer from the surface to 1 m depth with a P-wave velocity of 300 m/s, a second layer of higher velocity (1000 m/s) from 1 m depth to approximately 6 m depth and a final third layer of 2000 m/s velocity. Even though, the resolution is lower, we interpret the first layer as an attempt of the model to represent the kurgans. The GPR profile give a high attenuate image due to low resistive layer. However multiple diffractions can be seen in the first meter of the subsurface that can indicate the presence of ancient artefact related to the kurgans. Finally, the magnetic map defines the limit of the kurgan as a positive-negative anomaly probably due to the burning ritual that ended the implementation of a kurgan.

This geophysical campaign allowed us to accurately locate the kurgans as well as provide information on the environment. DC-resistivity and magnetic mapping seem to get the best results in our case. A future archaeological investigation will be put in place based on these results.

How to cite: Bayramov, K., Jodry, C., Alizada, G., Mammadov, S., Azimov, V., and Abdullayev, M.: Geophysical investigation of kurgans in Uzun Rama steppe, Goranboy region, Azerbaijan, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-10838,, 2023.

On-site presentation
Giorgio Cassiani, Ilaria Barone, Mirko Pavoni, Jacopo Boaga, and Rita Deiana

The characterization of the shallow subsoil at complex archaeological sites requires sufficient spatial coverage and resolution as to provide the necessary information. This is all but trivial, particularly where historical superposition of layers requires also sufficient depth investigation and resolution. The Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, with its Giotto's fourteen century frescoes, and recently added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, stands on the remains of the local Roman amphitheater. The hypogeum located under the chapel shares its western wall with a part of the wall of the amphitheater. To date, no information is available about the soil below the apse of the chapel. Over the past decade, several ERT and GPR measurements have been conducted outside the chapel, straddling the amphitheater structure for archaeological and geomorphological characterization of the area. In 2021, a first 3D active and passive seismic survey was conducted using about 1500 wireless sensors, aiming at using surface waves to provide a 3D image of the subsurface in terms of shear wave velocity. In 2022 three 20 m deep boreholes were drilled around the chapel and equipped with fiber optics, ground deformation sensors, and electrodes for cross-hole ERT, and about 200 1-C and 3-C wireless seismic sensors were placed around the drilling area. During the drilling, additional 3D seismic data were acquired from the surface, which completed the datasets acquired in 2021. The geophysical data thus acquired and the time-lapse monitoring that will be possible around the area of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua will allow reconstructing the geomorphology of the subsurface on which the chapel rests, but also to better study and analyze the possible interactions between the structure of the chapel and the buried structure of the Roman amphitheater from the mechanical point of view as well as from the perspective of the seismic response of this specific site.

How to cite: Cassiani, G., Barone, I., Pavoni, M., Boaga, J., and Deiana, R.: Geophysical characterization of the shallow subsoil at a heavily urbanized archaeological site: the Roman Amphitheater and the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua., EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8737,, 2023.


Posters on site: Tue, 25 Apr, 16:15–18:00 | Hall X3

Chairpersons: Anna Schneider, Maria Bronnikova
Tereza Zádorová, Vít Penížek, Magdalena Koubová, Lenka Lisá, Daniel Žížala, Lenka Pavlů, Václav Tejnecký, and Ondřej Drábek

Colluvisols, representing a significant part of the erosional catena in undulating landscapes, often changed by long-term agricultural management, undergo a complex development with alternating phases of material deposition and slope stability, with subsequent initiation of soil formation processes. The presented study focuses on the detailed description of the post-depositional evolution of four up to 4m-deep colluvial profiles, formed in different colluvial positions in two environmentally and historically distinct areas of Czechia, situated in the loess region of South Moravia and Central Bohemian Upland, built on plutonic rocks. A multi-proxy approach consisting of analyses of clay mineralogy, micromorphology, humic acids and geochemical parameters was applied to distinguish the inherited and in-situ developed pedogenetic features and link them with the sedimentary history of the studied soils, assessed using optically stimulated luminescence dating and 137Cs activity. Marked differences in the type and maturity of pedogenetic features were identified not only in individual plots but also in different colluvial positions within the same plot. While signs of bioturbation, mainly related to root activity and soil fauna, were observed even in recent colluvial layers after a short period of stabilization, more advanced processes of weathering, organic matter stabilisation and clay illuviation are typical only for early-sedimented layers with long post-depositional development. Redoximorphic features were more pronounced in the side valleys compared to the toe-slope colluvial positions; similarly marked differences between colluvial positions were observed for humus quality, with significantly more stable organic matter concentrated within side valleys. In both sites, distinct and largely contradictory trends in the transformation of clay minerals, reflected in the proportions of different phyllosilicate layers, were observed, corresponding to the specific conditions of soil development. 

Study was supported by grant nr. 21-11879S of the Czech Science Foundation.

How to cite: Zádorová, T., Penížek, V., Koubová, M., Lisá, L., Žížala, D., Pavlů, L., Tejnecký, V., and Drábek, O.: Post-sedimentary pedogenesis in colluvial soils in the context of the landscape sedimentary history (Czechia), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-2241,, 2023.

Jörg Völkel, Prof. Dr., Anna Sophia Holmer, Ildikó Bösze, and Günther Moosbauer, Prof. Dr.

Up to today, the reason for the genesis of chernic horizons in Germany is a matter of discussion. Recent literature is strongly suggesting a purposeful anthropogenic soil management from neolithic times as an origin of these soils. Here we provide another example of neolithic activities meliorating the soil from a calcic Luvisol to a Chernozem with a dimension of several hectares. This is striking, since it is the first finding of a chernic horizon of this extensiveness in Bavaria, Germany.

The Chernozem has been discovered close to the city of Straubing (48°53′N, 12°34′O, MAP 757 mm, MAT 8,6°C), which is situated in the highly arable Danubian Gäuboden and part of the so called Altsiedelland. It has been home to human settlers ever since the first settlers belonging to the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture immigrated, among other things like the optimal climatic conditions due to its very favorable soil characteristics (luvisols) developed on Loess. The neolithic Chernozem is located directly next to a graveyard with graves dating in early neolithic times and later as well as neolithic settlements 500 m away. Collected 14C and OSL-data strongly suggest that part of the Chernozem was covered by a roman colluvium probably eroded from the former graveyard hill by roman ploughing activities. Our obtained 14C data places the chernic horizon itself into the early LBK and onwards. Nowadays the chernic horizon is mostly overprinted by the ongoing soil genesis as an argic horizon. Small charcoal flakes (< 0.5 mm) make the chernic horizon appear greyish-black up to today, with carbon-contents of around 1%. The colour intensifies in the center of the Chernozem area closely by the settlements and graveyard and fades out to a distinct grey shadow in the argic horizon of the calcic luvisol above around 2 km away.

These findings leave no room for doubt: The Chernozem has an anthropogenic origin and was created by the neolithic settlers, following a purpose in managing and meliorating the soil.

How to cite: Völkel, Prof. Dr., J., Holmer, A. S., Bösze, I., and Moosbauer, Prof. Dr., G.: Neolithic Agronomists shaped Chernozem in South-Eastern Bavaria, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-2822,, 2023.

Oren Ackermann, Jenny Marcus, Jan Fišer, Gilad Itach, Martin Janovský, and Nimrod Wieler

Ancient anthropogenic long-term effects on soil chemical composition is a well-known phenomenon in large archaeological sites. In the current presentation, this effect will be shown in Khalat al-Saharij, a small site located in central Israel, in the footslope of the main highlands of the country. The site served as a farmhouse during the Neo Assyrian rule and was dated to the second half of the 8th century BCE.

Archaeological excavations of the site revealed a building that included two strips of rooms built around a square courtyard, a rock-hewn water reservoir, and agricultural facilities scattered in the area east and west of the building, including agricultural terraces.

The main aim of the current research was to find an anthropogenic signature in the sediments of the site, and in the sediments of the surrounding fields. 

POSL, PXRF and XRF methods were applied in order to achieve this aim.

The results showed that a significant anthropogenic signature was recorded on the sediments of the building and its square courtyard. This is reflected in the chemical composition that was enriched by phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca), and by the mixed pOSL signal values. In the anthropogenic fields, the chemical signature is typical of natural soil with a high amount of Iron (Fe) and Manganese(Mn) which reflect high water availability.  

It is interesting that although the site is small in size and was inhabited for a short period of time, the human imprint has remained hundreds of years after its abandonment.

How to cite: Ackermann, O., Marcus, J., Fišer, J., Itach, G., Janovský, M., and Wieler, N.: Khalat al-Saharij - An Iron Age Small Site and Long Anthropogenic Effect on the Soil, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-9663,, 2023.

Martin Mihaljevič, Aleš Vaněk, Mária Vaňková, and Vojtěch Ettler

Silver content and isotopic composition were studied in 3 selected 210Pb-dated profiles of ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Jizera Mountains, Ore Mountains and Sumava. The individual peat bogs differ in the rate of peat accumulation and intensity of immission load.

All peat bogs show a peak in the 1970s, which is related to the peak of industrial production in Europe and the associated coal burning. This peak is found at a depth of 7-12 cm in the peatlands studied.

In peat bogs in the Jizera and Ore Mountains, a smaller peak at a depth of 22-25 cm is followed by a peak in Pb concentration, probably related to Ag metallurgy in the 17th century.  This peak is not evident in the Šumava profile, where it is suppressed by elevated Ag concentrations in the underlying rocks.

The individual sources of silver are documented by isotopic composition that appears in the studied geochemical archives.

How to cite: Mihaljevič, M., Vaněk, A., Vaňková, M., and Ettler, V.: Elemental and isotopic composition of silver in selected peat profiles of the Czech Republic, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-15478,, 2023.

Michele D'Amico, Emanuele Pintaldi, Dario Melacarne, Andrea Benech, Nicola Colombo, and Michele Freppaz

Most of the Alpine range was influenced by glacier movement or by intense erosive processes during Pleistocene glacial periods, which erased previously existing soils and landforms. Thus, most of the soils in the Alps began developing since at least the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, some surfaces located above the trimline (the upper limit reached by valley and cirque glaciers) still retain “old” morphologies and can be considered paleosurfaces, often covered by fossil or active periglacial features.

After having found very well developed Umbrisols hidden inside blockfields at 3030 m a.s.l. on the Stolenberg Plateau, Monte Rosa Massif – NW Italian Alps (Pintaldi et al. 2021a, 2021b, 2022), we explored other relict cryogenic landforms located above the Pleistocene trimline, such as blockfields and blockstreams, observing the soils hidden below the surface stone layers.

In most cases, we found extremely well-developed soils, such as Podzols with extremely thick E horizons or Umbrisols with A-Bh horizons up to more than 1-m thick. One of the most important properties was the large organic carbon content, up to 10-13% in soils located inside barren blockstreams and blockfields presently devoid of vegetation, at elevations between 1000 and 2950 m a.s.l..

The age of this organic matter is likely very old. For instance, inside the blockfield on the Stolenberg Plateau (3030 m a.s.l.), the organic matter was up to 22 ka old, corresponding to the early retreat glacial phase after the LGM. The age and nature of the organic matter in the other soils is still being analyzed, and it will be able to give important information on past environmental condition in understudied high-elevation areas in the Alps.



Pintaldi E., D’Amico M.E., Colombo N., Colombero C., Sambuelli L., De Regibus C., Franco D., Perotti L., Paro L., Freppaz M. (2021a). Catena.

Pintaldi E., D’Amico M.E., Colombo N., Martinetto E., Said-Pullicino D., Giardino M., Freppaz M. (2021b).

Pintaldi E., Santoro V., D’Amico M.E., Colombo N., Celi L., Freppaz M. (2022). European Journal of Soil Science.

How to cite: D'Amico, M., Pintaldi, E., Melacarne, D., Benech, A., Colombo, N., and Freppaz, M.: Intense pedogenic development and large carbon contents in soils above the Pleistocene trimline (NW Italian Alps), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-12360,, 2023.

Cindy De Jonge, Jingjing Guo, Petter Hallberg, Marco Griepentrog, Rienk Smittenberg, Francien Peterse, Pascal Boeckx, and Gerd Dercon

Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are ubiquitous membrane-spanning lipids with a wide environmental distribution. In soils, branched GDGTs are produced by a possibly large diversity of bacteria. The relative abundance of methyl groups attached to the central alkyl chains is at the basis of the paleotemperature proxy MBT’5ME. However, MBT’5ME values in soils can also be directly influenced by pH (De Jonge et al., 2021). A second group of compounds, the isoprenoid GDGTs, are produced by archaea. They have been used only sparsely as environmental proxies in soils, although they are at the base of the marine paleotemperature proxy TEX86. In soils, a recent compilation by Yang et al. (2016) illustrates that the temperature dependency of TEX86 is sometimes present, but potentially influenced by other soil (chemistry) parameters.

In addition to temperature, other soil parameters are expected to vary with time, even on a Holocene timescale. For instance, soil mineral fertility (specifically, the concentration of exchangeable cations) will vary following climate or land use changes. As soil mineral fertility will impact the soil nutrient status for vegetation, and impact the soil capacity to store organic carbon (von Fromm et al., 2021), it is a relevant parameter to reconstruct over time. However, as soil fertility of surface soils will decrease during eroision or burial, this parameter can currently not be reconstructed quantitatively.

To investigate the potential of GDGTs as soil fertility proxies, branched and isoprenoid GDGTs were measured in soils from 5 elevation transects (Austria, Bolivia, China, Indonesia and Tanzania, n=74) that cover a large gradient in mean annual temperature (0-28 ℃), seasonality, and soil chemical parameters. Supplemented with climate (temperature and precipitation) data, we evaluate both changes in absolute concentration and relative distribution of the GDGTs. Of the chemical parameters, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable iron are shown to correlate with the absolute abundance of several branched (6 methyl brGDGTs) and isoprenoid (crenarchaeol isomer) GDGT compounds. Based on these relations we have developed ratios to quantify calcium (and summed bases) and iron (and summed metals) [r2=0.61-0.68, p<0.001] using GDGTs in soils. As GDGTs are stable on geological timescales, their presence in paleosoil sequences will thus allow us to reconstruct changes in surface soil fertility (specifically, calcium and iron) through time, even after the mineralogy of the original topsoil has changed.

Based our promising preliminary data we propose that GDGT ratios to reconstruct soil mineral fertility should be developed further using well-characterized modern soils. In addition, we look forward to testing our proxies on paleosoils by starting new collaborations.


De Jonge, C. et al. The influence of soil chemistry on branched tetraether lipids in mid- and high latitude soils: implications for brGDGT- based paleothermometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2021).

von Fromm, S.F., et al. Continental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan Africa. SOIL 7, 305–332 (2021).

Yang, H., et al. The Response of Archaeal Tetraether Membrane Lipids in Surface Soils to Temperature: A Potential Paleothermometer in Paleosols. Geomicrobiology Journal 33, 98–109 (2016).

How to cite: De Jonge, C., Guo, J., Hallberg, P., Griepentrog, M., Smittenberg, R., Peterse, F., Boeckx, P., and Dercon, G.: Using biomarker lipids to reconstruct soil fertility through time, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-16684,, 2023.

Rui Jorge Oliveira, Bento Caldeira, José Fernando Borges, and Mourad Bezzeghoud

Geophysical data with noise issues are quite common, resulting in low detection conditions. This prevents the ground content from being evaluated to determine the existence of structures buried in the ground in an archaeological site. Standard processing on ground-penetrating radar and magnetic data does not effectively eliminate or mitigate this effect. The use of advanced and customized data processing is a viable solution to the problem. This processing can be applied using mathematical transforms in conjunction with data decomposition techniques, allowing for easier and less computationally intensive data manipulation. The circular symmetry of the data is enabled by the 2D Fourier transform, making operations like filtering easier to implement. In the transformed domain, factoring techniques such as singular value decomposition can be used (SVD). After analyzing the decomposed signal, the components can be matched to the signal and noise. The 2D wavelet transform allows for data decomposition, with operations such as multiresolution SVD and multidirectional gradient calculation applied to each channel to select the most informative content from a dataset. The chain application of these operations allows for the improvement of geophysical data despite an apparent lack of information. Testing on field data obtained at Villa Romana de Pisões (Beja, Portugal) is an example of successful application. Advanced geophysical data processing operations can improve the data and should be used in conjunction with standard operations.

Acknowledgment: The work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) project UIDB/04683/2020 - ICT (Institute of Earth Sciences).

How to cite: Oliveira, R. J., Caldeira, B., Borges, J. F., and Bezzeghoud, M.: Using advanced geophysical data processing to improve low detection data in archaeological sites, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5502,, 2023.

Pedro Trapero, Rui Oliveira, Bento Caldeira, Jose Fernando Borges, and André Carneiro

The Roman villa of Pisões (Beja, Portugal), was part of the Lusitanian colony of Pax Iulia. This place stands out for the predominance of the water element in several structures of the villa, highlighting the balneum and the large natatio, one of the largest known in Roman Hispania. The records of the initial excavations that took place since 1967 do not allow the establishment of clear functionalities of the villa. The University of Évora, owner of the site, conceived an action plan for the requalification and enhancement of the archaeological site. One of the tasks aims to investigate using Applied Geophysics. This work analyses the landscape directly related to the villa, given that it is in the flooded area of a river, with a Roman containment dam. It is uncertain whether the water supply comes from this structure or other nearby springs. The use of ground-penetrating radar, combined with unnamed aerial vehicles, all integrated in a geographic information system, allows us to know the location of underground water connections and create a topographic model with high resolution. Considering all the information, we propose a model for the water transport inside the villa and estimate the location of the water supply.

Acknowledgment: The work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) project UIDB/04683/2020 - ICT (Institute of Earth Sciences).

How to cite: Trapero, P., Oliveira, R., Caldeira, B., Borges, J. F., and Carneiro, A.: Studying the water supply system of the Roman villa of Pisões (Beja, Portugal) using ground-penetrating radar and geospatial methods, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-17056,, 2023.

Posters virtual: Tue, 25 Apr, 16:15–18:00 | vHall SSS

Chairpersons: Anna Schneider, Anna Andreetta
Pooja Yadav, Abdul Hameed, Rohit Kumar, and Pankaj Srivastava

The Himalayan Mountain range is the most prominent and active intracontinental range in the world. The outer part of this range is marked by the Himalayan foreland basin (HFB) in south that resulted due to the thrust loading and subsidence with synorogenic sedimentation from the hinterland. The lowermost part of the HFB is marked by the molassic sediments of “Siwalik” which thins out to the south. The time frame between 11Ma to 6 Ma (mid to late Miocene) is critical to understand the changes related to monsoon and vegetation as there is no detailed record or systematic study of late Cenozoic weathering and paleopedogenesis in fluvial sediments of the HFB. In the present study, we present a high-resolution paleopedological record of the paleosols along a traverse of ~ 1.8 km in the Kotla-Brail section of the Kangra sub-basin of the HFB. In the field, the paleosols are characterized by 1-2 m thick Bw, Bt, Bk, Bss, Bk horizons, rhizocretions, pedogenic carbonates (PC), and Fe/Mn mottles and concretions. The paleosols in the Lower Siwaliks show a dominance of 2.5 Y and 5 YR hue, whereas in the Middle Siwaliks they are defined by 5 YR and 7.5 YR hue. Micromorphology of these paleosols confirmed varying degrees of weathering, and paleopedogenesis showing a blocky structure, clay coatings, biogenic activity, and diffused impure micritic nodules as PC in the Bw and Bt, Btk horizons. These pedofeatures are more strongly developed in paleosols of the Lower Siwaliks than in comparison to weakly-moderately paleosols of the Middle Siwaliks.

Clay mineralogy determined based on XRD study of the total (<2 µm) fine clay (<0.2 µm) fractions of these paleosols is characterized by the dominance of smectite, vermiculite, and mixed-layer minerals in paleosols of the Lower Siwalik. The clay mineral assemblage shows a  decrease in the abundance of smectite and increase of kaolinite towards the transitions to Middle Siwalik at ~10 Ma. This also shows transformation of the smectite and vermiculite to interstratified clays at about ~8 Ma. After ~8.5 – 8.0 Ma, the paleosols are again marked an increase of the amount of smectite, vermiculite, and mixed-layer minerals in paleosols of the Middle Siwalik towards their transitions to Upper Siwalik. The varying intensity of weathering, paleopedogenesis, and clay mineral assemblage of the paleosols in the Lower and Middle Siwalik suggest fluctuating climatic conditions that evolved from initial semi-arid to sub-humid at ~11 Ma that to higher precipitation at ~8.5 to 8 Ma then again to semi-arid to arid conditions at ~6.5 Ma.


Keywords: Himalayan Foreland Basin (HFB), Siwalik, Paleosols, Micromorphology, Clay Minerals

How to cite: Yadav, P., Hameed, A., Kumar, R., and Srivastava, P.: "Paleopedology of Siwalik Paleosols of Kangra Sub-Basin, NW Himalaya: Implication for Weathering and Climate change 11 Ma to 6 Ma", EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-828,, 2023.

Yingfan Xia, Zili Yang, and Zicheng Yu

As one of the soil types, peat is an important soil carbon storage and archive of past environmental changes. Here we used multi-core and multi-proxy records from a peatland near Da’erbin Lake in the Arxan region of Northeast China to reconstruct peatland development and carbon accumulation history and to understand their responses to past climate changes during the last 2500 years. Our macrofossil results show that the peatland was characterized by a sedge-dominated fen from 490 BCE to 1450 CE, changed to a Sphagnum-dominated poor fen or bog with abundant shrubs (mostly Ericaceae) during the period of 1450–1960 CE, and finally became predominated by Sphagnum after 1960 CE. The time-weighted mean apparent carbon accumulation rate (aCAR) from three cores range from 19.5 to 53.0 g C m-2 yr-1 with a mean value of 32.4 g C m-2 yr-1, but increase rapidly to 139.2 g C m-2 yr-1 during last several decades. During the early stage of the past 2500 years, three coring sites that are only 50 m apart were all in the fen phase but they had highly variable peat properties. The fen-bog transition occurred at different times at these sites due to local influences of autogenic process, permafrost dynamics, or fire disturbance. These observations suggest that fens are highly heterogeneous, not only in peat properties but also in ecosystem dynamics. The dramatic increase in aCAR during the late stage of bog phase after 1960 CE cannot be explained entirely by limited decomposition of recently-accumulated peat. Instead, this was likely due to increasing Sphagnum dominance and resultant low decomposition of Sphagnum-derived organic matter, suggesting the important role of vegetation change in controlling carbon accumulation rates. Around the 1990s CE, an increase in allogenic CAR—after removing the age-related long-term autogenic effect—seems to correspond with a period of increase in regional summer precipitation, revealing a sensitive response of ombrotrophic bog ecosystem to climate change at decadal timescale.

How to cite: Xia, Y., Yang, Z., and Yu, Z.: Responses of peatland development and carbon accumulation to climate change over the past 2500 years in the Arxan region, Northeast China, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-2515,, 2023.

Oleksandr Bonchkovskyi

The Volyn’ Upland is a “loess island” in the middle of the European loess belt. In the previously studied sections of this region, the Pleistocene palaeosols are mainly polygenetic; therefore, the pedocomplexes comprise no more than two soils. The study of the sections located both on the slopes of the river valleys and in the buried gullies, contributed to detailed stratigraphy of the pedocomplexes.  

Three pedocomplexes have been distinguished in the sections, which, according to palaeopedological and palynological data, were tentatively correlated with MIS 5, 7 and 9, respectively. The lower pedocomplex (S3, MIS 9) comprises two soils. The lower soil (S3-II) is a Luvisol with multi-phased clay coatings in the Bt horizon. However, micromorphology detects a clear primary A horizon with abundant coprolites. The upper soil (S3-I) has a well-developed A horizon and Ag horizon in the depression. However, clay coatings in the Bt horizon testify to the clay translocation.

The middle pedocomplex (S2, MIS 7) comprises two welded soils separated by a thin loess bed. The lower soil (S2-II) is a Luvisol, in places marked by a pronounced A horizon, in which clay coatings occur, whereas in the E horizon secondary carbonate nodules appear.  In places, the upper soil (S2-I) turns into two separate soils: the lower Haplic Chernozem and the upper Cambisol, both densely dissected by soil veins. These soils are dark, leached of carbonates, with crumby and granular microstructure. Many krotovinas occur in the subsoil.

The upper pedocomplex (S1, MIS 5) is subdivided into three sub-pedocomplexes, interbedded with sandy facies in depressions and thin loess-like deposits at the topographically higher positions. The lower sub-pedocomplex (S1-III, MIS 5e) is represented, depending on the parent material, by Luvisol, Retisol or Podzol with abundant clay coatings in the Bt horizon. In places, the forest soil is overlain by Entic Podzol with a more pronounced A horizon and is underlain by a Gleysol in depression. The middle sub-pedocomplex (S1-II, MIS 5c) comprises three soils: the lower Entic or Albic Podzol, the middle Chernozem and the upper Cambisol. A distinguished feature of these soils is the rapid increase in sand content in almost all studied sections. The upper sub-pedocomplex (S1-I, MIS 5a) is interpreted as a Cambisol, in places with a well-developed A horizon. In the upper soils of S1, pale brown spots occur.

Three Gleysols have been distinguished in the upper thick loess unit (L1, MIS 2-4). The lower Gleysol (MIS 3) is better developed and mostly polygenetic; in places the soil turns into a pedocomplex consisting of two or three soils: the lower Gleysol, the middle Gleyic Cambisol and the upper Calcaric Cambisol. The middle Gleysol appears to be polygenetic, as evidenced by palynology and micromorphology. Large ice-wedge pseudomorphs are associated with the upper Gleysol, which makes it possible to interpret soil as tundra-gley.

The study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Ukraine, grant number 2020.02/0406.

How to cite: Bonchkovskyi, O.: A detailed palaeosol record of Middle and Upper Pleistocene from the central part of the Volyn’ Upland (the NW Ukraine), EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-3857,, 2023.