ST3.5 | Dynamics, Chemistry, and Coupling in the MLT Regions

ST3.5

EDI

The Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region is a great platform to study ionospheric dynamics, disturbances, eddy mixing, and controlling parameters. This transition region is sandwiched between the lower and upper atmosphere, which is strongly driven by the forcing from both the above (e.g., solar and magnetospheric inputs) and below (e.g., gravity waves and atmospheric tides). The thermal structure of the MLT region is controlled by numerous sources and sinks of energy, including solar radiation, chemical, and dynamical processes. Solar atmospheric tides related to global-scale variations of winds and waves are responsible for coupling the lower and upper layers of the atmosphere. During this coupling process, the precipitation of energetic particles into the MLT region also greatly influences the vertical profiles of the temperature, chemistry, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. This is an appropriate forum/time to encourage the scientific community to present, discuss, update, and improve our understanding of dynamics, chemistry, and coupling in the MLT region which ultimately affect the electrodynamics of the whole coupled geospace environment. This session invites presentations on scientific work related to various experimental/observational techniques, numerical and empirical modeling, and theoretical analyses on the dynamics, chemistry, and coupling processes in the altitude range of ~ 60 km – 180 km of the MLT regions.

Co-organized by AS1
Convener: Sovit KhadkaECSECS | Co-conveners: Claudia Stolle, Franz-Josef Lübken, Tatsuhiro Yokoyama, David Themens, Lukas KrasauskasECSECS, Andrew Akala
Orals
| Wed, 26 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)
 
Room 1.14
Posters on site
| Attendance Thu, 27 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)
 
Hall X4
Posters virtual
| Attendance Thu, 27 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST)
 
vHall ST/PS
Orals |
Wed, 14:00
Thu, 14:00
Thu, 14:00

Orals: Wed, 26 Apr | Room 1.14

The oral presentations are given in a hybrid format supported by a Zoom meeting featuring on-site and virtual presentations. The button to access the Zoom meeting appears just before the time block starts.
Chairpersons: Sovit Khadka, Claudia Stolle, Franz-Josef Lübken
14:00–14:05
14:05–14:15
|
EGU23-4415
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Yanlin Li, Tai-Yin Huang, Julio Urbina, Fabio Vargas, and Wuhu Feng

The sodium layer in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region is originated from meteoroid mass deposits produced by its ablation. Understanding the correlation between the meteoroid material input and the concentration of the sodium layer is essential for many investigations that use sodium as a tracer to study the dynamics in the MLT. A new numerical sodium chemistry model has been developed to study such correlation, and the results are cross-compared to the meteoroid material input inferred from the recently revealed sporadic meteor radiant distribution derived from the data gathered by the Arecibo Observatory. The sodium chemistry model is computationally efficient, runs in high-time resolution, and the sodium-bearing species are equally treated in the continuity equation devoid of making any steady-state approximation. This work will also present the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of meteoroid injection rates derived from the aforementioned sporadic meteor radiant distribution.Our simulation results agreed with the general feature of the measurements obtained from the Colorado State University Lidar (CSU) and the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) but with variations three times smaller.

How to cite: Li, Y., Huang, T.-Y., Urbina, J., Vargas, F., and Feng, W.: On the Correlation between the sodium in the MLT and meteor radiant distribution, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-4415, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-4415, 2023.

14:15–14:25
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EGU23-5587
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On-site presentation
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Stefan Bender, Patrick Espy, and Larry Paxton

Solar, auroral, and radiation belt electrons enter the atmosphere at polar regions leading to ionization and affecting its chemistry. Climate models with interactive chemistry in the upper atmosphere, such as WACCM-X or EDITh, usually parametrize this ionization and calculate the related changes in chemistry based on satellite particle measurements. Widely used particle data are derived from the POES and GOES satellite measurements which provide electron and proton spectra. These satellites provide in-situ measurements of the particle populations at the satellite altitude, but require interpolation and modelling to infer the actual input into the upper atmosphere.

Here we use the electron energy and flux data products from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) instruments on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. This formation of currently three operating satellites observes both auroral zones in the far UV from (115--180 nm) with a 3000 km wide swath and 10 x 10 km (nadir) pixel resolution during each orbit. From the N2 LBH emissions, the precipitating electron energies and fluxes are inferred in the range from 2 keV to 20 keV. We use these observed electron energies and fluxes to calculate auroral ionization rates in the lower thermosphere (≈ 90–150 km), which have been validated previously against ground-based electron density measurements
from EISCAT. We present an empirical model of these ionization rates derived for the entire satellite operating time and sorted according to magnetic local time and geomagnetic latitude. The model is based on geomagnetic and solar flux indices, and the coefficients indicate where certain drivers have the largest influence. The model will be particularly targeted for use in climate models that include the upper atmosphere, such as the aforementioned WACCM-X or EDITh models, and we present an initial comparison to current implementations for ionization rates used in high-top whole-atmosphere models. Further applications include the derived conductances in the auroral region, as well as modelling and forecasting E-region disturbances related to Space Weather.

How to cite: Bender, S., Espy, P., and Paxton, L.: Empirical modelling of SSUSI-derived auroral ionization rates, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5587, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5587, 2023.

14:25–14:35
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EGU23-7217
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Virtual presentation
Incoherent scatter radar study of D-region gravity wave dynamics above Arecibo
(withdrawn)
Qihou Zhou, Yanlin Li, and Yun Gong
14:35–14:55
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EGU23-11006
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ECS
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solicited
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Federico Conte, Jorge Chau, Erdal Yiğit, José Suclupe, Karim Kuyeng, and Rodolfo Rodríguez

One year of Spread spectrum Interferometric Multistatic meteor radar Observing Network (SIMONe) measurements are analyzed and compared for the first time between two low-latitude locations in Peru: Jicamarca (12°S, 77°W) and Piura (5°S, 80°W). Investigation of the mean horizontal winds and tides reveals that mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) planetary-scale dynamics are similar between these two locations, although differences can be seen in some tidal components, e.g., the diurnal tide. On the other hand, monthly median values of the 4-hour, 4-km momentum fluxes indicate that the mesoscale dynamics differ significantly between Jicamarca and Piura. These differences are particularly evident during the (southern hemisphere’s) summertime in the zonal component, where a strong acceleration of the background wind by westward-propagating gravity waves (GWs) is observed at all altitudes (80-100 km) only over Piura. The latter finding observationally confirms the previous studies based on model simulations indicating that the directions of the GW drag and the background wind coincide in the low-latitude MLT [Yiğit & Medvedev, 2017].

How to cite: Conte, F., Chau, J., Yiğit, E., Suclupe, J., Kuyeng, K., and Rodríguez, R.: One year of MLT dynamics over central and northern Peru from SIMONe systems, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-11006, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-11006, 2023.

14:55–15:05
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EGU23-13908
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Jia Jia, Lisa E. Murberg, Tiril Løvset, Yvan J. Orsolini, Patrick J. Espy, Jude Salinas, Jae N. Lee, Dong Wu, and Jiarong Zhang

The secondary ozone layer is a global peak in ozone abundance in the upper mesosphere-lower thermosphere (UMLT) around 90-95 km. The effect of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) from geomagnetic processes on this UMLT ozone has not been well studied. In this research we investigated how the secondary ozone response to EPP from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Aura and TIMED satellites, respectively. In addition, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere and ionosphere extension and specified dynamics (SD-WACCM-X) was used to characterize the residual circulation during EPP events. By comparing ozone and circulation changes under High- and low-Ap conditions, we report regions of secondary ozone enhancement or deficit across low, mid and high latitudes as a result of circulation and transport changes induced by EPP.

How to cite: Jia, J., Murberg, L. E., Løvset, T., Orsolini, Y. J., Espy, P. J., Salinas, J., Lee, J. N., Wu, D., and Zhang, J.: Energetic Particle Precipitation reflected in the Global Secondary Ozone Distribution, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13908, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13908, 2023.

15:05–15:15
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EGU23-16826
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Ole Martin Christensen, Jörg Gumbel, Linda Megner, Donal Murtagh, Björn Linder, Jonas Hedin, Nickolay Ivchenko, and Jacek Stegman

Global three-dimensional data are a key to understanding gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. MATS is a small Swedish satellite that aims at providing such fields using tomographic measurements of oxygen A-band airglow and noctilucent clouds. MATS was successfully launched from Mahia, New Zealand, on November 4, 2022. Data collection started in December 2022, and MATS is projected to have collected over 3 million images of the MLT region by April 2023.

This presentation will provide an overview over first results from the MATS data. This includes analysis of in-flight performance of the instruments, an overview of data availability, and some examples of possible usage of the data. We will discuss data quality as well as possible biases and uncertainties that need to be considered when using this new and unique dataset for mesospheric studies.

How to cite: Christensen, O. M., Gumbel, J., Megner, L., Murtagh, D., Linder, B., Hedin, J., Ivchenko, N., and Stegman, J.: First light from the MATS satellite, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-16826, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-16826, 2023.

15:15–15:25
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EGU23-7129
|
Virtual presentation
Victor Avsarkisov and Federico Conte

The primary physical mechanism behind the formation of the summer mesopause at middle and high latitudes is related to atmospheric gravity waves. An insight into this extreme thermal phenomenon can be gained from investigating the mesoscale energy spectrum. In this work, we decompose the frequency spectrum into divergent and rotational parts and find that their energy contributions are equipartitioned at high frequencies. This mesoscale energy equipartition indicates the effect of stratified turbulence. Analysis of the power spectra of observed and simulated horizontal winds at middle latitudes reveals the role of stratified turbulence in the formation of the summer mesopause region.

How to cite: Avsarkisov, V. and Conte, F.: The role of stratified turbulence in the cold summer mesopause region, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7129, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7129, 2023.

15:25–15:35
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EGU23-1177
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Subarna Mondal, Amitava Guharay, Sumanta Sarkhel, M. V. Sunil Krishna, and Martin G. Mlynczak

Interesting observational evidence of interaction between a mesospheric bore and a mesospheric front is found in O(1S) 557.7 nm airglow images over the western Himalayan region on 25 April 2022. The event is unique as it is the first report of a mesospheric bore interacting with a typical mesospheric front. The vertical profiles of temperature and Brunt Vaisala frequency indicate presence of a strong mesospheric inversion layer (MIL) which acts as a stable thermal duct for the propagation of the mesospheric bore. Analysis suggests that local chemical heating plays a significant role in sustaining a strong MIL/thermal duct. The bore front shows an anti-clockwise rotation, which is attributed to the differential phase speed of different regions of the bore due to variations in duct depth. The bore propagation above is observed to push the underlying OH layer downward, resulting in a maximum horizontal slope of the peak height of the OH volume emission rate (VER) on 25 April 2022. The results highlight the bore-front interaction, mesospheric background condition for bore propagation, and its effect on the altitudinal shift of adjacent airglow emission layers.

How to cite: Mondal, S., Guharay, A., Sarkhel, S., Krishna, M. V. S., and Mlynczak, M. G.: Simultaneous observations of mesospheric bore and front over the Himalaya, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-1177, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-1177, 2023.

15:35–15:45

Posters on site: Thu, 27 Apr, 14:00–15:45 | Hall X4

The posters scheduled for on-site presentation are only visible in the poster hall in Vienna. If authors uploaded their presentation files, these files are linked from the abstracts below, but only on the day of the poster session.
Chairpersons: Claudia Stolle, Lukas Krasauskas, Sovit Khadka
X4.273
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EGU23-4518
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On-site presentation
Konstantinos S. Kalogerakis

Nightglow emission signatures observed from space- and ground-based instruments are commonly used as proxies for atmospheric composition, especially for the altitude region around 100 km that cannot be easily studied in situ. Monitoring the intensity and temporal evolution of such proxies by remote sensing is often the method of choice to study a plethora of phenomena in this region of the atmosphere. Thus, the quantitative details relevant to the production and deactivation of excited atomic and molecular precursors responsible for prominent nightglow emissions are required to study atmospheric composition, radiative and energy balance, wave propagation and dissipation, as well as transport dynamics. Significant gaps and uncertainties exist in the understanding of the above processes and, as our recent studies on nightglow emissions revealed, substantial revisions of the relevant atmospheric models are warranted.

We will present a progress report on our efforts to advance the understanding of key mesospheric nightglow emissions by investigating the recently established coupling between the OH Meinel and the O2 Atmospheric band emissions, mediated by collisions of O atoms with vibrationally excited OH.

This work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grants AGS-2009960 and AGS-2113888.

How to cite: Kalogerakis, K. S.: Understanding the Coupled OH Meinel and O2 Atmospheric Band Nightglow Emissions, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-4518, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-4518, 2023.

X4.274
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EGU23-8579
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ECS
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On-site presentation
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Juliana Jaen, Toralf Renkwitz, Jorge Chau, Huixin Liu, Christoph Jacobi, Masaki Tsutsumi, and Njål Gulbrandsen

Winds at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been measured by partial reflection radars and specular meteor radars for almost two decades (2004-2022) over Germany and Norway (i.e., middle and high latitudes, respectively). Continuous wind measurements during the mentioned period are important to understand their long-term behavior. The zonal mean wind climatology displays an eastward wind during the winter months and a westward summer jet below ~85km at middle latitudes (~90km at high latitudes). Above the mentioned height, an eastward wind jet is observed. In the meridional wind component, the southward summer wind displays amplitudes between 4 and 5 times less intense than the westward jet. We studied the intensity of the summer wind components, the long-term variability and the possible connection to external forcing (i.e. El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and quasi-biennial oscillation, solar activity and geomagnetic activity). Analyzing the summer winds for low and high geomagnetic activity classified with the Ap index, there is a significant difference between both cases suggesting disturbances in the wind due to high geomagnetic activity. The long-term study shows significant trends at middle latitudes in the monthly summer values of the westward summer jet. As a consequence of the increase in the westward wind, a decrease in the southward component is observed at the same latitudes. While at high latitudes the eastward jet shows a decreasing velocity during July.

How to cite: Jaen, J., Renkwitz, T., Chau, J., Liu, H., Jacobi, C., Tsutsumi, M., and Gulbrandsen, N.: Long-term study of the summer wind variability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over nearly two decades at middle and high latitudes, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8579, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8579, 2023.

X4.275
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EGU23-14102
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solicited
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Claudia Stolle, Markus Kunze, Tarique Siddiqui, Chistoph Zülicke, Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Yosuke Yamazaki, Gerd Baumgarten, Sebastian Borchert, and Hauke Schmidt

The variability of the upper atmosphere is largely influenced by dynamical forcing from the lower and middle atmosphere. The Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) is the transition region between the middle atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, and it determines dynamical forcing to the upper atmosphere from below. It is thus of high importance to know, describe, and understand the dynamical processes within the MLT to quantify dynamics. Therein, General Circulation Models (GCMs) have been a significant tool to explain MLT processes.

However, developing the right parameterizations that allow to accurately model near-to-realistic states of the MLT by GCMs is challenging, which is reflected in a large diversity of results from different models in comparison to observations, e.g., of winds and temperatures at the MLT.

In recent years, the community model ICON (Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic Weather and Climate Model) has been expanded into altitudes up to 150 km, named the UA (Upper Atmosphere) branch. UA-ICON is increasingly being applied to model and to understand MLT processes and how they are controlled by the lower and middle atmosphere.

We present newly developed capabilities of UA-ICON. Examples are mesospheric cooling during stratospheric warming events, low summer mesopause temperatures through appropriate specification of gravity wave parameterizations and runs of high spatial resolution. Results are discussed in comparison with observations and with predictions by other GCMs.

How to cite: Stolle, C., Kunze, M., Siddiqui, T., Zülicke, C., Amiramjadi, M., Yamazaki, Y., Baumgarten, G., Borchert, S., and Schmidt, H.: Dynamics and variability of the MLT represented by UA-ICON, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14102, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-14102, 2023.

X4.276
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EGU23-14077
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On-site presentation
Yvan Orsolini, Jiarong Zhang, and Varavut Limpasuvan

Based on the hourly output from the 2000–2014 simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s vertically extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model in specified dynamics configuration, we examine the roles of planetary waves, gravity waves and atmospheric tides in driving the mean meridional circulation in the lower thermosphere and its response to the sudden stratospheric warming phenomenon with an elevated stratopause in the northern hemisphere. Sandwiched between the two summer-to-winter overturning circulations in the mesosphere and the upper thermosphere, the climatological lower thermosphere mean meridional circulation is a narrow gyre that is characterized by upwelling in the middle winter latitudes, equatorward flow near 120 km, and downwelling in the middle and high summer latitudes. Following the onset of the sudden stratospheric warmings, this gyre reverses its climatological direction, resulting in a “chimney-like” feature of un-interrupted polar descent from the altitude of 150 km down to the upper mesosphere. This reversal is driven by the westward-propagating planetary waves, which exert a brief but significant westward forcing between 70 and 125 km, exceeding gravity wave and tidal forcings in that altitude range. The attendant polar descent potentially leads to a short-lived enhanced transport of nitric oxide into the mesosphere (with excess in the order of 1. parts per million), while carbon dioxide is decreased.

How to cite: Orsolini, Y., Zhang, J., and Limpasuvan, V.: Abrupt Change in the Lower Thermospheric Mean Meridional Circulation during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings and its Impact on Trace Species, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-14077, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-14077, 2023.

Discussion
X4.277
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EGU23-5246
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On-site presentation
Franz-Josef Lübken

The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF) has launched a research initiative in 2013/2014 called ROMIC (Role of the Middle Atmosphere in Climate). The second phase of this project extends until 2024. The aim of ROMIC is to improve our understanding of long term variations in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere and to investigate their potential role for
climate changes in the troposphere. This includes to study coupling mechanisms between various layers and the relative importance of anthropogenic and natural forcing, e.\ g., by the Sun. Scientists at a total of 13 research institutes in Germany are involved and cover a large range of experimental and theoretical topics relevant for ROMIC. Most projects are linked to international activities and cooperations. Some scientific highlightsfrom the research projects within ROMIC will be presented.

How to cite: Lübken, F.-J.: Scientific Highlights from ROMIC, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-5246, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5246, 2023.

X4.278
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EGU23-907
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On-site presentation
Jae Lee and Dong Wu

The polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) obtained from Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)/Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) and Himawari-8/Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) observations are analyzed for the multi-year climatology and interannual variations. The PMCs dependence on mesospheric temperature and water vapor (H2O) are further investigated with data from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Our analysis shows that PMCs onset date and occurrence rate are strongly dependent on the atmospheric environment, i.e. underlying seasonal behavior of temperature and water vapor. Upper-mesospheric dehydration by PMCs is evident in MLS water vapor observations, The spatial patterns of the depleted water vapor resemble the PMCs distribution over the Arctic and Antarctic region during the days after summer solstice. Year-to-year variabilities of the PMCs occurrence rate and onset date are highly correlated with the mesospheric temperature and H2O variations, particularly in the southern hemisphere (SH). The global increase of mesospheric H2O during the last decade may explain the increased PMCs occurrence in the northern hemisphere (NH). Although mesospheric temperature and H2O exhibits a strong 11-year variation, little solar cycle signature is found in the PMCs occurrence during 2005-2021.

How to cite: Lee, J. and Wu, D.: The Sensitivity of Polar Mesospheric Clouds to Mesospheric Temperature and Water Vapor, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-907, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-907, 2023.

X4.279
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EGU23-13994
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On-site presentation
Thomas Reddmann, Monali Borthakur, Miriam Sinnhuber, Ilya Usoskin, Jan Maik Wissing, and Jan Maik Wissing

Besides the well-known 11 year solar cycle, the Sun occasionally produces strong eruptions on the Sun‘s surface and in the corona. They can first be seen as flare events in electromagnetic spectrum down to X ray wavelengths. Within these strong eruptions, particles in the solar plasma, mainly protons, are accelerated to high energies that hit the Earth within hours after the event. In addition, plasma clouds can be accelerated and ejected into the interplanetary space and, provided they are directed to the Earth, can cause severe geomagnetic disturbances. This results in a further energetic particle precipitation event a few days after the primary solar eruption. The strength of these events spans orders of magnitude, with the strongest having dramatic impact on the ionosphere and the middle atmosphere affecting even human activities. Here we study the chemical impact and dynamical of solar events on the middle atmosphere which are on the very extreme side but still within the range of a one per millennia event.

We first derive a reference example of an extreme solar event from historical records of solar proton events and from analyzed distributions of energy spectra for geomagnetic storms. We then take ionization rates calculated from strong observed events and scale them to represent the extreme events. Finally, we combine the solar proton event with the geomagnetic storm as both events typically impact different parts of the atmosphere. The ionization rates for the extreme event are then used in simulations in the KASIMA and EMAC model which both include energetic particle induced chemistry.In order to represent different dynamical situations in the middle atmosphere which are important for the vertical coupling between the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region and the stratosphere we select specific periods of the ERA-Interim dataset with a special focus on sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW) and apply the event for those situations. The simplified production efficiency of NOx and HOx in the models is further compared to an ion chemistry model where the extreme ionization rates are applied. The case of a SSW which shows an elevated stratosphere synchronized with the extreme event is studied in detail as a kind of worst case scenario.

How to cite: Reddmann, T., Borthakur, M., Sinnhuber, M., Usoskin, I., Wissing, J. M., and Wissing, J. M.: The impact of extreme solar events on the atmosphere, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-13994, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-13994, 2023.

X4.280
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EGU23-8477
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On-site presentation
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Stefan Noll, Carsten Schmidt, Wolfgang Kausch, Michael Bittner, and Stefan Kimeswenger

The line emission from the various roto-vibrational bands of the OH radical is an important tracer of the chemistry and dynamics in the Earth's nocturnal mesopause region between about 80 and 100 km. As most studies have focused either on a few bright lines or integrated emission from relatively wide wavelength windows, there is still a lack of knowledge with respect to the variability of faint lines from high rotational levels as well as the change of the variability patterns depending on the line parameters, which influence the effective emission height. Thanks to a large data set of about 90,000 near-infrared X-shooter spectra taken at Cerro Paranal in Chile within a time interval of 10 years, we have been able to derive line-specific climatologies of intensity, solar cycle effect, and residual variability for local time and day of year based on a set of 298 OH lines. Our analysis of the derived climatologies involves different decomposition techniques, the study of the variance depending on the time scale of the perturbation, and the calculation of correlations for the line dependence of different properties. The considered effective line emission heights originate from the investigation of the propagation of a strong quasi-2-day wave in 2017 using the X-shooter and space-based SABER data. Our results for the entire X-shooter data set reveal the importance of the mixing of thermalised and non-thermalised rotational populations for the amplitude of a perturbation as well as a shift of the climatological variability patterns with local time depending on the emission height. The latter implies a strong influence of the migrating diurnal tide and causes significant line-dependent differences in the effective solar cycle effect, which mainly depends on the solar forcing in the austral winter.

How to cite: Noll, S., Schmidt, C., Kausch, W., Bittner, M., and Kimeswenger, S.: X-shooter-based climatologies of intensity, solar cycle effect, and residual variability for 298 OH lines, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-8477, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-8477, 2023.

X4.281
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EGU23-7554
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Patrick Hannawald, Stefan Noll, Sabine Wüst, and Michael Bittner

Atmospheric gravity waves transport energy and momentum through the atmosphere and can travel large horizontal and vertical distances from the troposphere to the mesosphere and higher. They contribute to atmospheric dynamics and among others drive the meridional pole-to-pole circulation in the mesosphere. Thus, knowing about gravity waves, their spatio-temporal characteristics, their interaction with other waves and the atmospheric background is attracting more and more attention in order to further improve climate and even meteorological models.

In the upper mesosphere / lower thermosphere (UMLT) region around an altitude of 80km to 100km, OH airglow can be utilized for passive remote sensing and continuous nightly observations of atmospheric dynamics, especially of gravity waves. The OH airglow layer is a chemiluminescent layer with a strong emission in the short wave infrared spectral range (at about 1500nm) and is located at an altitude of about 86-87km with a layer halfwidth of about 4km. The OH airglow intensity is modulated by traversing atmospheric gravity waves which lead amongst others to a vertical transport of atomic oxygen. Observing the OH airglow with short-wave infrared imagers allows characterizing gravity waves. From these observations the horizontal wave parameters (horizontal wavelength, horizontal direction of propagation, etc.) can be derived.

In this study we present measurements of two ground-based FAIM (Fast Airglow IMager) systems, which are cameras sensitive in the short-wave infrared region observing the OH airglow layer with a high temporal resolution. The cameras are located at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany and Otlica, Slovenia, about 300km apart from each other and are pointing to the same volume at about 87km located in the Alpine Region above Northern Italy. We developed a novel tomographic algorithm to allow for a three-dimensional reconstruction of the airglow layer by combining images from the two viewing angles. In order to solve the highly underdetermined equation system, prior knowledge of the OH airglow layer vertical profile is needed e.g. from multi-year observations of SABER on the TIMED satellite on a statistical basis, or Gaussian and Chapman basis functions. This allows us, among others, to derive the vertical wavelength of the waves, their three-dimensional propagation direction, and their three-dimensional structure. From that knowledge, further wave parameters but also the horizontal wind along the wave propagation can be estimated via the wave’s dispersion relation.

We will explain the tomographic reconstruction method, its capabilities and limits and will present a detailed case study showing a 3D-reconstructed gravity wave and the derivation of its parameters.

This work received funding from the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection.

How to cite: Hannawald, P., Noll, S., Wüst, S., and Bittner, M.: 3D reconstruction of atmospheric gravity waves and derivation of vertical wave parameters with tomography applied to data from two ground-based cameras observing OH airglow, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-7554, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-7554, 2023.

Discussion

Posters virtual: Thu, 27 Apr, 14:00–15:45 | vHall ST/PS

The posters scheduled for virtual presentation are visible in Gather.Town. Attendees are asked to meet the authors during the scheduled attendance time for live video chats. If authors uploaded their presentation files, these files are also linked from the abstracts below, but only on the day of the poster session. The button to access Gather.Town appears just before the time block starts.
Chairpersons: David Themens, Andrew Akala, Tatsuhiro Yokoyama
vSP.23
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EGU23-4027
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Virtual presentation
Thomas Harris

Tektites are a naturally occurring form of cosmic impact ejecta, produced in ~ 2 or 3% of impact events from melted and mixed silicate sediments that are launched into space where they devolatilize and quench to solid glass.  Australasian tektites (AAT) make up the largest and most recent of the known tektite strewnfields, covering ~1/4 of Earth’s surface with 30 to 60 billion tons of melt glass.  In southeast Asia, the Indochinite sub-family of these glassy objects appear mainly as fractured and sometimes contorted fragments of formerly hollow spheroid predecessors.  Surface textures, bulk and detailed morphometrics of Indochinite fragment-form tektites record a tortured history that is not consistent with mere hypersonic atmospheric reentry into a standard atmospheric column.  The tektites show rapid bulk reheating and surface effects consistent with high-voltage arcing disruption.  The overall region where these fragment-form tektites fell has a surface that was laterized within hours of their arrival, pulsed with heat and moisture to the point of degrading the rocks and soil the tektites lie within.  Clear ablation signatures on symmetric ablated spheroid AAT of Australia and the Central Indian Ocean basin indicate their source as the N. American Great Lakes region.  The Marine Isotope Stage MIS20 epoch (deep ice age) of the event and Michigan Basin geology suggest several thousand cubic km of disrupted Laurentide Ice Sheet may have been injected across the exosphere via oblique ricochet impact, lingering as degenerate byproducts for a day or more.  High-potential E-field and regional disruption of the atmospheric column from exosphere to surface over southeast Asia is indicated.

How to cite: Harris, T.: Impact ejecta glass records atmospheric columnar disruption and strong E-field, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-4027, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-4027, 2023.

vSP.24
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EGU23-16759
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Sovit Khadka, Cesar Valladares, and Andrew Gerrard

A gigantic submarine volcano erupted near Tonga Island on 15 January 2022 generating a tsunami and related atmospheric and oceanic waves across the globe. This violent volcano triggered extreme disturbances just above the volcanic center that reached near Earth’s stratosphere. This geophysical event generated acoustic-gravity waves to propagate upward and induce significant global perturbations and holes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) regions. Here, we study the MLT region’s response to the Tonga-induced perturbations using ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)-total electron content (TEC) data from GPS receivers spread in the South American continent. The possible propagation mechanism of the Tonga-related ionospheric holes and perturbations mediated by neutral wind-driven dynamo fields, vertical drifts, and the contribution of geomagnetic conditions will also be discussed. 

How to cite: Khadka, S., Valladares, C., and Gerrard, A.: Ionospheric Hole in the MLT Regions after Submarine Volcanic Eruptions, EGU General Assembly 2023, Vienna, Austria, 23–28 Apr 2023, EGU23-16759, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-16759, 2023.