EGU24-18627, updated on 11 Mar 2024
EGU General Assembly 2024
© Author(s) 2024. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Prediction of sill fjord basin water renewals and oxygen levels

João Bettencourt1,2
João Bettencourt
  • 1University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen, Norway (
  • 2Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway

The water in the basin of sill fjords is renewed occasionally. In some fjords, this renewal occurs irregularly while in others it has a more regular character. Independently of the renewal period, the renewal mechanism is thought to be common to all sill fjords: subsurface water outside of the fjord mouth lifted above the sill depth will trigger a renewal, provided that the lifted water mass is denser than the water in the basin. In Western Norway, the northerly, upwelling favorable winds that occur during Spring/Summer, provide a forcing for the uplifting of the isopycnals and bring dense, subsurface water to the upper water column, thereby creating the conditions for renewals to occur. The renewal of sill fjord basins is an important aspect of the fjord ecological condition because it supplies oxygen rich water to the fjord basin, whose oxygen is consumed by the degradation of organic matter during the stagnant periods. Byfjorden is the urban fjord in Bergen, Norway. It is heavily urbanized and has been consistently showing lower oxygen levels in its basin, which has ecological implications.

Byfjorden’s basin water is regularly renewed between the months of March and August and a strong link to coastal and atmospheric variability is well known, which makes it an attractive choice for the application of Deep Learning to predict basin water renewal in sill fjords, in the context of the atmospheric and hydrographic setting of the Norwegian coast.

In this work, the prediction of deep water renewal in Byfjorden and the basin’s oxygen levels is investigated with deep learning techniques. After a statistical study of oxygen variability correlation with wind forcing along the Norwegian coast, we develop and test a model to predict renewals and fill gaps in Byfjorden’s oxygenatio record.

How to cite: Bettencourt, J.: Prediction of sill fjord basin water renewals and oxygen levels, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18627,, 2024.