EGU24-4657, updated on 08 Mar 2024
EGU General Assembly 2024
© Author(s) 2024. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Wave velocities as a proxy to forecast deformation during cyclic loading-unloading in porous reservoir rocks

Debanjan Chandra, Barbara Perez Salgado, and Auke Barnhoorn
Debanjan Chandra et al.
  • Geoscience and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands (

Porous reservoir rocks like sandstones have gained utmost important in the last decade as a potential sink for CO2. Most of the targeted reservoirs are depleted oil and gas fields, which has caprocks to ensure the containment of the injected CO2. Injecting CO2 into porous reservoirs increase the pore pressure, which therefore reduces the effective horizontal and vertical stresses. Depending on the pre-injection stress-condition and permeability of the reservoir, utmost care should be taken to define the upper limit of CO2 injection pressure, in order to prevent any permanent damage to the reservoir which can lead to leakage or induced seismicity. Lab-scale experiments provide key insights to the deformation behavior of reservoir rocks under different stress-conditions, which can be upscaled to understand reservoir scale processes. To simulate the stress perturbation caused by CO2 injection operations, we have subjected porous reservoir rocks (coreplugs) collected from different depths of offshore North Sea under cyclic axial loading and unloading with a confining pressure increment from 10-50 MPa between each cycle. The P and S wave velocities along the axial direction of the coreplugs were recorded in every 10 s to assess the change in wave properties during deformation. It was observed that during each loading cycle, wave velocities are highest at the elastic-plastic transition zone, which can be attributed to the compression of pores and closure of microcracks perpendicular to the loading direction. The wave velocities decrease sharply after the onset of plastic deformation, which can be attributed to the formation of microcracks in the coreplug due to increasing load. The static and dynamic Young’s modulus (E) of the coreplugs during each cycle of increasing confinement show linear increase. Plugs with lower porosity shows higher E with steeper increment at higher confining pressure. The correlation between the wave properties and mechanical response of the reservoir rocks under cyclic loading reveal that constant monitoring of wave velocities during CO2 injection can act as an efficient tool for monitoring stress-state of the reservoir, facilitating safer CO2 storage operations.

How to cite: Chandra, D., Salgado, B. P., and Barnhoorn, A.: Wave velocities as a proxy to forecast deformation during cyclic loading-unloading in porous reservoir rocks, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4657,, 2024.