ITS2.9/CL0.1.10 | Flood trends in cultural riverine landscapes: space-time dynamics, patterns, controls, and attribution
Flood trends in cultural riverine landscapes: space-time dynamics, patterns, controls, and attribution
Co-organized by HS12
Convener: Lothar Schulte | Co-conveners: Dominik Paprotny, Thomas Roggenkamp, Daniela Kroehling, Juan Antonio Ballesteros-Canovas, Miriam Bertola, Larisa Tarasova
| Tue, 16 Apr, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)
Room 2.24
Posters on site
| Attendance Tue, 16 Apr, 10:45–12:30 (CEST) | Display Tue, 16 Apr, 08:30–12:30
Hall X5
Posters virtual
| Attendance Tue, 16 Apr, 14:00–15:45 (CEST) | Display Tue, 16 Apr, 08:30–18:00
vHall X5
Orals |
Tue, 16:15
Tue, 10:45
Tue, 14:00
Climate change may regionally intensify the threat posed by future floods to societies. The space-time dynamics of floods are controlled by atmospheric, catchment, riverine and anthropogenic processes, and their interactions. From a global change perspective, Holocene and historical floods and their spatial and temporal patterns are of particular interest because they can be linked to former climate patterns, a proxy for future climate predictions. Millennial and centennial time series include the very rare extreme events, which are often considered by society as 'unprecedented'. By understanding their timing, magnitude and frequency in conjunction with prevailing climate regimes and human activities, we can overcome our lack of information and disentangle the so-called “unknown unknowns”. The reconstruction and modelling of space-time flood patterns, related atmospheric variability and flood propagation in river basins under different environmental settings are the foci of this session supported by the PAGES Floods Working Group. Flood-prone areas are, in many regions, hotspots of economic, social, and cultural development. Hence, the historical role of human action in altering flood frequencies, hydro-sedimentary, and environmental processes is a priority topic. The session will further stimulate scientific discussion on detection and attribution of flood risk change.
We welcome interdisciplinary contributions using natural and documentary archives, instrumental data, and model reconstructions, which:
i) provide knowledge from short-term to long-term development of cultural river-landscapes and human-environmental interaction,
ii) reconstruct and model temporal and spatial flood patterns related to climate variability and change, including long-term changes in rainfall patterns,
iii) analyse the role of catchment conditions in shaping flood patterns,
iv) develop (supra-) regional historical maps of extreme floods (MEF),
v) highlight historical risk mitigation strategies of local communities and assess the flood risk of cultural heritage sites,
vi) collect evidence of the Anthropocene in floodplains and wetlands,
vii) detect changes in flood exposure and vulnerability.
The interdisciplinary integration of information is critical for the provision of robust data sets and baseline information for future flood risk scenarios, impacts, adaptation and mitigation strategies, and integrated river management.

Session assets

Orals: Tue, 16 Apr | Room 2.24

Chairpersons: Lothar Schulte, Larisa Tarasova, Daniela Kroehling
Flood trends in cultural riverine landscapes (Session sponsored by the PAGES Floods WG)
On-site presentation
Libor Elleder, Tomáš Kabelka, and Jolana Šírová

Our contribution presents an example of archiving of an invaluable collection of flood marks. With respect to the height of the object carrying these flood marks exceeding 12 metres it is not possible to explore all flood marks in detail in situ. 3D scan, however, offers an excellent possibility how to solve this task. We have analysed the Děčín Castle Rock (further DCR) flood marks in context of their importance, history, recent scanning, reliability check and utilization.  The DCR ranks amongst the most important epigraphic hydrological objects in Europe. Three major reasons for that can be listed as follows: (i) the Děčín town geographical position represents the outflow of the whole Bohemia concentrating the water volume from the upper part of the Elbe river catchment, (ii) the presence of ancient flood marks (the oldest one representing the 1432 flood event) engraved in the sandstone Castle Rock, (iii) the striking relation between the DCR flood marks and the Děčín Hungerstone drought marks situated in its close vicinity  (only some 200 metres apart). It is not the number of flood marks but joint placement of both the flood and drought (low) marks which makes Děčín truly a unique place in European context. The whole flood and drought mark system served as a tool for ancient safe navigation for boats and rafts, and later ships and steamers. We place all these Děčín flood and drought marks in context of other important records in Prague, Litoměřice, and German Pirna, Dresden and Meissen. Furthermore, the oldest water level gauge – estimated to be at least 200 years old - is situated in the same place allowing for direct and easy reading of flood mark heights. Altogether, the Hungerstone drought marks and  DCR flood marks with the old water level  gauge in the Czech town of Děčín  represent an unparalleled complementary system of centennial information for extremely  low and extremely high water levels. Our Map of Extreme Floods (MEF, 2024) application currently offers selected floods the culmination water levels of which are engraved on the DCR, such as July 1432, August 1501, February 1595, February 1682, August 2002 and June 2013, the other will be available sooner (1824, 1890) or later (1771, 1784, 1799, 1830, 1845 and 1862).



MEF, 2024.  Available at:


How to cite: Elleder, L., Kabelka, T., and Šírová, J.: The unique 1432–2013 flood marks from the Děčín Castle Rock, Czech Republic, are scanned in 3D and utilized, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-5195,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Andrea Kiss

Written mainly in German and partly in Latin, the chamberlain accounts of historical Pozsony/Pressburg (present-day Bratislava), almost continuously available between 1434 and 1595 and 1595, contain daily/weekly resolution data on Danube floods, low flows, ice cover and various weather phenomena. Analysed and presented for the first time, the 176 volumes of the accounts provide systematic, annual accounts of incomes and expenses, with only occasional gaps: flood- and weather-related reports are mainly included in the bridge masters’, the ferrymen’s, the ice-cutters’, the town messengers’, and the road and wall maintenance accounts. Furthermore, water-level related information occasionally was also identified in other sections of the accounts, regarding smaller bridges, river transportation, fishing, meadows and hayfields, woods, and other utilities of the nearby island area. With applying additional information available in the broader Bratislava area and the Carpathian Basin in other contemporary sources such as charters, letters, diaries and other narratives, it is possible to provide unusually high resolution, (quasi-)systematic three-scaled index-based quantitative reconstructions of the frequency, intensity, types (incl. ice-jam floods) and seasonality of Danube floods, and occasionally also of low water-levels.

The greatest floods usually occurred during flood-rich periods; unique great (ice-jam) floods outside of the flood-rich decades happened, for example, in 1454 and 1458. Flood-rich periods were identified during the 1430s-1440s, around the 1480s-1510s and in the mid- and late 16th century – while the first anomaly was also a period of a more frequent water-level variability including memorable low flows, the latter three periods coincide with major European flood-rich periods identified in the last 500 years (see Blöschl et al. 2020). As floods in Bratislava mainly reflect on the hydroclimatic conditions of the Upper-Danube and partly those of the Middle-Danube area, the dataset also provides exceptionally valuable, systematic information to the analysis of 15th-16th century (covering the famous, long Spörer solar minimum) climate variability in Central Europe. Furthermore, major groups of contemporary flood response, prevention and mitigation methods, especially detectable during flood-rich and low-flow periods, are also presented and analysed in the paper in comparison with the available other Middle-Danube (documentary and archaeological data based) evidence, in a broader Danube and Central European context.

How to cite: Kiss, A.: Danube floods, low flows and flood resilience at Bratislava in 1435-1595:Analysis of daily/weekly resolution flood-related evidence in a European context, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-18900,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Michael Kahle and Rüdiger Glaser

Based on monthly resolved temperature and precipitation indices for Central Europe since 1500, which are derived from the virtual research environment, statistical methods are presented to use the drought and moisture indices derived from tree ring data such as the scPDSI by Cook et al. (2015), long historical indexed flood series (Bloeschl et al (2020) as well as local and regional wine quality series to improve and refine periods of high and low water levels. Additionally, it will be demonstrated, how this approach can be used to interpolate climate parameters not only temporally but also spatially.

Therefore Bayesian methods are used to mutually verify and derive existing indices that are available on different scales. Furthermore, the references of indices to text quotes are mapped automatically. This not only makes the direct weather, weather and climate descriptions accessible, but also their immediate causes as well as the consequences and effects on the environment and societies. Overall, with this approach, new text quotes can be automatically analysed and integrated into the data pool. This also creates a bridge between historical and recent data and information.

How to cite: Kahle, M. and Glaser, R.: Statistical approaches to the integration of multi-proxy data for the reconstruction of high and low water episodes in Central Europe of the last millennium, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20506,, 2024.

Virtual presentation
Recurring flooding of the World Heritage site of Jenne since 1945 in the Republic of Mali, West Africa 
(withdrawn after no-show)
N'dji dit Jacques Dembele
On-site presentation
Pablo Augusto Cello, Daniela M. Kröhling, Ernesto Brunetto, María Cecilia Zalazar, Reinaldo García, Mauro Nalesso, Jacinto Artigas, and José Rafaél Córdova

This work aims at deepening the knowledge of the mechanisms that govern the response of small temporary non-floodplain wetlands (NFWs) of neotectonic origin in the North Pampa under wet conditions. The study focuses on the Vila-Cululú upstream sub-basin (973 km2), a tributary of the Salado River belonging to the Paraná River basin. The Pampa Plain has been affected by more frequent high-intensity rainfall events during the last five decades giving rise to a steady increase in the water table and a decrease in soil infiltration, leading to flood events that impact both rural and urban environments. Under wet conditions, a flat landscape alters the surface runoff and favors the development of temporary NFWs, increasing flood vulnerability and jeopardizing human activities. Structural depressions with polygonal patterns and a network of Late Pleistocene (ca. 100 ka. BP) parallel ENE-trending fluvial palaeochannels characterize the study area. These palaeochannels were deactivated by neotectonics and covered by loess, Last Glacial Maximum in age. In some sectors, the palaeochannels intercept the small tectonic depressions and significantly restrict the present drainage network (low-order streams and artificial channels).  The research involved an integrated approach, including geomorphic and morphometric analyses based on remotely sensed satellite imagery in a GIS platform and fieldworks, and 2D hydrologic-hydraulic simulations using HydroBID Flood ( to capture the system behavior for an extraordinary rainfall event (December 2016-March 2017). Simulation results show that the model represents hydrodynamics fairly well. The flooded areas were comparable to those obtained from the analysis of satellite images. The dendritic runoff pattern towards the tectonic depressions, the water storage evolution, and the hydraulic connectivity were numerically replicated. In particular, the Vila-Cululú sub-basin points out a significant delay in the hydraulic response downstream since the system must first satisfy groundwater and surface water storage. Once storage capacity is exceeded, the hydraulic behavior results in a dynamic process that involves the spilling and merging of ponds generated in small deflation hollows, generally nested within fluvial palaeochannels. Such a hierarchical structure controls surface runoff towards the shallow tectonic depressions. This mechanism gives rise to the development of NFWs as simulation time evolves. Besides, the surface runoff flow pattern also highlights the poor capacity of both natural and artificial drainage networks, displaying highly lateral mobility and scarce connectivity downstream. However, these NFWs eventually might connect to a more hierarchical drainage network downstream at the final stage of the storm event. The dense network of artificial channels started to develop in the 1940s to evacuate water excess to the outlet. Despite the anthropic interventions, geomorphologic thresholds finally control hydrodynamics adding to surface water storage and limiting channel conveyance. This work is one of the first studies in North Pampa that combines hydrological and geomorphological data to explain the present hydrodynamics. These could be applied to palaeoflood hydrology. Identifying critical geomorphological thresholds adds to the knowledge of different levels of hydrologic connectivity, providing a better assessment of flood hazards on large plains.

How to cite: Cello, P. A., Kröhling, D. M., Brunetto, E., Zalazar, M. C., García, R., Nalesso, M., Artigas, J., and Córdova, J. R.: Spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological processes on non-floodplain wetlands in an upstream basin of Pampa Plain (Argentina) during present wet conditions , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-365,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Filipe Carvalho, Lothar Schulte, Carlos Sánchez-García, Antonio Gómez-Bolea, and Juan Carlos Peña

Flash floods in Mediterranean catchments are a significant threat. Over the last decades, research in this area has normally focus on recent events, largely due to the absence of long-range instrumental data. However, alternative sources like historical records and natural archives can offer valuable insights and improve our knowledge of past events. In this study, we conduct a reconstruction of major flash flood events over the past century that have impacted several catchments in the South-Eastern Spain, specifically in the Almanzora, Antas and Aguas catchments.

Our study adopts a multidisciplinary approach for the reconstruction of flash floods. We integrate a variety of instrumental gauge data, historic water level indicators on buildings and bridges, and descriptions of inundated areas and flood heights from historical documents. Additionally, we incorporate biomarkers indicative of flood levels, identified through lichenometric analysis of rock surfaces affected by water flow. This combination of diverse proxy records enables us to estimate the peak flow heights at several crucial locations within the study area. For the reconstruction of the maximum flood discharge, we perform a one-dimensional hydrological model across all study sites and in select smaller areas requiring a detailed understanding of the hydraulic behavior, we apply two-dimensional models.

The findings of this study reveal that, despite the region's characteristic low annual precipitation (less than 300 mm), it is occasionally subjected to extreme rainfall events leading to significantly high peak discharges. Typically, these meteorological episodes are associated with atmospheric circulation patterns involving blocking systems along the Mediterranean coast. Hydraulic modeling has identified peak discharges exceeding 5000 m3 s-1 during a major flash flood event in October 1973. This event stands as the most devastating in the past century, resulting in loss of human lives and extensive damage to numerous settlements in all the studied catchments. While other notable flash flood events occurred in 1924 and 2012, they were of lesser magnitude compared to the 1973 flood. Post the 1973 disaster, various hydraulic modifications to the river system were implemented. These included for instance a channelization of significant portions of the Almanzora's main channel and some tributaries, as well as the construction of a large dam. These interventions have contributed to a reduced flood risk in certain areas of the catchment, particularly in the lower sections near the Mediterranean Sea outlet. Nevertheless, recent land use changes such as extensive agriculture and tourism could contribute to changes in flow regime and increased flood vulnerability.

How to cite: Carvalho, F., Schulte, L., Sánchez-García, C., Gómez-Bolea, A., and Peña, J. C.: Reconstructing historical flash flood events in South-Eastern Spain: An integrated approach with multiproxy records and hydrological modeling, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21845,, 2024.

Space-time dynamics of flood risk
On-site presentation
Ralf Merz, Gustavo Andrei Speckhann, Viet Dung Nguyen, and Bruno Merz

Flood retention basins constitute a pivotal component of flood protection measures. Local studies have unequivocally demonstrated their efficacy in significantly mitigating flood discharges, thereby minimizing potential downstream damage. However, the impact of these retention basins on the reduction of flood discharges at the large river basin scale remains ambiguous.

This study delves into the assessment of the influence wielded by reservoirs and dams on the reduction of flood discharges within the Rhine basin. Employing a spatially distributed version of the HBV model and Nash-cascade routing, daily discharges from 912 sub-catchments spanning the period 1951-2020 were simulated. The modeling approach comprehensively incorporates the influence of 192 reservoirs in the Rhine catchment on daily runoff volumes. Calibration at 200 gauging stations, facilitates a regional parameterization of the model, based on the PASS method.

Through various scenarios, the study explores how large-scale flood discharges would evolve in the absence of reserves for flood protection or if there were alterations to the storage capacity and function of individual reservoirs. Beyond merely assessing the reduction of runoff peaks, the research scrutinizes alterations in the duration of individual flood events and their spatial expansion, taking into account the intricate network of the 192 reservoirs.

In essence, this study not only contributes to the ongoing discourse on the efficacy of flood retention basins but also sheds light on the nuanced dynamics of reservoirs and dams in shaping the hydrological landscape of the Rhine basin. The findings provide valuable insights for optimizing flood protection strategies, encompassing considerations of storage capacities, operational functions, and the broader spatial and temporal dimensions of flood events.

How to cite: Merz, R., Speckhann, G. A., Nguyen, V. D., and Merz, B.: Can reservoirs and dams effectively reduce flood runoff in river basins? A case study of the Rhine basin, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17145,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Gregor Laaha, Johannes Laimighofer, Nur Banu Özcelik, and Juray Parajka

Flood trends are commonly assessed based on instantaneous peak flows on an hourly timescale, as these are most relevant for flood management. However, when hourly data are missing, it has been suggested to perform flood statistics on daily flood values instead, assuming a scaling relationship that depends on the shape of the flood hydrograph and applies over the entire observation period (e.g. Bartens & Haberlandt, 2021).

In an Austria-wide assessment, recent flood trends show diverging spatial patterns that contradict such a stationarity assumption. Interestingly, an aggravation of the flood situation is mainly observed for the peak flow (IPF), while the high values of the mean daily discharge (MDF) show much smaller and, importantly, less significant trends.

Rather than applying flood statistics corrections (e.g. Beylich et al. 2021), the aim of this contribution is to use flood divergence at different timescales as a mean of inferring likely drivers of flood trends. To this end, we combine several established and innovative indicators, such as a trend divergence index (peak versus daily flood scale), a seasonal trend index (to infer information about flood generation processes), and a seasonal shift index (to infer changes in the relevance of these processes). We show the extent to which these indices can inform us about likely drivers of change, i.e. climate-related vs. anthropogenic changes in the catchment. We discuss how these indicators perform in the light of existing flood scale indices, such as the flood timescale (Gaál et al., 2012) and the peak-volume ratio (Bartens & Haberlandt, 2021). The results suggest that the conflicting space-time patterns contain a wealth of information that is highly informative about changes in flood controls under global change.


Bartens, A. and Haberlandt, U.: Flood frequency analysis using mean daily flows vs. instantaneous peak flows, HESS Discussions,, 2021.

Beylich, M., Haberlandt, U., and Reinstorf, F.: Daily vs. hourly simulation for estimating future flood peaks in mesoscale catchments, Hydrology Research, 52, 821–833,, 2021.

Gaál, L., Szolgay, J., Kohnová, S., Parajka, J., Merz, R., Viglione, A., and Blöschl, G.: Flood timescales: Understanding the interplay of climate and catchment processes through comparative hydrology, Water Resources Research, 48, W04511,, 2012.

How to cite: Laaha, G., Laimighofer, J., Özcelik, N. B., and Parajka, J.: What contradictory signals in flood trends can tell us about drivers of hydrological change, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-19865,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Wouter Berghuijs, Louise Slater, Ross Woods, and Markus Hrachowitz

Fluvial floods are typically the result of large precipitation or snowmelt events, often conditioned by high pre-event soil moisture levels. However, soil moisture represents only a small fraction of the water stored in landscapes. Groundwater, often a much larger water store, may also contribute a significant proportion of river flow but its role in large-scale flood assessments often remains understudied. Here I discuss how (ground)water storage conditions can shape multi-year variability and long-term trends of river flow and flooding across thousands of catchments worldwide. Since often relatively slow groundwater dynamics can affect the much faster and more erratic flood responses, incorporating groundwater may be important to accurately model and analyze these hydrological extremes.

How to cite: Berghuijs, W., Slater, L., Woods, R., and Hrachowitz, M.: Groundwater effects on flood dynamics , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-3989,, 2024.

On-site presentation
Takahiro Sayama, Jiachao Chen, Yoshito Sugawara, and Masafumi Yamada

Floods pose significant threats, particularly in the context of climate change. This research focuses on a comprehensive analysis of river flooding nationwide in Japan. We utilize the latest dynamic downscaling data, d4PDF-5km, for the entire country, feeding this information into the Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation (RRI) model with a spatial resolution of 150 meters. The objective is to efficiently estimate the probability discharge of all rivers by developing a new method for extracting rainfall events from long-term ensemble data.

 The proposed method involves extracting heavy rainfall events from 720 years (12 ensembles of 60-year records) of downscaled data for each present, 2K and 4K scenarios and inputting them into the RRI model. This approach allows for the estimation of quantiles by analyzing peak flow as non-annual data with the peak-over-threshold method. When applied to the Shikoku region, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, with the ability to estimate probability flows exhibiting a bias of 10% or less compared to a comprehensive calculation of all rainfall events.

 Furthermore, the research identifies variations in the increase of peak flow under climate change, particularly emphasizing differences between the main river and its tributaries. Notably, smaller rivers in the upper reaches are more significantly influenced by changes in rainfall patterns than the lower reaches of the main river.

 The implications of this research extend beyond hydrologic science. The estimated probability flows and corresponding hydrographs serve as crucial boundary conditions for assessing local flood risk. This information is fundamental for informed river management by governments and local authorities. Additionally, private companies, residents, and other stakeholders can utilize this data for robust risk assessments. In conclusion, our research provides valuable insights and a practical methodology for understanding and mitigating flood risks in Japan, taking into account the complexities introduced by climate change.

How to cite: Sayama, T., Chen, J., Sugawara, Y., and Yamada, M.: Nationwide flood risk assessment using large ensemble climate change dataset and the Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation model, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-20773,, 2024.

Posters on site: Tue, 16 Apr, 10:45–12:30 | Hall X5

Display time: Tue, 16 Apr 08:30–Tue, 16 Apr 12:30
Chairpersons: Daniela Kroehling, Dominik Paprotny, Thomas Roggenkamp
Flood trends in cultural riverine landscapes (Poster session sponsored by the PAGES Floods WG)
Hydrological changes in the central part of the Volga River Delta during the VII-X centuries
(withdrawn after no-show)
Ekaterina Matlakhova, Radik Makshaev, Alina Tkach, Daria Lobacheva, Sergei Kotenkov, and Damir Soloviev
Ziying Guo, Xiaogang Shi, and Qunshan Zhao

In the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), flooding is the most frequent natural disaster with enormous socio-economic damages. As a critical component in the hydrological cycle, the wetlands along the YRB have been changing during recent decades because of urbanization, intensive farming (e.g., aquaculture and agriculture) and climate change. Due to the lack of a long-term wetland classification dataset with comprehensive wetland categories, however, there’s a noticeable gap in the YRB water management regarding the relative roles of different wetland categories on flood resilience. Therefore, this study aimed to generate a long-term wetland classification dataset for the YRB and further investigate the long-term wetland variations on the YRB flood risk assessments for the period from 1985 to 2021. The dataset named Long-Term Wetland Classification Dataset for YRB (LTWCD_YRB) was created using a Random Forest machine learning classifier on Google Earth Engine with 30m resolution Landsat 5, 7, 8 muti-spectral images. The maps of LTWCD_YRB demonstrated the spatial distribution, annual variability, and seasonal cycle of nine wetland categories in the extent, and the total validation accuracy can reach 85%. The LTWCD_YRB indicated that the total wetland area of the YRB in 2021 was larger than that in 1985, with constantly increased human-made wetlands and fluctuated natural wetlands. Aquaculture ponds expanded the most (4,987 km2); inland marsh in the source region was the wetland category with the most fluctuations. Seasonal changes in wetlands were prominent in the Poyang Lake Basin, Dongting Lake Basin, and YRB source region. The LTWCD_YRB can offer a consistent agreement of wetland area variations with the other satellite-based wetland datasets in the YRB, which is valuable for researchers and stakeholders to better understand the YRB wetlands and would support sustainable wetland management practices. With the LTWCD_YRB data as modelling inputs, a GIS-based spatial multi-index flooding risk assessment model was applied for investigating the long-term implications of wetland variations on flood risks in the YRB. The model results indicate that in the year with large floods and extremely high precipitation, flood risk level increased obviously after adding the wetland factor. For the years with normal precipitation, flood risk level decreased with wetlands expansion and increased with wetlands shrinkage in the YRB. The long-term expansion of aquaculture ponds contributed to a lower flood risk in the Taihu Lake Basin. In contrast, the Poyang Lake Basin experienced an increasing flood risk due to the long-term shrinkage in lake areas resulting from soil erosion and urbanization along the lakeside. This study would be helpful for stakeholders to develop feasible wetland management practices, and to improve flood risk resilience in the YRB.

How to cite: Guo, Z., Shi, X., and Zhao, Q.: Effects of Long-Term Wetland Variations on Flood Risks in the Yangtze River Basin , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4382,, 2024.

Assessments of changes of extreme climate events along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal
(withdrawn after no-show)
Rui Jiang and Zhe Liu
Josep Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep Barriendos, Mariano Barriendos, Jordi Tuset, and David Pino

The reconstruction of past flood episodes is of vital importance in the study of river dynamics for assessing the impact of climatic and environmental changes, and evaluating the risk of these disasters on current populations. The main objective of this study is to present a multidisciplinary analysis of the catastrophic flood episode that occurred in the Ebro River basin (85,000 km2) on 8th-9th October 1787.

The methodology includes an extensive research from documentary sources of the damaged locations. By using this data, maps of the extent of the affected area and the temporal evolution of the event have been reconstructed. Then, utilizing the maximum water height (3 flood marks), numerical simulations of hydraulic and hydrological reconstructions have been carried out to obtain the peak flows and the amount of precipitation. The meteorological reconstruction utilizes daily barometric information collected at that time from different observatories in Western Europe to plot surface pressure maps to estimate wind direction and the location of the cyclonic centers.

The results show that this is the most serious episode that has occurred in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula the last 500 years. There were more than 500 fatalities in the Lower Ebro area, numerous homes and structures were destroyed and the regional economy was damaged for several decades. The affected area was mainly the eastern Ebro basin (with 31 documented points), but it also extended to small areas of coastal basins of the Llobregat and Júcar Rivers (9 affected points). After about 10-12 consecutive days of rain caused by two active low-pressure centers combined with an influx of moist air from the Mediterranean Sea, some of the largest peak flows that the Ebro River has experienced since the beginning of the 16th century occurred. These flows reach to 12,900 m3·s-1 of the Ebro River in Tortosa (mean flow: 428 m3·s-1), 4,500 m3·s-1 of the Ebro in Zaragoza (mean flow: 231 m3·s-1), 4,500 m3·s-1 of the Segre River in Lleida (mean flow: 80 m3·s-1) and about 2,500 m3·s-1 of the Cinca River in Fraga (mean flow: 78 m3·s-1). According to historical accounts, the origin of the flood is purely pluvial without contributions of snow melting in the Pyrenees.

The specific peak flow of the Ebro in Tortosa (0.15 m3·s-1·km-2) exceed the flows of any large European river of the same basin size (Po, Danube, Rhine, Rhône). Therefore, we are facing an event of extreme magnitude that is essential to study and to explain fluvial variability and risk analysis.

How to cite: Balasch Solanes, J. C., Barriendos, J., Barriendos, M., Tuset, J., and Pino, D.: The October 1787 Ebro flood: the biggest flood event of NE Iberian Peninsula in the last 500 years, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-11746,, 2024.

Chris Hunt, Hwedi El-Rishi, David Brown, and Jon Dick

Storm Daniel caused major flooding throughout much of the Jebel al-Akhdar massif in Northeast Libya, leading to huge damage and loss of life in the city of Derna and widespread damage to infrastructure through the region in September 2023. There is little historical record of significant floods in the region. We conducted dendrogeomorphological and palaeohydrological research in the wadis Kouf and Bottamsa in the Jebel al-Akhdar. Radiocarbon- and tree-ring dated flood return and flood magnitude sequences suggest three major floods during the 17th to 19th centuries AD in the Wadi Kouf and one major flood during the 18th Century in the Wadi Bottamsa, with major flood return intervals of about one per 100 years. The timing of the major floods in these two catchments seem to be different, suggesting the storms that caused them were localised. The major floods in the Wadi Kouf would have been large enough to have caused considerable damage to modern infrastructure, which seems to have been designed to cope with the much smaller floods of the mid-20th Century. Storm Daniel, however, was the product of a much larger weather system than the storms that gave rise to the earlier floods and it caused the largest floods in these wadis in the last 400 years.

How to cite: Hunt, C., El-Rishi, H., Brown, D., and Dick, J.: Storm Daniel and the timing and magnitude of floods in Northeast Libya, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-13047,, 2024.

Joaquim Farguell, Filipe Ferreira, Mariano Moreno, Carles Barriocanal, and Lothar Schulte

Fluvial ecosystems are among the environments most significantly modified by human activities. Channelization, levee construction, floodplain disconnection from the riverbed, alteration of the fluvial regime and ecosystem, interruption of the sediment dynamics and alteration or destruction of the shape and morphology of the riverbed, are among the main effects of such interventions. Restoring or rehabilitating fluvial environments, including hydrological and geomorphological processes, is currently being undertaken in many river systems of the world given the benefits that these environments provide to mankind. However, depending on the magnitude of the human interventions and their impacts on the river system, reaching a restoration stage before human intervention cannot be fully achieved. In this context, the Congost River is a representative example of the evolution of the morphology of a river channel in the metropolitan area of Barcelona during the 20th and 21st century. The river flows through Granollers, a city of 60,000 inhabitants exposed to flood risk. During the 70s and 80’s the Congost river was channelized, narrowed and disconnected from its floodplain to promote urban and industrial growth.  The river channel was then fixed to avoid lateral migration by constructing sleepers (transversal structures), and fluvial landforms such as secondary channels and gravel bars were intentionally removed from the riverbed to create a drainage channel. However, to recover green riverine areas, sleepers in the peri-urban area of Granollers were demolished, whereas in the urban core area sleepers were conserved.

Analysis of aerial images of 1945, 1956, 1986, 1998, 2009 and 2022 shows the following transformation: the natural braided channel, adapted to slope, flood frequency and sediment load changed after the human intervention to a restrained channel. The result of the restored river stretches showed higher hydro-morphological characteristics than the urban section, but they are still far from the expected outcomes of a fully successful restoration of a braided river. Yet, the channel morphology improves natural river processes. At this point, however, it is not known how the riverbed will evolve in terms of incision or avulsion, and whether further river management measures will be necessary to implement. Monitoring of channel evolution is required to fully understand the human impacts on partially restored urban fluvial systems through time. 

How to cite: Farguell, J., Ferreira, F., Moreno, M., Barriocanal, C., and Schulte, L.: Human-induced alterations to the morphology of an urban Mediterranean watercourse from 1945 to 2022: transitioning from its natural state to phases of correction and restoration. , EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-16354,, 2024.

Alexander Schulte, Lothar Schulte, Juan Carlos Peña, Ian C. Fuller, Filipe Carvalho, and Sebastian Schulte

In the Northern Hemisphere, the PAGES Floods Working Group database documents 345 paleoflood studies, while in the humid temperate zones of the Southern Hemisphere, studies are limited due to differences in i) continent and ocean distribution, ii) population density, iii) settlement history, and iv) documentary sources. Assessing Southern Hemisphere flood trends becomes a significant goal in the context of Global Change. Our study focuses on spatial-temporal reconstruction and climatic characterization of floods in New Zealand's southern regions (43° – 47°S) from 1862 to 2020 CE.

Due to limitations in generating continuous flood series from the number of flood fatalities or economic losses over the past 160 years, we opted to reconstruct regional indices of historical flood severity and spatial incidence. To accomplish this, we compiled three regional synthetic flood databases from the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research's catalogue of historical meteorological events. The flood severity matrix integrates various parameters, including numbers of fatalities, witness descriptions of peak flows, flooded areas, geomorphological impacts, losses of livestock, properties, and infrastructure, as well as information on evacuation and mitigation measures. We reanalyzed information from more than 8,000 data entries and reviewed 903 impact points to characterize a total of 295 floods. Additionally, the influence of climatic variability, as inferred from the Principal EOF of the Sea Level Pressure monthly anomalies, was reconstructed using data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project.

The three flood damage series, comprising 295 floods, reveal several synchronous flood pulses around the years 1878, 1905, 1913, 1957, 1968, 1978, 1999, and 2008 CE. However, other flood pulses are out of phase due to different physiographic settings, catchment size, location on the western (West Coast) or eastern slope of the Southern Alps (Otago and Southland), and exposure to oceans and paths of weather systems.

Notably, in the West Coast Region with very high relief and steep slopes, the most severe floods occurred in spring and summer. Seven out of ten flood pulses recorded from 1862 to 2020 correlate with positive Southern Annular Mode, higher sea surface temperatures (SST), blocking weather types in summer, and lows over the Tasman Sea, resulting in increased humid airflows from the north and northwest.

The larger Otago catchments, comprising humid alpine relief in the northwest, dry basins and ranges in the central area, and humid lowlands in the east, experienced the maximum number of severe floods during summer. Ten out of fourteen pulses occurred during the positive phase of the Southern Oscillation Index (La Niña), characterized by higher SST, blocking types in summer and autumn, and an increase in northeasterly winds.

In contrast, the landforms of Southland, featuring lower ridges, gentler slopes, and large floodplains, saw floods primarily in summer and autumn. Ten out of fourteen pulses in this region correlated with negative phases of the Southern Oscillation Index (El Niño), characterized by lower sea surface temperatures, more zonal flow, and troughs with stronger and more frequent winds from the west in summer and the south in winter.

How to cite: Schulte, A., Schulte, L., Peña, J. C., Fuller, I. C., Carvalho, F., and Schulte, S.: Decoding spatiotemporal pattern of flood episodes and climatic variability in western and eastern catchments of the Southern Alps, New Zealand., EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17170,, 2024.

Juan Antonio Ballesteros-Canovas, Tamir Grodek, Carlos Naharro, Josep Barriendos, Mariano Barriendos, Alicia Medialdea, Alberto Muñoz-Torrero, and Gerardo Benito

The Mediterranean region is expected to experience more extreme rainfall events due to climate change. These extreme weather events, together with the ever-increasing human occupation, could lead to an increase in the risk of flash floods. This situation could be worrying, as wildfires may occur during hotter and drier summers, which might increase the hydrological response. Adaptation and mitigation strategies need to be put in place at the level of water and civil protection authorities. However, this is challenging due to the widely recognised lack of data, the high variability of the Mediterranean hydroclimate, and previous shortcomings in the performance of climate-based models for the region. Here, we combine historical, geological and tree-ring data to provide a compressive multi-century reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude for the Clariano River, a medium-sized (265 km2) Mediterranean catchment in the Province of Alicante (Spain). A historical flood database was collected from published compilations, documentary sources, photographic archives and newspapers. The Municipal Archive at Ontinyent provided flood evidence since CE 1320 with a continuous flood record since 1500. Slackwater flood deposits were studied in ten stratigraphic profiles on three river reaches, and flood units were dated by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. Finally, thirty-five scarred trees growing on floodplains in three different river reaches were sampled to record the occurrence of recent floods. In three river reaches, 1D and 2D hydraulic models were implemented on high-resolution topographies to convert palaeostages and historical levels into flood discharge. The multi-source data compilation provides evidence of at least 47 major floods since the 13th Century. Apart from the flood caused by the dam break in 1689, the magnitude of the most recent floods caused by mesoscale convective cells in 2016 and 2019 were similar to or slightly below in magnitude to those experienced during the rich flood period (1850-1895) following the end of the Little Ice Age. This implies that the information on past extreme floods could be used as a scenario-based approach to quantify expectations of recent extreme floods under climate change scenarios. Furthermore, our records have allowed a more accurate estimation of flood frequency in Ontinyent city, which could be used to provide a more robust flood hazard zonation. Throughout this comprehensive study, we show that quantitative historical and palaeoflood hydrology allows the determination of past and recent flood magnitude response to climate variability, reducing the uncertainties in flood hazard and risk assessment in the Mediterranean region.

How to cite: Ballesteros-Canovas, J. A., Grodek, T., Naharro, C., Barriendos, J., Barriendos, M., Medialdea, A., Muñoz-Torrero, A., and Benito, G.: Contextualizing recent extreme floods in the Western Mediterranean region: insights from historical records and paleoflood hydrology, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-9242,, 2024.

Mei Ai, Liang Emlyn Yang, and Qiong Zhou

Existing research has provided evidence on how culture mediates disasters and exacerbates or mitigates their impact in various contexts but is often concentrated among popular cultural heritage or large scale culture phenomena. The significance of culture belonging to indigenous communities is less studied in mainstream climate change adaptation, despite its importance in helping build local social resilience to climate impacts. An Achang indigenous settlement located in the western part of China's Yunnan Province, where intense flash floods occurred frequently in its history, was used as a case study. The study aims to excavate the flood culture within the Achang community and examine how culture, particularly religion, blood-related organization, indigenous knowledge, and customary law have helped Achang communities for generations to build coping strategies to flood events. Data was gathered using participant observations in community activities, semi-structured interviews, more open thematic conversations, and document review in July 2023. Respondents included survivors for the storytelling, households for the semi-structured interview, and officers of the local authorities for the key informant interviews. The study found that the Achang community has a rich flood culture, which profoundly influences the behavior of the local people during flood events. First, the Achang people are culturally rooted in Buddhist tradition of nature worship and an equanimity view of living, forming an environmentally friendly community and providing a refuge for the spirit. Second, self-organization forms based on geography and kinship plays an important role in responding swiftly and maintaining long-term collaboration in times of flood. Thirdly, the Achang people's acquisition of ecological knowledge from nature has heightened their sensitivity to natural phenomena, enabling them to skillfully leverage their environment for home transformation and effective flood response. Finally, The Achang community is governed by a number of customary laws concerning flood prevention, which call on villagers to preserve forests, conserve soil and water, and contribute to post-disaster reconstruction for the common good. All of above provides an adaptable culture system from values-knowledge-institutions-practice with a strong ecological view and that is flexible enough to accommodate the adjustments needed to respond to changes. The relocation case in the Achang community illustrates that scientific disaster reduction decisions need to consider local flood culture to establish effective interventions in indigenous flood hotspots, further becoming the foundation for community resilience. As such, greater effort should be made by the State to full-scale investigations of these cultural, and the participation of indigenous flood culture in the planning and implementation of disaster risk reduction intervention.

How to cite: Ai, M., Yang, L. E., and Zhou, Q.: Culture system and social resilience to flood impacts - An investigation of Achang communities in Yunnan, China, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4720,, 2024.

Zsolt Kozma, Tamás Ács, Bence Decsi, Máté Krisztián Kardos, Dóra Hidy, Mátyás Árvai, Péter Kalicz, Zoltán Kern, and Zsolt Pinke

The alluvial character of the Great Hungarian Plain has long determined its land use. Human-environmental interactions and landscale patterns were characterised by adaptation to frequent floods and high water availability. Different socio-economical factors in the 18-19th centuries initiated major drainage works and river regulations. These works aimed to adjust hydrological conditions in the floodplains to meet the demands of a new land use approach. This focused on maximizing crop production as the dominant provisioning ecosystem service (ES) instead of the previous land use practice (e.g utilization a broader range of various ES by adaptition).

Over time, this new land use-water management strategy led to a trajectory of constrains: 1) Water demands of the agricultural landscape are restricted to a much narrower range than natural hydrological conditions, leading to damages during extremely dry or wet conditions; 2) Artificial drainage attempts to ensure this narrow range during wet periods in the protected former floodplain areas; 3) However, drainage increases water scarcity and drought damage during consecutive dry periods, which cannot be compensated by the irrigation system due to its limited capacity.

As a result of this outdated strategy and contemporary processes, Hungarian landscape management is facing a crisis. Climate and hydrological changes, the aging farmer community, agricultural sector profitability, alterations in the land use subsities, preferring greening and afforestation are among the leading factors of this crisis. These factors are likely to drive current land use conditions into a significantly altered riverine landscape scenario in the coming decades. Among the current environmental-economic-regulatory conditions, one of the most feasible alternative scenario focuses on water retention and the corresponding adaptive land use. However, the hydrological impacts of such alternative water management-land use on crop yield remain poorly understood.

We examined this by using hydrological simulations at a 272 km2 study site located next to the River Tisza. Here, the morphology of the heterogeneous terrain offers a remarkable semi-natural storage capacity as it encompasses a deep floodplain area.

We defined six different water governance-land use scenarios. First, three water management scenarios were defined and simulated: reference, excess water retention, and flood retention. Along these scenarios inland excess water (a specific type of flooding) hazard maps were used as an indicator for potentially reclaimable floodplains. Next, an alternative land use map was derived following the prevailing Hungarian landscape planning logic, considering factors such as present location and proportion of current agricultural croplands, grasslands, forests, settlement; soil conditions, water availability (agricultural suitability), and nature conservation status.

An integrated hydrological model was set up with the MIKE SHE software to depict spatio-temporal variations in water resources under present conditions (with an operational drainage system) and for all described alternative cases (without a drainage system). Simulated groundwater levels were a key output used to estimate changes in crop yields at selected pointwise locations. The results indicate significant potential for nature-based hydrological adaptation and co-benefits for provisioning ES.

The project FK20-134547 has been implemented with the support provided from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary.

How to cite: Kozma, Z., Ács, T., Decsi, B., Kardos, M. K., Hidy, D., Árvai, M., Kalicz, P., Kern, Z., and Pinke, Z.: Wetland restoration and its effects on the hydrological conditions and provisioning ecosystem services – a model-based case study at a Hungarian lowland catchment, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21886,, 2024.

Maria Rădoane, Ioana Perşoiu, Gabriela Florescu, and Aurel Perșoiu

This study integrates documentary, instrumental, archaeological and sedimentological data to reconstruct periods of increased flooding in present-day Romania over the last 1500 years.

We identified 22 flood-rich periods between AD 600-650, 830-930, 990 – 1020, 1060 – 1110, 1136 – 1165, 1195 - 1245, 1304 - 1317 and 1340 – 1373, 1400 – 1440, 1460 – 1470, 1490 – 1540, 1560 – 1580, 1592 – 1622, 1635 – 1657, 1667 - 1675, 1699 - 1731, 1771 - 1793, 1831 – 1864, 1890 - 1920, 1930s, 1970s - 1980s, 1990s – present. Our reconstructions show an increase in the incidence of floods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and towards the end of the Little Ice Age.

In order to understand the potential causes behind these flooding events, we have used reconstructions of seasonally-distinct air temperature, precipitation amount and atmospheric circulation patterns based on an array of proxy records (e.g., cave ice and speleothem stable isotopes, tree ring-based proxies).

The most extensive floods were recorded between AD 1050-1250, mostly in the extra-Carpathian region, attributed to the advance of humid Eastern Mediterranean air masses. Currently, there is no conclusive information about their magnitude during the Migration Period, although the limited information of fluvial origin supports a reduced flood magnitude compared to the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Over the last 500 years, floods with maximum geomorphological effects occurred at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries (1770 – 1800 and 1880 – 1920) across the entire study area, against the background of an unstable climate, marked by the intensification of westerly Atlantic circulation and frequent northward incursions of Eastern Mediterranean cyclones. These were followed in magnitude by recent events (1990 - present), favored predominantly by warm and humid Eastern Mediterranean air masses, and the intensification of the westerly circulation of Atlantic origin at the onset of the Little Ice Age (1460 – 1470 and 1490 – 1530).

Alongside the climate signal, floods in the last 500 years also exhibit a strong anthropogenic component, accentuated in the last 250 years.

How to cite: Rădoane, M., Perşoiu, I., Florescu, G., and Perșoiu, A.: A 1500-year flood history in Romania using multi-archive reconstructions, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-21588,, 2024.

Space-time dynamics of flood risk
Luigi Cafiero, Paola Mazzoglio, Alberto Viglione, and Francesco Laio

Flood risk management institutions and practitioners need  innovative and easy-to-use approaches that incorporate the changing climate conditions into flood predictions in ungauged basins. The traditional approach to regional flood frequency analysis enables the estimation of hydrological variables under stationary conditions. However, it is nowadays crucial to develop innovative techniques that consider the non-stationarity of climate variables. The present work aims at implementing an operative procedure to include the expected variation in precipitation extremes into regional analysis. We compare the Flood Frequency Curves (FFC) and the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves defining a relation between them through the elasticity, an indication of the sensitivity of floods to precipitation extremes. Under the assumption that this relation does not change in time, we obtain modified FFC according to the projections of an ensemble mean of 25 Cordex simulations of CMIP5. This methodology was applied to 227 catchments of the Po River basin in northern Italy. Elasticity values range between 0.5 and 2: the lowest values were found in Valle d'Aosta region, and the highest in the south-western part of Piemonte. Over the Po river basin, the percentage increase of the 100-year floods ranges between 15% and 40%. The most relevant increase of flood discharge is found in the area between Liguria and Emilia-Romagna in the southern part of the Po River basin, where the projected increase of precipitation extremes is the highest.

How to cite: Cafiero, L., Mazzoglio, P., Viglione, A., and Laio, F.: Flood frequency elasticity to extreme precipitation: a practical approach for Climate Change projection of flood probabilities, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-4543,, 2024.

Diego Hernandez, David Lun, Miriam Bertola, Bodo Ahrens, and Günter Blöschl

Process-based explanations of flood controls have increasingly advanced in the last years along with comprehensive datasets availability. However, the relationship on the long-term scale between floods and large-scale atmospheric drivers remains unclear, hindering the understanding of flood-prone periods and the projections of flood change. The translation of atmospheric blocking (i.e., a persistent mid-latitude high-pressure system that blocks westerly flows) into flooding has not been raised for large samples due to the spatiotemporal complexity of the atmospheric and hydrological response. For the 1950-2010 period, this study analyzes summer flood events from a pan-European database, a gridded binary blocking index derived from ERA20C, and hemispheric fields of four meteorological variables from ERA5. By defining a window of days with flooding (dF) related to precipitation surpluses in central Europe, days with blocking (dB) at three different regions namely North Atlantic (NATL), Europe (EU) and Scandinavia (SCAN), and days with simultaneous flooding and blocking (dFxB), our results indicate spatially similar meteorological signatures for dF and dFxB at NATL, but different patterns between dB and dFxB at NATL, suggesting there is a subset of blocking events at NATL controlling the meteorological signature of flood events in central Europe. Patterns for dB and dFxB at SCAN are similar implying that blocking in the SCAN region has the most direct effect on floods in central Europe. Hence, this research could provide new insights into large-scale atmospheric controls and sources of predictability regarding floods.

How to cite: Hernandez, D., Lun, D., Bertola, M., Ahrens, B., and Blöschl, G.: Spatial signatures of flooding and blocking are related on the long-term scale, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-11182,, 2024.

Flood divides: Hillslope connectivity and physicoclimatic controls   
(withdrawn after no-show)
Kanneganti Bhargav Kumar, Pankaj Dey, and Pradeep P Mujumdar
Ved Prakash and Manabendra Saharia

Streamflow has a crucial role in the global water cycle. The demand for long-term daily streamflow observations becomes essential for robust water resources planning, hydroclimatic extremes analysis, and informed ecological assessments. However, there is a lack of availability of this type of dataset, particularly concerning the river basins of South Asia daily. The hydrologic-hydrodynamic model can simulate the streamflow over the domain. However, these models are not well calibrated to provide the locally relevant streamflow simulation daily. In response to this crucial knowledge deficit, in this study, we developed a state-of-the-art hydrological-hydrodynamic model to simulate daily streamflow spanning the years 1949 to 2022 across river basins South Asia by calibrating the model with observed daily streamflow. Leveraging meteorological observations meticulously gathered by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) inside India, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA2) outside domain, our model integrates the Noah MP as the land surface model and the HyMAP routing model to generate intricate daily streamflow dynamics within the South Asian sub-continental river basins. We calibrated the model at the 173-gauge stations against observed streamflow over South Asia. The calibration and validation time periods were 3 and 5 years respectively. This process ensures the adaptability and relevance to the local nuances of Basins in the model, aligning the simulated daily streamflow patterns with observed data. A comprehensive examination of the model's performance provides good results, with key metrics such as Kling-Gupta Model Efficiency (KGE), coefficient of determination (R2), and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) consistently exceeding a median threshold of 0.34. Taking our analysis further, we calculated the KGE skill score of the dataset, we found that 83/173 in calibration and 72/173 in validation showed KGE skill score more than 0.08. This extensive reconstruction and evaluation of streamflow dynamics not only contribute significantly to filling the knowledge gap but also lay the foundation for more precise and informed water management strategies in the dynamic landscape of South Asia's river basins.

How to cite: Prakash, V. and Saharia, M.: India Water Model: A Transboundary Water Modeling System Over South Asia and a 75-year Daily Streamflow Reanalysis, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-15063,, 2024.

Martina Ciccone, Andrea Gioia, Vincenzo Totaro, Federica Mesto, Maria Rosaria Margiotta, Salvatore Manfreda, Mauro Fiorentino, and Vito Iacobellis

An increasing amount of evidence is now available for demonstrating how flood series often incorporate data coming from different populations, thus emphasizing the need to understand the physical nature of floods before carrying out their probabilistic analysis. Theoretically derived distributions of floods were introduced by Eagleson (1972) as an alternative, probabilistic and physically based modelling of processes responsible for flood generation. Based on this framework, Iacobellis and Fiorentino (2000) proposed the IF probability model in which the direct contribution to peak flow is obtained as the product of partial contributing area and the discharge per unit of area, both considered as random mutually dependent variables. Moving from the consideration that floods can be triggered by different runoff productions mechanisms, Gioia et al. (2008) introduced the TCIF probability model.  IF and TCIF distributions were successfully applied on a wide area of Southern Italy, which includes Puglia, Basilicata and Calabria regions, providing advances in the understanding of physical phenomenology of flood generation in these areas. In our research we revisited the parametric structure of these theoretically derived distributions applied in the entire Southern Italy, exploiting, among other, the availability of updated rainfall data and previous knowledge developed within the framework of VAPI project. Results showed the good performances of both distributions in fitting annual maxima of flood data, highlighting how IF and TCIF distributions possess a solid background for interpreting the actual underlying flood generation processes. Findings of the study can represent a reliable source of information for supporting model selection activities at both local and regional scales.

How to cite: Ciccone, M., Gioia, A., Totaro, V., Mesto, F., Margiotta, M. R., Manfreda, S., Fiorentino, M., and Iacobellis, V.: A comprehensive framework for the application of IF and TCIF theoretically derived distributions in Southern Italy, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-17027,, 2024.

Channel network critical nodes, E-GIUH and space-time dynamics of flood events
(withdrawn after no-show)
Roger Moussa and Hervé Andrieu

Posters virtual: Tue, 16 Apr, 14:00–15:45 | vHall X5

Display time: Tue, 16 Apr 08:30–Tue, 16 Apr 18:00
Chairpersons: Thomas Roggenkamp, Miriam Bertola, Juan Antonio Ballesteros-Canovas
Zsolt Pinke, Balázs Pal, Beatrix F. Romhanyi, Csilla Zatyko, and Zsolt Kozma

Aiming at a deeper understanding of long-term feedback and interactions, here we reconstructed the changing socio-ecological system of a 9931 km2 wetland landscape over the last millennium. The study area is situated in the steppe-forest zone representing a major part of World Heritage inland salt grasslands in Europe.

Merging GIS-based historico-geographical and archaeo-topographical records from the 11th–mid-16th centuries, detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of settlement patterns, and random information on vegetation and economic activities were reconstructed. Testing the mean elevation of archaeological remains of settlements (sites) and the average soil agro-suitability in their buffer zones by non-parametric t-tests we found an extensive dispersion of settlements in the fertile deep floodplains at the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries but this reclaimed flood zone had been abandoned by the early 14th century. Statistical test results also suggested that the late medieval (LMA) (14th–mid-16th centuries) group was situated significantly higher than the high medieval (HMA) group (late 10th–13th centuries), and the deserted settlements were situated lower than the permanently settled group. Certain geomorphological formations, floodplain islands, and low fluvial ridges became scenes of settlement abandonment, while a dynamic concentration took place on high ridges. These outcomes suggest that the settlement pattern shrunk and vertically displaced significantly by the 14th-century beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) when hydrological challenges emerged all over Europe.

Testing the statistical-based settlement-indicated-flood-zone method in a 237 km2 area by an integrated hydrological model concerning the elevation of sites, we simulated the HMA, LMA, and late 18th-century extension of flood zones.

However, not only climatic conditions but anthropogenic transformation in runoff conditions of the upper catchment may also have triggered hydrological challenges in the low-lying plains. The reconstructed transformation of medieval settlement patterns in the Tisza basin (157000 km²) suggests that tens of thousands of square kilometers of virgin forests could have been destroyed in that age. Adapting to a changing hydro-climatic and socio-economic environment a complex community-based ‘livestock-water-crop farming’ trinity evolved, and livestock breeding and export became the strategic sector in the plain over the next centuries.

The socio-economic basis of mixed farming collapsed by the 18th century. As a response to chronic socio-economic backwardness and emerging hydro-climatic challenges, the aristocratic elite began the biggest river regulation in 19th-century Europe, which transformed the plain into a homogenous agricultural area (1950s cropland covering ~70 %).  However, this adaptation strategy failed, and the land use regime of the plain has fallen into a longstanding crisis today. To demonstrate this transformation between the late 18th century (water cover ~30 %) and today (water cover <5 %), we present a series of land cover reconstructions based on digitalized military maps (1782–1785, 1858, 1940–1944 and 1953–1959) and the Corine2018 dataset. Finally, we digitalized the first known flood map (2246 km²) of the region presenting the inundated areas during the catastrophic flood of 1879, the turning point of the century-long wetland reclamation, when the extension of inundated areas was essentially similar to that of the late 18th-century wetlands.

How to cite: Pinke, Z., Pal, B., F. Romhanyi, B., Zatyko, C., and Kozma, Z.: Shaping long-term human-environmental dynamics in a floodplain landscape of the Pannonian Plain (Central Europe) over the last millennium, EGU General Assembly 2024, Vienna, Austria, 14–19 Apr 2024, EGU24-19193,, 2024.

Examining flood dynamics using the Rain-on-Grid method: An Investigation for the Selška Sora Watershed, Slovenia
(withdrawn after no-show)
Marcos Julien Alexopoulos, Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, Nejc Bezak, Mira Kobold, and Demetris Koutsoyiannis