UP2.4 | Atmosphere-Ocean interactions: open-ocean and coastal processes
Atmosphere-Ocean interactions: open-ocean and coastal processes
Including EMS Young Scientist Award Lecture
Conveners: Antonio Ricchi, Rossella Ferretti | Co-conveners: Aida Alvera-Azcárate, Vincenzo Capozzi, Clea Denamiel, Paola de Ruggiero
| Fri, 06 Sep, 11:00–17:15 (CEST)|Lecture room A-112
| Attendance Thu, 05 Sep, 18:00–19:30 (CEST) | Display Thu, 05 Sep, 13:30–Fri, 06 Sep, 16:00
Orals |
Fri, 11:00
Thu, 18:00
This session is multi-purpose and aims to connecting various scientist, to promote an integrated and multidisciplinary approach, that works on wide range of atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena, at different temporal and spatial scales in coastal and open-ocean areas. This session will welcome contributions using analysis, observations, numerical and machine learning tools, operational application, and related services.
In general, this session will welcome:
I) Numerical studies and operational application, spanning from uncoupled and coupled numerical models to the Digital-Twins approach, that investigate ocean, atmosphere, waves, sediment and vegetation, in coastal and open ocean areas, from local to synoptic scale and from short to climatological timescales.
II) Observational studies using oceanographic (ARGO floats, Gliders and AUV, buoys, Stereo 3D imaging, operational campaigns, and survey, etc), atmospheric (automatic weather stations, sonic anemometers, disdrometers, etc.) in-situ measurements, ground-based (Coastal High-Frequency Radar (HFR), S, C and X-band weather radar, etc), and space-borne remote sensing techniques (scatterometer, SAR, etc).
III) Application of Machine Learning techniques both in the ocean and atmospheric environment in support of a wide range of applications and research activities (data assimilation systems, ensemble approach and processing, nowcasting numerical schemes, early warning systems, decision, etc).
We invite contributions including, but not limited to, the following topics:
• Intense cyclones, Tropical Cyclones and Tropical-Like Cyclones, Explosive cyclones and polar-low, development, intensification, and the role of air-sea.
• Severe wind and wave storms, Extreme Waves, Storm surges and meteo-tsunami
• Atmosphere-ocean and Ice interaction and their impact on local and global circulation
• Coastal floods and Heavy Precipitation Events (HPEs)
• Sea level oscillations and Sea level future projections
• Cold Air Outbreak, Cold and Dry Spells, and feedback with the atmosphere and ocean
• Marine and Atmospheric Heat Waves and their interaction
• Sea Surface Temperature, Mixed Layer Depth and Ocean Heat Content modification and its impact on the atmosphere on short, seasonal, and climatological scales
• Marine convection, Density currents and Dense and Deep Water Formation.
• Coastal circulation and Sediment dynamic

Orals: Fri, 6 Sep | Lecture room A-112

Chairperson: Antonio Ricchi
EMS Young Scientist Award Lecture - Air-Sea interaction, Marine and Atmospheric Heat Waves
EMS Young Scientist Award Lecture
Onsite presentation
Bianca Mezzina, Hugues Goosse, Pierre-Vincent Huot, Sylvain Marchi, Nicole Van Lipzig, Quentin Dalaiden, Feba Francis, and Ryan Fogt

The 2016 Antarctic sea ice extent drop was a rapid decline that led to persistent low sea ice conditions. The drop followed a period of stability and even slight sea ice extent increase: this sudden change from extreme high values to an absolute minimum, which occurred in less than two years, is distinctive of this event, together with the lack of recovery that ensued.

Even though new record lows have been recently established, there is still a lot to uncover on the dynamics of the 2016 drop. While the event was triggered by atmospheric forcing, the potential preconditioning role of the ocean is unclear. To shed light on it, we perform sensitivity experiments with a fully-coupled regional climate model, which is re-initialized in January 2016 using different ocean and sea ice conditions but keeping boundary forcings in the atmosphere and ocean unchanged. We show that the state of the Southern Ocean in early 2016 does not determine whether the drop occurs or not, but indeed has an impact on its amplitude, regional characteristics and subsequent sea ice recovery.

This dramatic drop is unprecedented in our current observational record, but it is possible that other similar events have occurred before the beginning of the satellite era. We explore this possibility in a new spatial reconstruction of atmospheric and sea ice variables covering 1958-2023, built using a data assimilation method that combines station-based observations and results from large ensembles of simulations. Additionally, we force a sea ice-ocean model with the atmospheric reconstruction to estimate the oceanic variations. Our results indicate that a drop similar to the 2016 one occurred at the end of the 1970s. We then compare the spatial patterns and changes during the two events and investigate the links between the sea ice, ocean and atmosphere.

How to cite: Mezzina, B., Goosse, H., Huot, P.-V., Marchi, S., Van Lipzig, N., Dalaiden, Q., Francis, F., and Fogt, R.: What was the contribution of the ocean to the 2016 Antarctic sea ice extent drop and was this event unprecedented?, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-1143, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-1143, 2024.

Online presentation
Richard Lohmann and Bodo Ahrens

Atmospheric blocking describes a quasi-stationary weather pattern in midlatitudes which is characterised by a disruption of the westerly flow. Within the blocking anticyclone, large-scale subsidence of air effects dissipation of clouds whereas the precipitation rate increases around the block. The stationarity of the weather system increases the probability of extreme events as heatwaves, droughts or floods. Reanalyses show (multi)decadal variability of blocking frequency. This finding encourages the investigation of potential drivers of blocking, i.e. parameters in the climate system favouring or hampering the occurrence of blocking. One important driver is the variability of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic. In this study, we focus on a region in the south of Greenland and investigate the relationship between SST anomalies in that region and blocking in reanalyses and a subset of selected CMIP6 climate simulations. The region in the south of Greenland is known as the so-called “North Atlantic Warming Hole” because the SST trend is negative unlike in overwhelming parts of the ocean. The negative SST trend in the south of Greenland increases the temperature gradient to surrounding, warming areas resulting in a modification of the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and Europe and consequently in the frequency of blocking. Our results show a decreased blocking frequency over the North Atlantic in the case of a strong warming hole, i.e. in the case of a strong negative SST anomaly in the south of Greenland. The effect is strongest in winter. Over Europe, blocking frequency tends to be higher than on average. A comparison of reanalyses and CMIP6 simulations reveals that the climate models are neither able to simulate the SST trend in the North Atlantic properly nor the link between SST anomalies and blocking. Furthermore, different realisations of one model show different SST trends and different blocking patterns indicating an incomplete modelling of physical processes and feedbacks.

How to cite: Lohmann, R. and Ahrens, B.: How North Atlantic SST Anomalies Modify the Occurrence of Atmospheric Blocking, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-828, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-828, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Jonathan Beuvier, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, and Thibault Guinaldo

The AROBASE (AROme-BAsed coupled SystEm) project of CNRM aims to assemble a multi-coupled regional modelling platform of the physico-chemical atmosphere, the ocean (including sea ice and marine biogeochemistry), the waves and the continental surfaces (soil, vegetation, cities, snow, lakes and rivers), at kilometric scale.

In this context, a new high-resolution regional ocean configuration of the NEMO model has been developed. Named FRA36, it covers the maritime domain around mainland France with a resolution of ~2.5 km (ORCA 1/36° grid).
In order to prepare the future ocean-atmosphere coupled system, FRA36 is first used in a configuration forced by the operational analyses of the AROME-France atmospheric model, at a horizontal resolution of 1.3 km and a 3h temporal resolution. FRA36 uses the global Copernicus Marine Service operational oceanographic productions with data assimilation (GLO12 analyses product) for initialisation and boundary conditions.
We use this configuration to reproduce and analyse the summer 2022 succession of marine heatwave events around mainland France (English Channel, Bay of Biscay, North-Western Mediterranean Sea), using a continuous 3-month ocean simulation initialised the 1st of June 2022.

First, the spatial and temporal evolution of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in this simulation is validated using satellite products. FRA36 reproduces well the succession of observed long-lasting warming periods, interspersed with sudden cold spells. Then, heat budgets in the ocean mixed layer are used to separate atmospheric (solar and non-solar fluxes) and oceanic (advection, mixing, entrainment) contributions to surface and sub-surface temperature variations. Following on from the Guinaldo et al. 2023 study, we here take advantage of the added value of having a 3D oceanic component, including explicit tides, and the atmospheric forcing at high spatio-temporal resolution from AROME-France, to characterise the respective atmospheric and oceanic contributions in the occurrences, maintenances and ends of this succession of high-stakes events.

How to cite: Beuvier, J., Lebeaupin Brossier, C., and Guinaldo, T.: Modelling the summer 2022 marine heatwave around France: disentangling atmospheric and oceanic contributions, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-270, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-270, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Laura Paredes-Fortuny, Francisco Pastor, and Samira Khodayar

Atmospheric and marine heatwaves (AHW and MHW, hereafter) are extreme temperature events occurring in an extensive area and sustained in time. In the Mediterranean region, these events have become more frequent in the last decades. Tracking the spatiotemporal evolution of such events is key for the implementation of adaptation measures to cope with their associated impacts both on the population and the environment. The growing frequency of both types of events leads to a higher concurrence of those events, understood as their spatiotemporal co-occurrence. Despite the growing interest in the scientific community about the co-occurrence of AHW and MHW, the details of the physical interaction between such extreme events are not fully described. Several studies pointed out that in the record-breaking European heatwave of 2003, the simultaneous occurrence of AHW and MHW contributed on the exacerbation of the individual events. 

Our hypothesis is that under extreme temperature conditions heat fluxes can change and that probably these changes have an impact in the AHW and/or MHW characteristics. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical mechanisms behind these changes with a special focus on concurrent AHW and MHW events (CHW). Our results show that there is a heat flux intensification during CHW influencing the temperature anomalies. For this study we investigate the AHW, MHW and their concurrence in the Mediterranean basin during the extended summers (May to September) from 1940 to 2022 using ERA5 reanalysis data to characterize the heat fluxes, surface wind and sea level pressure fields, cloud cover, sea surface and 2-meter air temperatures.  

How to cite: Paredes-Fortuny, L., Pastor, F., and Khodayar, S.: Physical drivers of marine heat waves intensification in the presence of atmospheric heat waves in the Mediterranean, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-859, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-859, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Ségolène Berthou and the Met Office, Plymouth Marine Lab, National Oceanography Centre, Scottish association for marine science (UK), Marine Institute (Ireland)

The Northwest European shelf experienced unprecedented surface temperature anomalies in June 2023 (anomalies up to 5 °C locally, north of Ireland). The shelf average underwent its longest recorded category II marine heatwave (2.9°C anomaly for 16 days). With state-of-the-art observation and modelling capabilities, we completed an in-depth analysis of its origins, its feebacks on the weather and its likelihood of future recurrence. We showed the marine heatwave developed quickly due to strong atmospheric forcing (record high level of sunshine, weak winds, tropical air) and record weak wave activity under two weeks of anticyclonic weather regimes. Additionally, tidal activity (neap/spring tide) modulated the marine heatwave and contributed to its spatial heterogeneity. Once formed, this shallow marine heatwave fed back on the weather: over the sea it reduced cloud cover, helping to sustain the marine heatwave itself. Over land, it contributed to breaking June mean temperature records and to enhanced convective rainfall through stronger, warmer and moister sea breezes. This marine heatwave was intensified by the last 20-year warming trend in sea surface temperatures. Such sea surface temperatures are projected to become commonplace by the middle of the century under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario. This study was enabled by strong collaborations between observers and modellers of the ocean, waves and atmosphere. It highlights the necessity of long-term ocean observation for monitoring regional seas, complemented by regional reanalyses and climate projections. It also illustrates the usefulness of regional coupled systems for process understanding, short term weather forecasting and their potential for adding value to regional climate information.

How to cite: Berthou, S. and the Met Office, Plymouth Marine Lab, National Oceanography Centre, Scottish association for marine science (UK), Marine Institute (Ireland): Exceptional atmospheric conditions in June 2023 generated Northwest European marine heatwave which contributed to breaking land temperatures records, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-963, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-963, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Matteo Borgnino, Alessandro Storer, Agostino Meroni, Fabien Desbiolles, and Claudia Pasquero

Many processes happen at the air-sea interface. Ocean-atmosphere exchange energy (heat, moisture and momentum), mass (precipitation, evaporation).

Ocean sea surface thermal structures affect the stability of the air-column and its properties through dynamical and thermodynamical processes within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Such processes severely impact on sensitivity of surface fluxes, wind and cloud cover to fine scale variations of sea-surface temperature (SST). Moreover, nonlinearities in the fluxes of momentum, heat, freshwater and gases make the small scales important.

This study addresses the role of the ocean fine scales in north-west tropical Atlantic Ocean air-sea interactions, with the goal of evaluating the MABL statistical response to SST variability using cloud-resolving regional numerical simulations of the atmosphere and ocean. This is to quantify the physical process that can explain the modulation of low-level clouds and surface fluxes by SST variability.

Recent field campaign (EURECA and ATOMIC) have collected a wealth of data to study the link between circulation, clouds and air-sea coupling; deSzoeke et al. (2021) and Acquistapace et al. (2022) show that the increased MABL turbulence over warm SST is linked to enhanced low-level cloudiness because the MABL moisture is exported above the lifting condensation level (LCL). They do so in single case studies from in situ (ship) data.

Using numerical simulation of such region, we can extend the analysis of the entire EUREC4A region. We found that SST at the sub-mesoscale affects the air column stability and, therefore, the entrainment of dry and outer-MABL air. The main effects of such entrainment are visible in the dynamics of the mixed layer, both in terms of relative humidity (RH) response and in the vertical exchange of horizontal momentum. Changes in RH are reflected on surface fluxes and low-level clouds.

How to cite: Borgnino, M., Storer, A., Meroni, A., Desbiolles, F., and Pasquero, C.: The lower atmospheric response to SST sub-mesoscale variability: low level clouds and surface fluxes, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-597, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-597, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Anmin Duan and Pin Zhang

Since the 1970s, the West Antarctic and the Antarctic Peninsula have experienced dramatic warming during austral spring. This study investigates the mechanism behind this phenomenon by analyzing observations and utilizing the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Specifically, it focuses on how the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean temperature anomaly mode (PIM) influences surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies across the West Antarctic during austral spring. The positive phase of the PIM is characterized by positive sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the tropical central-eastern Pacific and western Indian Ocean, along with negative SSTAs in the Maritime Continent. This configuration leads to the generation of two branches of stationary Rossby wave trains originating from the tropical central Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. These waves propagate towards the West Antarctic, with an anticyclonic anomaly forming over the Amundsen Sea. The northerly winds transport warmer air to the Ross-Amundsen Seas, while southerly winds bring colder air to the Antarctic Peninsula-Weddell Sea region. This results in a dipole pattern of SAT anomalies over the West Antarctic. The dominance of SSTAs in the tropical central-eastern Pacific, particularly around the Maritime Continent, plays a crucial role in this process. Additionally, SSTAs in the western Indian Ocean, combined with those over the Maritime Continent, further contribute to the western pole of the SAT anomalies. Importantly, simulations incorporating prescribed PIM forcing accurately reproduce the observed dipolar SAT response across the West Antarctic, which highlights the necessity of considering the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans as a unified system when studying Antarctic climate dynamics.

How to cite: Duan, A. and Zhang, P.: Connection between the Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean and Temperature Anomaly across West Antarctic, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-108, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-108, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Carlos Calvo-Sancho, Ana Montoro-Mendoza, Juan Jesús González-Alemán, Javier Díaz-Fernández, Pedro Bolgiani, Mauricio López-Reyes, and María Luisa Martín

On September 2-4, 2023, a heavy precipitation event (HPE) affecting numerous places of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, provoked very high-socioeconomic impacts with several floods, damages to the basic and critical infrastructures and three fatalities in the Iberian central area. Previous to the event, the weather pattern over Europe was governed by two prominent ridges in the North Atlantic basin and the Mediterranean Sea, and a deep trough covering a large part of Western Europe. The combination of a deepening trough and the strengthening of two ridges, extending from the Azores to the British Isles and from Tunisia to the English Channel, induced the formation of a cut-off low over the western part of the Iberian Peninsula. At surface, a low was formed. Such setup in juxtaposition with very high Mediterranean and North Atlantic SSTs promoted vorticity advection and a high amount of moisture in low-levels.

In this study, the response to a warming climate that would affect this HPE at the end of the century is studied by applying the Pseudo-Global Warming Approach (PGWA). The SSP5-8.5 scenario of several climatic models from CMIP6 is used to obtain the climate change increment [FUTURE – PRESENT] needed to apply the PGWA. The increments are computed for all the prognostic variables and added to the IFS analysis to be used as initial/boundary conditions. The WRF-ARW model is used to simulate the event. A control simulation is performed using the IFS analysis as initial conditions without perturbation to compare it with the future-like climate simulation.

The results indicate notable changes in the surface low in a future-like climate, affecting to low-level moisture fluxes. The precipitation distribution is modified, with significant increments in the southern of the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean coast. Although in the future-like climate simulation, the places of the socioeconomic impacts would change, the HPEs maintain very high levels of occurrence.

This study proves the PWGA utility in analyzing high-impact weather events enhancing our comprehension of how these events could change in a warming climate, thereby enhancing current early-warning systems.

How to cite: Calvo-Sancho, C., Montoro-Mendoza, A., González-Alemán, J. J., Díaz-Fernández, J., Bolgiani, P., López-Reyes, M., and Martín, M. L.: Assessing Heavy Precipitation Event Response to Global Warming Using the Pseudo-Global Warming Approach: Implications for Future High-Impact Weather Events in Southern Europe, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-534, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-534, 2024.

Lunch break
Chairperson: Antonio Ricchi
Observation and Modelling of extreme marine and meteorological events
Onsite presentation
Leo Pio D'Adderio, Paolo Sanò, Stefano Sebastianelli, Jean-Francois Rysman, Daniele Casella, Andrea Camplani, Mario Marcello Miglietta, and Giulia Panegrossi

Mediterranean cyclones often exhibit phenomenological features typical of tropical (or sub-tropical) cyclones (e.g., a cloud free eye surrounded by spiraling rain bands around the center and a closed vortex associated with strong near-surface winds and heavy precipitation) causing extensive devastation over the coastal regions. More rarely (1-3 times per year) these cyclones undergo a tropical-like cyclone transition during their mature phase, exhibiting at some point during their evolution a deep warm core of diabatic origin and deep convection in proximity of the center. These cyclones are referred to as Medicanes (Mediterraean Hurricane). Generally, the term Medicane has been used for both cyclones with tropical-like characteristics, and for weaker warm seclusions present in the late stage of extra-tropical cyclones. The present work analyzes three Mediterranean cyclones (i.e., Helios, Juliette and Daniel) that occurred between February and September 2023. The analysis is mainly carried out using satellite passive microwave (PMW) measurements from different radiometers, which allow to monitor and to characterize the thermodynamic and microphysics characteristics during the cyclones’ life time, in particular the occurrence of a warm core and deep convection.  Moreover, the surface wind field is characterized by exploiting all the available scatterometers onboard LEO satellites (MetOp ASCAT and FY-3E WindRAD) highlighting the differences between the developing and the mature stage of the cyclones. Finally, a preliminary analysis about the role of dynamics and air-sea interaction processes favoring the tropical-like transition is also carried out.

The goal is to determine if the three considered cyclones exhibit tropical-like characteristics during their mature phase and can be considered as medicanes. The three cyclones show a very similar evolution during the initial phases, with stratospheric intrusion followed by the development of a warm anomaly in the low/mid-troposphere around the cyclone center, clearly driven by baroclinic processes. While for Helios, the PMW precipitation microphysics diagnostics show a near complete lack of deep convection near the cyclone center (within 100 km), during the final stage of the mature phase of Juliette and Daniel this feature is identified, indicating that diabatic heating plays a key role in the warm core development. This evolution is observed in nearly all the medicanes which have been studied, as they eventually develop a warm core driven by diabatic processes (e.g., Zorbas, Numa). Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that Helios is warm seclusion, while Juliette and Daniel can be classified as medicanes.

How to cite: D'Adderio, L. P., Sanò, P., Sebastianelli, S., Rysman, J.-F., Casella, D., Camplani, A., Miglietta, M. M., and Panegrossi, G.: The latest satellite-based advancements on the characterization of potential Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-787, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-787, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Sophia E. Brumer, Florian Pantillon, and Joris Pianezze

Windstorms associated with extratropical cyclones are destructive natural hazards. Processes governing the formation of near-surface winds are crucial for their societal impact but are not well understood and too small scale to be explicitly represented in numerical weather prediction models.


The explosive cyclone Alex made landfall in southern Britany in October 2020 causing extensive wind damage in Belle-Ile and further inland. We investigate the mechanisms allowing high momentum air to descend to the surface and the influence of wave driven air-sea interactions from the mesoscale O(100km) to the sub-mesoscale O(100m). For this purpose we run a series of stand-alone atmospheric simulations and coupled wave-atmosphere simulations using the Meso-NH and WAVEWATCH-III models incrementally decreasing the horizontal grid spacing by two from 1.6 km to 100 m. The high resolution allows explicit representation of shallow convection and of the most energetic turbulent eddies in the atmospheric boundary layer (Large Eddy Simulations). 


Online trajectory calculations allow for a Lagrangian air mass tracking in Meso-NH. In the 1.6 km simulations, these reveal the presence of 3 distinct airstreams responsible for the strongest winds. The evolution of state parameters along these trajectories helps match the airstreams to the classical conceptual model for extra tropical cyclones. Evidence hints to the presence of a rare sting jet associated with Alex’s extreme winds, along with the more common cold conveyor belt and dry intrusion. In the Large Eddy Simulations, the same Lagrangian approach shows how the high momentum air in the airstreams is brought down by coherent boundary-layer structures. The vertical momentum transport is further controlled by wave coupling, which influences the stability of the boundary layer and the surface drag. The impact of wave coupling and resolution on extreme winds is discussed for the different mesoscale airstreams.  The results show that the representation of both sub-mesoscale processes and air-sea interactions constrains the formation of near-surface winds under storm conditions.

How to cite: Brumer, S. E., Pantillon, F., and Pianezze, J.: The role of wave coupling from the mesoscale to the sub mesoscale in a sting jet windstorm, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-807, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-807, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Masoud Rostami, Stefan Petri, and Bijan Fallah


In this work, we elucidate the dynamical core of the Atmosphere model Aeolus 2.0, characterized by intermediate complexity. This model is grounded in the pseudo-spectral moist-convective Thermal Rotating Shallow Water (mcTRSW) framework with minimal parametrization over the full sphere. The Dedalus algorithm, renowned for its handling of spin-weighted spherical harmonics, manages the pseudo-spectral problem-solving tasks. We introduce an improved version of moist convection and a novel approach to refine the estimation of sea surface evaporation flux and the columnar bulk of humidity, pivotal components of the bulk aerodynamic scheme. The proposed scheme incorporates factors such as zonal wind velocity, variations in lower troposphere (potential) temperature, and free convection to enhance accuracy.

Indeed, we demonstrate how the model enables the simulation of various atmospheric phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation and localized extreme heatwaves. For example, Aeolus 2.0 has facilitated the proposal of a novel theory for the genesis and dynamics of the MJO (Rostami et al., 2022). According to this theory, an eastward-propagating MJO-like structure can be generated in a self-sustained and self-propelled manner due to the nonlinear relaxation (adjustment) of a large-scale positive buoyancy anomaly, a depressed anomaly, or a combination of these. This occurs when the anomaly reaches a critical threshold in the presence of moist convection at the Equator. This MJO-like episode possesses a convectively coupled 'hybrid structure' consisting of a 'quasi-equatorial modon' with an enhanced vortex pair and a convectively coupled baroclinic Kelvin wave (BKW), exhibiting a greater phase speed than that of a dipolar structure on an intraseasonal time scale.

Additionally, we demonstrate the model's capability to simulate extreme localized heatwaves in mid-latitudes (Rostami et al., 2024). This study examines the influence of large-scale localized temperature anomalies in mid-latitude regions on condensation patterns and corresponding circulation in various environments. Depending on the perturbation’s characteristics, they can induce atmospheric instability, leading to precipitation systems such as rain bands and distinctive cloud patterns. The study also demonstrates the initiation of an anticyclonic high-pressure rotation in the upper troposphere due to heating on lower troposphere, resulting in an anisotropic northeast-southwest tilted circulation of heat flux.

Relevant references:

  • Rostami, M., Stefan P., Fallah B., Aeolus 2.0: Unveiling Novel Bulk Aerodynamics and Moist Convection in a Thermal Rotating Shallow Water Dynamical Core, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), 2024, (Under Revision).

  • Rostami, M., Severino, L., Petri, S., & Hariri, S., Dynamics of localized extreme heatwaves in the mid-latitude atmosphere: A conceptual examination. Atmospheric Science Letters, 2023, e1188, doi: 10.1002/asl.1188, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.1188.

  • Rostami, M., Zhao, B. & Petri, S., On the genesis and dynamics of Madden–Julian oscillation-like structure formed by equatorial adjustment of localized heating. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2022, 148 (749), 3788– 3813, doi:10.1002/qj.4388, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.4388.

How to cite: Rostami, M., Petri, S., and Fallah, B.: Aeolus 2.0: Novel Bulk Aerodynamics and Moist Convection Schemes in an mcTRSW Dynamical Core to Capture Dynamics of Extreme Events, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-6, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-6, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Alessio Colella, Paola de Ruggiero, Stefano Pierini, Pierpaolo Falco, Mario La Mesa, and Enrico Zambianchi

As part of the BIOCLEVER project and of the IPSODES project of the Progetto Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA), the sigma-coordinate ocean circulation model Parthenope University Southern Ocean Model (PARSOM) is coupled with a Lagrangian particle tracking algorithm to perform forward and backward mode simulations in the summer season to determine the possible path of the different stages of Pleuragramma antarctica sampled at 22 stations located between Terranova Bay and Whale Bay in the Ross Sea (RS). The RS is the second largest source of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) that supplies the lower limb of the global overturning circulation and ventilates the abyssal ocean. Dense Shelf Waters, precursor of the AABW, form on the RS continental shelf in winter by cooling and brine releasing during sea ice formation processes. The local circulation is influenced by the Ross Gyre, which regulates the proximity of the relatively warm waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the continental shelf. PARSOM the includes the whole Southern Ocean with a latitudinal extension ranging from 30° S to 80° S, so that no spurious lateral boundaries affect the RS internal response. The bathymetry is derived from the GEBCO dataset, the momentum flux and total heat fluxes (i.e. the sum of the latent and sensible heat and long wave radiation fluxes) are provided by the ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis and the initialization and relaxation to climatology are based on the World Ocean Atlas 2009 dataset.

PARSOM simulates the dynamics of the RG, and the results show a significant weakening during the summer of 2015. We investigate the relationships with local wind-driven and large-scale circulation. It was found that, in 2015, the northern branch of the RG, which interacts with the ACC, showed intensification, leading to a reduction in both the intensity and the eastward extension of the gyre itself.

How to cite: Colella, A., de Ruggiero, P., Pierini, S., Falco, P., La Mesa, M., and Zambianchi, E.: Lagrangian tracking of Pleuragramma antarctica in the Ross Sea using a circulation model of the Southern Ocean (PARSOM), EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-936, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-936, 2024.

Online presentation
Yuri Cotroneo, Paola de Ruggiero, Luigi Gifuni, Raffaele Montella, Diana Di Luccio, Ciro Giuseppe De Vita, Enrico Zambianchi, Giannetta Fusco, Berardino Buonocore, Stefano Pierini, and Giorgio Budillon

Environmental concerns and greenhouse gas emissions are driving policymakers and scientists to focus on improving waterborne transport efficiency. Accurate knowledge of the sea state and weather conditions is crucial for enhancing maritime transport efficiency and developing innovative technologies that could facilitate better management of ships and their subsystems during offshore and coastal operations. In this regard, the University of Naples Parthenope joins the National Centre for Sustainable Mobility (CNMOST) providing weather and sea state observations and forecast with two main aims: to develop a digital twin model of ship and marine environment and to provide informations to autonomous navigation system and vehicles. The digital twin activities will be useful to replicate the behavior of the ship in its operating environment, enabling understanding of how the ship will react in different situations, such as varying or even extreme environmental conditions. This technology allows ship managers to test onboard performance and conditions, preempt breakdowns and malfunctions, and make informed decisions regarding crew management and maintenance activities under different scenarios. On the other hand, marine and atmospheric observations and forecast will be used in support of the creation of an autonomous navigation system to enhance navigation safety and situational awareness, improve passenger comfort, and optimize the ship's route, thereby reducing fuel consumption and emission. To achieve these goals, the need for a dedicated test area to validate these innovative technologies is crucial. In this context, the existing monitoring network of the Gulf of Naples of the University Parthenope, widely used for the study of sea coastal processes of the region, has been further extended with new devices. The network comprises advanced meteo-oceanographic technologies e.g., a coastal high-frequency radar system, a strategic weather stations network, an unmanned marine glider for high-resolution physical and biological data collection, tidegauges, hydrophones, wavebuoy and multi-parameter probe for comprehensive data gathering.  Furthermore, a state-of-the-art high resolution regional ocean model (ROMS) and atmospheric forecasting chain (WRF) have been implemented to provide sea/weather real-time data and predictions (meteo.uniparthenope.it). Both products represent strategic information for advanced decision support systems and improved situational awareness for ship management and autonomous marine vehicles, providing insights into the external disturbances that affect the ship dynamic with consequences on fuel consumption, safety, and comfort. By employing this comprehensive network, the crucial data needed to optimize maritime operations and minimize its environmental impact are collected.

This work was supported by the European Union – NextGenerationEU. Piano Nazionale di Ripresa e Resilienza, Missione 4 Componente 2 Investimento 1.4 “Potenziamento strutture di ricerca e creazione di "campioni nazionali di R&S" su alcune Key Enabling Technologies”.  Code CN00000023 – Title: “Sustainable Mobility Center (Centro Nazionale per la Mobilità Sostenibile – CNMS)”, Spoke 3 Waterways, WP 3 Toward Autonomous Navigation.

How to cite: Cotroneo, Y., de Ruggiero, P., Gifuni, L., Montella, R., Di Luccio, D., De Vita, C. G., Zambianchi, E., Fusco, G., Buonocore, B., Pierini, S., and Budillon, G.: Weather and sea state observations and modeling in the Gulf of Naples in support of sustainable maritime mobility, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-970, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-970, 2024.

Online presentation
Luigi Gifuni, Paola de Ruggiero, Daniela Cianelli, Stefano Pierini, and Enrico Zambianchi

The high-resolution Campania Regional Ocean Model (CROM), coupled with an online Lagrangian particle tracking algorithm (TRACE), is used to investigate the horizontal and vertical behaviour of different (in terms of size and density) plastic polymer types during February and August 2016 in the Gulf of Naples, a coastal marine area of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, heavily affected by anthropic stress due to the presence of numerous tourist attractions, high population density, and intense maritime commercial activity. The choice of a winter (February 2016) and a summer month (August 2016) in our simulations aims to understand how seasonality, and thus the different hydrological features of the marine environment, affect the 3D transport of plastic particles since variation of the seawater density also plays a critical role in the particle settling dynamics. The transport of passive particles is evaluated based on the three-dimensional Eulerian velocity fields provided by the ocean model. The virtual particles are released in several hot spot areas in the Gulf of Naples where most of the marine debris is supposed to come from: the Sarno River mouth, the harbour of Naples, and the coastal area of Bagnoli. A sensitivity analysis on the vertical sinking for negatively buoyant particles is carried out. The sinking behaviour is determined by the settling velocity, which depends on the physical properties of the individual litter item as well as on the hydrodynamical features of the marine environment. Different numerical experiments are carried out to evaluate the effect of marine dynamics on three-dimensional transport.

How to cite: Gifuni, L., de Ruggiero, P., Cianelli, D., Pierini, S., and Zambianchi, E.: Three-dimensional Lagrangian microplastic transport simulations in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea), EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-830, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-830, 2024.

Coffee break
Chairperson: Antonio Ricchi
Coastal areas, Sea Level and Meteotsunami
Onsite presentation
Dario Giaiotti, Alessandro Minigher, Elena Gianesini, and Moira Pittis

Climate change is evident in many aspects, among them there is the response of the sea to the progressive increase of the atmospheric temperature, the changes in the inland precipitation regimes and the surface wind field pattern. In this frame, the Mediterranean area is a hot spot, where atmosphere and sea interact with a high degree of coupling, and there is deep interest for its evolution.

Future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean are already available form a rich set of regional climate simulation, both for atmosphere and the sea. Anyway, stakeholders require information on future climate having a spatial resolution higher than that characterizing the regional scale. Furthermore, many local process of interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and sea, especially along the coasts and in shallow waters, have a poor representation in the available model outputs. Attempting to fill in the gap, downscaling is applied to regional climate and basin scale simulations.

In this work, we present a methodology to generate ensembles of high resolution downscaled sea state to the local scale, for the three main climate scenarios, namely RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. Using boundary conditions from EURO-CORDEX, MED-CORDEX ensembles, hydrological projections derived from inland precipitation scenarios, runs of a shallow water numerical model (SHYFEM) have been conducted to explore time windows for each decade in the future up to the end of the XXI century.

Starting from preliminary sensitive tests on the response of small spatial domains to the forcing and boundary conditions, we conclude that the effort to run very high resolution models, up to 10 m of horizontal resolution for a full and continuous secular time range, is not an efficient approach.

Instead, the quick response of the coastal system to the boundary and the forcing allows to generate a large set of local area sensitivity studies, with computational resources and times that are worth to be considered useful besides efficient.

This approach explores decadal time windows of many future scenarios with the spatial resolution required by a large spectrum of stakeholders who require details on future temperature, salinity and level along the coasts, in the lagoons and in the open sea facing the coastal areas.

In addition to the methodology, we present a summary of the results of its application to the northern Adriatic Sea, including the northeastern most lagoon. Furthermore, we show how those results become inputs for case studies on climate change impacts at the local scale and they support the definition of risk minimization actions, as requested by climate adaptation plans.

This work has been conducted with the contribution from the EU co-financing and the Interreg Euro-MED Programme, in the frame of MedSeaRise Project, exploiting the results of the Interreg IT-HR AdriaClim project.

How to cite: Giaiotti, D., Minigher, A., Gianesini, E., and Pittis, M.: A novel approach to generate very high resolution climate scenario for coastal areas, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-984, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-984, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Kévin Dubois, Erik Nilsson, and Anna Rutgerssoon

Coastal floods are one of the main natural hazards which often lead to disasters worldwide including in Sweden. In the Baltic Sea, extreme sea levels (ESL) are driven by different processes such as seiches, pre-conditioning of the Baltic Sea (filling) and storm surges. Predicting those along with accurate uncertainties range is essential for marine coastal management and planning to better mitigate potential impacts. It is well known that Climate Change is currently changing coastal conditions globally and around Sweden. In this context, this study aims to characterize the atmospheric drivers of ESL along the coastline of Sweden and predict return levels of extreme sea heights. Machine Learning tools like Random Forest are then used to predict storm tide time series, characterising extreme sea levels, based on atmospheric drivers such as wind and surface pressure. The model is firstly trained with ERA5 reanalysis and tide gauge observations. It is then used to predict storm tides from 1850 to 2100 using input variables from CMIP6 models as EC-Earth. Predictions are then compared with observation values in a statistical way over the co-occurring time period. Results show that storm tides are driven by different atmospheric characteristics (i.e. wind direction, wind speed and surface pressure) at each station but that stations located close to each other can be grouped accordingly. For instance, strong westerly winds greatly contribute to storm tides on the west coast of Sweden while southernly winds are driving storm tides on the northern Swedish Baltic coast. Our main results include investigating trends in extreme values of storm tides. Based on the EC-Earth historical and ssp245 climate model, a decrease in storm tide of 1 to 4 mm/decade is to be expected along the east coast of Sweden while no trend seems to be noticeable on the west coast of Sweden. 

How to cite: Dubois, K., Nilsson, E., and Rutgerssoon, A.: Exploring sea level projections and their return levels around the Baltic Sea with a focus on uncertainties, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-714, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-714, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Francesco Memmola, Ivica Vilibic, Alessandro Coluccelli, Maurizio Brocchini, Sara Corvaro, Pierluigi Penna, Pierpaolo Falco, Antonio Ricchi, and Rossella Ferretti

In the afternoon of July 22, 2023, a very intense thunderstorm developed over the central Po Valley. It  quickly cross the Adriatic sea traveling from the center of the Po Valley to the Croatian coast, moving in the direction northwest-southeast. The thunderstorm speed ranged between 50 and 80km/h, with a downdraft exceeding 100 km/h, wind gust up to 120 km/h, which led to the formation of intense hailstorms with hail larger than 8 cm. The pressure difference between the front and central regions of storm,  reaced  6 hPa, with peaks up to 10 hPa. As the supercell moved towards the coast, the combined effects of the downdraft and the pressure variation, along with the storm's speed, likely triggered a meteotsunami. Both amateur evidences and instrumental observations showed the propagation of a  wave along the Adriatic coast, from North to South, with an amplitude of about 40 cm and a period of approximately 20 minutes. This phenomenon was observed from Ravenna (where the stormcell moves from land to sea) to Ancona, San Benedetto del Tronto, and Ortona with a propagation speed comparable with the storm  speed thus, in good agreement with a possible Proudman resonance. Physical analysis and numerical simulations of the atmosphere and ocean were performed  using numerical models: WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting System), ICON (Icosahedral Numerical Model), and ROMS (Regional Oceanographic Modeling System), coupled with SWAN (Simulating Waves in Nearshore) at 1 km horizontal resolution. The atmospheric results accurately reproduced  the storm's structure and evolution. The coupled ROMS and SWAN model was performed to assess the individual impacts of the downdraft, the vertical component of the downdraft, the pressure surge, and the overall storm surge. This work presents the outcomes and key factors contributing to the generation and amplification of this phenomenon.

How to cite: Memmola, F., Vilibic, I., Coluccelli, A., Brocchini, M., Corvaro, S., Penna, P., Falco, P., Ricchi, A., and Ferretti, R.: On the generation of a meteotsunami, the case study of supercell storm, over Adriatic Sea, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-799, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-799, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Emiliano Renzi, Claire Bergin, Tatjana Kokina, Daniel S. Pelaez-Zapata, Daniel Giles, and Frederic Dias

We explore instances of unusual long-wave activity of meteorological origin along the coastal waters of north-west Europe during the summer of 2022. These events include meteorological tsunamis, i.e. waves in the tsunami frequency band originated by sharp atmospheric pressure variations and amplified by multiple resonant effects, and wind-generated infragravity waves which can trigger local seiches in enclosed basins and harbours

Anomalous "tidal surges" were observed on 18 June 2022 in Wales, followed by similar occurrences in Ireland, France, and Spain. Additionally, several anomalous long-wave events were reported in south England and Wales on the morning of 19 July 2022. Our investigation involved analysing surface and high-altitude air pressure fields, as well as sea level oscillations for both days.

We determine that the events on 18 June were a series of meteorological tsunamis, spreading across several western European countries and initiated by localised pressure disturbances originating within a low-pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean. A local examination of the southern coast of Ireland suggests that Proudman resonance played a key role in amplifying the meteotsunami as it travelled eastward in the afternoon of 18 June. Similarly, our analysis of the events on 19 July indicates that the tidal surge observed in the UK and anomalous signals recorded in Ireland and France were likely instances of seiching triggered by infragravity waves. We conducted numerical simulations of the 18 June event using Volna-OP2, which solves the non-linear shallow water equations employing a finite volume discretisation technique. We also examined the influence of atmospheric wave velocity on the amplification of sea surface elevation.

How to cite: Renzi, E., Bergin, C., Kokina, T., Pelaez-Zapata, D. S., Giles, D., and Dias, F.: Recent meteorological tsunamis and other anomalous tidal surge events in western Europe, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-184, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-184, 2024.

Onsite presentation
Song Yan and Yaqing Zhou

Using global ocean vertical temperature anomaly data, we identified that a significant response of the sea temperature anomaly (STA) to the solar radio flux (SRF) exists. We found that the STA exhibited a significant correlation with Asian summer and winter precipitation, among which the response from the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (the QTP) was particularly noticeable. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the latent heat flux (LHF) anomaly, which plays a key role in winter precipitation in China, especially over the QTP, showed a significant response to the SRF in the Pacific. The results demonstrated the bottom-up mechanism of impact of solar activity (SA) on the plateau snow through sea–air interaction. Meanwhile, a top-down mechanism was also present. When the SRF was high, the stratospheric temperature in the low and mid-latitudes increased and the temperature gradient pointed to the pole to strengthen the westerly wind in the mid-latitudes. The EP flux showed that atmospheric long waves in the high altitudes propagated downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. A westerly (easterly) wind anomaly occurred in the south (north) of the QTP at 500 hPa and the snowfall rate over the QTP tended to increase. When the SRF was low, the situation was the opposite, and the snowfall rate tended to decrease. The model results confirmed that when total solar irradiance (TSI) became stronger (weaker), both of the solar radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and the surface temperature over the QTP increased (decreased), the vertical updraft intensified (weakened), and the snowfall rate tended to increase (decrease) accordingly. These conclusions are helpful to deepen the understanding of SA’s influence on the snow cover over the QTP. 

Keywords: solar activity; snow cover; Qinghai–Tibet Plateau; bottom-up mechanism; top-down mechanism; model simulation

How to cite: Yan, S. and Zhou, Y.: Response of Global Sea Temperature to Solar Radio Flux and Its Influence on Precipitation, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-980, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-980, 2024.

Posters: Thu, 5 Sep, 18:00–19:30

Display time: Thu, 5 Sep 13:30–Fri, 6 Sep 16:00
Chairpersons: Antonio Ricchi, Francesco Memmola, Carlos Calvo-Sancho
Fleur Nicolay, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Alice Dalphinet, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, Joris Pianezze, François Bouttier, and Jonathan Beuvier

The AROBASE (AROme-BAsed coupled SystEm) project aims to develop a coupled kilometre-scale numerical forecasting system incorporating ocean, waves, aerosols/chemistry and land surface models around the fine-scale AROME (Application of Research to Operations at MEsoscale) numerical weather prediction model. The AROBASE modelling system aims to improve : 1. our understanding of meteorological processes and interactions between the different environmental components; 2. the realism of the simulations by precisely and consistently representing these phenomena and by taking into account the complexity of the exchange processes between components; 3. the forecast of severe meteorological events by improving the representation of interactions at fine scale.

One important step is the evaluation of ocean-atmosphere-waves-coupling in AROBASE in the frame of Météo-France's coastal wave warning system. To assess the ability of AROBASE to better represent meteorological extremes leading to such coastal hazards, various modelling configurations are tested using the SURFEX (SURface EXternalisée) surface model, the MFWAM wave model of Météo-France derived from WAM (WAve Model) and the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model. Different combinations of these models and different momentum flux parametrisations are used to evaluate the coupling impact and the improvement of both the marine and numerical weather forecasts.

The first case study is the Eunice storm, which impacted the British Islands and Northern France on February 18, 2022, causing extensive damages due to strong winds. Eunice is also characterised by a high swell combined with a high tidal coefficient that caused large flooding locally. The modelling results will be compared to satellite and in situ observations, as well as operational outputs of AROME and MFWAM.

How to cite: Nicolay, F., Lebeaupin Brossier, C., Dalphinet, A., Bouin, M.-N., Pianezze, J., Bouttier, F., and Beuvier, J.: Ocean-wave-atmosphere-coupling in the AROBASE modelling system for coastal wave warning and sensitivity to momentum flux parametrisation, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-165, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-165, 2024.

Luca Arpaia, Marco Bajo, Christian Ferrarin, and Georg Umgiesser

We are developing a new regional coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model to study the air-sea interaction during intense meteo-marine events such as mesoscale cyclones and tropical-like cyclones. The coupled model is based on the following open-source community model components: (1) an ocean component with the SHYFEM finite element coastal ocean model, (2) a wave component with the unstructured WW3 spectral wave model, (3) an atmospheric component with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The wave and the ocean components are hard-coupled and run on the same triangular grid. The resulting ocean-wave and atmosphere components are coupled through the Earth System Modelling Framework library (ESMF), an integrated coupling framework which leads to very clean, abstract and efficient coupled models. The implemented coupler can handle explicit and semi-implicit coupled time-stepping schemes. With this instrument we study the interaction of tropical cyclone-like vortices with the sea. We show with simplified experiments how this feedback affects the trajectories and the intensity of the vortex as well as the sea-surface temperature and the ocean circulations. We show our model scales well compared to the baseline (uncoupled) runs of the single components. It can be thus applied to large scale configurations with high resolution. We focus on a series of storm events that occurred on the Mediterranean Sea: storm Vaja in 2018, Medicane Ianos in 2020 and a mesoscale cyclone in the northern Adriatic Sea occurred in 2019.  The results derived from the coupled model are compared with those from the simulations using either only the ocean or the atmospheric model, with external forcing (uncoupled). The comparisons made against observational data show that the coupled model outperforms the uncoupled one. 

How to cite: Arpaia, L., Bajo, M., Ferrarin, C., and Umgiesser, G.: A regional coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model (SHYFEM-WRF-WW3) for intense meteo-marine events in the Mediterranean Sea, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-798, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-798, 2024.

Eunjeong Lee, Yong-Jae Han, and Myung-Seo Koo

The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) aims to develop an integrated numerical prediction system that can handle various spatial and temporal scales. As the first step, efforts were made to couple the ocean-sea ice-wave-river routing models to the Korea Integrated Model (KIM), to improve predictability over an extended-range of time scales. The Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO), Sea Ice modelling Integrated Initiative (SI3), and Wave Watch Ⅲ (WW3) were successfully coupled for the first stage (2020–2022). Subsequently, the refinements have been focused on ensuring the consistency of surface radiative/turbulent fluxes between the model components and optimizing the surface layer parameterization of each model component. Preliminary results showed that the initial coupled KIM is stable for long-range simulation over 20 years and could provide reasonable performance in medium-range forecast and seasonal simulation.
The boundary condition for turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) can be expressed using the information of wave breaking calculated from the wave model to alleviate a systematic cold bias in summer regions. The reduction in TKE flux causes warming in regions with a shallow ocean mixed layer, which reduces the systematic cold bias but rather generates a warm bias in the summer hemisphere. Therefore, we attempt to address the bias by utilizing a parameterization of the Langmuir Circulation (LC) effects. LC effects can be carried out in a variety of ways, like including the contribution from the Stokes force in TKE or modifying a mixing length scale, as suggested in the previous studies. In this study, the effects of various LC parameterizations on ocean vertical mixing and sea surface temperature will be investigated and the optimal parameterization to the fully coupled model will be suggested.

Acknowledgements. This work was carried out through the R&D project “Development of a Next-Generation Numerical Weather Prediction Model by the Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS)”, funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA2020-02212).

How to cite: Lee, E., Han, Y.-J., and Koo, M.-S.: Sensitivity of ocean vertical mixing schemes in the coupled Korean Integrated Model (KIM), EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-400, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-400, 2024.

Evan Wellmeyer, Antonio Ricchi, and Rossella Ferretti

This study investigates the Rapid Intensification (RI) and Maximum Intensity (MI) of Hurricanes Wilma and Rita (2005), focusing on the impact of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SST anomalies (SSTA), Ocean Heat Content (OHC), and the Ocean Mixed Layer Depth (OMLD) on tropical cyclone intensity and trajectory. Utilizing numerical model simulations, the research aims to quantify the ocean's influence on tropical cyclone intensity, particularly under different OHC scenarios. Additionally, the study examines how these variations influence the trajectory of tropical cyclones (TCs). By exploring these relationships, this research contributes to a better understanding of the complex interplay between oceanic conditions and tropical cyclone behavior. Numerical simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a simplified 1D Ocean Model. Simulations performed include a control with initialization consistent with observations, removing the SSTA, modulating the OMLD (doubling and halving), and modulating SST initialization fields at –3, –2, –1, +1, +2, +3 Celsius. Simulations successfully reproduce the RI phase and intensity trajectory of Hurricane Wilma and Rita, with the SST variations significantly impacting both intensity and track. Preliminary results (under ideal atmospheric conditions) indicate higher OHC scenarios result in a lower northerly/easterly component of the TCs displacement. The SSTA produces an average 27% lower Central Sea Level Pressure (CSLP), a 30% difference in minimum CSLP, and a mean difference in maximum wind speed of approximately 6%. Additionally, SSTA enhances the deepening rate during the RI phase by about 47%, increases the total surface heat flux by approximately 19%, and produces a 10% increase in accumulated grid scale precipitation. 

How to cite: Wellmeyer, E., Ricchi, A., and Ferretti, R.: On the response of extreme Tropical Cyclones to Anomalous Upper Ocean Thermal Structure , EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-510, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-510, 2024.

Jie Feng

The relatively weak sea surface temperature bias in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) simulated in the coupled
general circulation model (CGCM) from the recently released CMIP6 has been found to be important in model simulations
of regional and global climate. However, the cause of the bias is debated because the bias is strongly model
dependent and shows marked seasonality. In this study, we separate the bias in CGCMs into bias arising from oceanic
GCMs (OGCMs) and bias that is independent of OGCMs using a set of CMIP6 and OMIP6 models. We found that
OGCMs contribute little to mixed layer bias in the CGCMs. The OGCM-independent bias exhibits a large-scale cold
mixed layer bias in the TIO throughout the year, with an unexpectedly high degree of model consistency. By conducting a
set of OGCM experiments, we show that the OGCM-independent mixed layer bias is caused mainly by surface wind bias
in the utilized CGCMs. About 89% of surface wind bias in the CGCMs is due to the inability of atmospheric GCMs
(AGCMs), whereas atmosphere–ocean coupling in the CGCMs has only a minor influence on surface wind bias. The bias
in surface wind is also found to be the cause of subsurface temperature bias besides the ocean dynamics such as vertical
mixing and vertical shear in currents. Our results indicate that correcting TIO mixed layer bias in CGCMs requires improvement
in the capability of AGCM in simulating the climatological surface winds. The results improve our understanding of the cause of the bias in the Indian
Ocean and show that our method of bias separation is effective for attributing the source of bias to different proposed

How to cite: Feng, J.: Tropical Indian Ocean Mixed Layer Bias in CMIP6 CGCMs Primarily Attributed tothe AGCM Surface Wind Bias, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-98, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-98, 2024.

Ferran Lopez-Marti, Arnaud Czaja, Gabriele Messori, and Anna Rutgersson

Extreme precipitation and wind events in Western Europe are driven by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) developing over the North Atlantic Ocean. While extensive research has been conducted on the atmospheric dynamics of ARs in this region and their connection with the North Atlantic Storm Track, gaps persist in understanding how oceanic variability influences AR activity, particularly in the eddy-rich environment of the Gulf Stream extension. The enhanced ocean heat supply and high mesoscale eddy activity over these western oceanic currents increase the surface latent heat flux in the area, thereby increasing moisture availability in the lower atmosphere and potentially facilitating AR genesis.

This study focuses on evaluating the status of mesoscale eddies and oceanic heat flux within the Gulf Stream extension and their downstream impact on AR activity. To achieve this, we employ a high-pass Fourier Filter Transformation to isolate and then quantify the mesoscale eddy activity (smaller than ~500 km) of the Gulf Stream extension region in two high-resolution (0.25º) observational products for sea surface height and temperature. Additionally, we utilize heat transport data from the RAPID dataset to quantify the oceanic heat supply to the Gulf Stream extension region. Finally, we identify and track Atmospheric Rivers in the ECMWF reanalysis ERA5 dataset and calculate their intensity over the North Atlantic, including their landfall on the European West Coast.

Our analysis provides a spatial and temporal cross-correlation analysis between the Gulf Stream state (high and low pass eddy variance) and the AR activity downstream. Furthermore, we investigate temporal lags between various oceanic conditions and their impact on ARs, thereby identifying oceanic precursors for AR genesis. Consequently, our study establishes a novel statistical relationship between Gulf Stream state and AR activity, with a particular emphasis on the role of mesoscale features. This includes a comprehensive characterization of mesoscale eddy activity within the region, contributing to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms driving AR formation and propagation in Western Europe.

How to cite: Lopez-Marti, F., Czaja, A., Messori, G., and Rutgersson, A.: Gulf Stream Ocean Conditions Influence on Atmospheric Rivers, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-684, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-684, 2024.

Jon Saenz, Sheila Carreno-Madinabeitia, Gabriel Ibarra-Berastegi, Ganix Esnaola, and Almudena Fontán

During the last few years, observations show that summer warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) records are more frequently exceeded than cold ones over the southern Bay of Biscay (SBoB). During warm years over land (for instance, summer 2023), it might be expected that atmosphere-ocean energy fluxes drive SBoB’s SST anomalies.

We explore this issue by analyzing satellite-derived (MODIS) and Optimum interpolated SST datasets. We focus on daily data (2000-2023 for MODIS and 1981-2023 for OISST) over spatially-averaged open-ocean data in SBoB, with a mask constructed from satellite pixels with SST higher than or equal to 20 ºC during August and located at least 10 km away from the coast.

We intercompare the representation of SST by those datasets. Next, we use data from reanalyses (ERA5 for atmosphere-ocean energy fluxes and Iberian-Atlantic ocean reanalysis from CMEMS for mixed layer depth and salinity) to estimate the linear relationship between the derivative with time of spatially averaged SST and surface energy fluxes. This way, the amount of variance that can be explained by the atmosphere alone is computed.

Results show that the MODIS NSST product is colder than SST4 and SST, but during summer, all of them (and OISST) are very similar. The time derivative of SST from MODIS and OISST, however, show differences. The time derivative calculated from OISS, is better suited for the calculation of the relationship with energy fluxes. The application of a multiple linear regression model to the principal components computed from daily averaged surface turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes and shortwave and longwave radiation shows that the atmosphere is at most able to explain a 29% of the total variance during august between 2000 and 2023. This result suggests that the sea surface warming has been likely driven by a combination of atmospheric forcing and oceanic advective processes.

How to cite: Saenz, J., Carreno-Madinabeitia, S., Ibarra-Berastegi, G., Esnaola, G., and Fontán, A.: Does the atmosphere drive summer SST anomalies in southern Bay of Biscay?, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-728, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-728, 2024.

Silvio Davison, Alvise Benetazzo, Francesco Barbariol, Antonio Ricchi, and Rossella Ferretti

Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones (MTLC; Cavicchia et al., 2014) are mesoscale disturbances that manifest tropical-like characteristics, especially around the eye, with a morphology similar to tropical cyclones (TC; see Emanuel, 2005), without visible frontogenesis in the mature stage. In general, due to both the physical processes that intensify the cyclone and the region in which it develops, their ground structure varies considerably. Indeed, although tropical-like storms have also been observed in the Atlantic Ocean (Franklin et al., 2006) and Black Sea (Efimov et al., 2008), they occur predominantly in the Mediterranean Sea (and are therefore also known as Medicanes), particularly in the Ionian, the Balearic, and the Tyrrhenian sub-basins (see Patlakas et al., 2021), where the topography and coastal morphology play a key role in determining the near-surface wind fields and consequently the genesis and evolution of the wave fields, more frequently in late summer and autumn. Medicanes are rare compared to other cyclones (Cavicchia et al 2014) that occur in the Mediterranean Sea, since they originate in a baroclinic environment, albeit still requiring several atmospheric conditions to produce a barotropic environment, like warm core, spiraliforma clouds band, intense wind speed and well defined eye. The frequency of occurrence varies according to the type of MTLC considered: if only very strict criteria are adopted, ie only storms with fully tropical features (such as cloud structure, degree of symmetry, dimensions, and lifespan on satellite images), 0.5 events occur per year on average, while if hybrid structures are also included around 1.5 Medicanes per year occur (Cavicchia et al., 2014).

How to cite: Davison, S., Benetazzo, A., Barbariol, F., Ricchi, A., and Ferretti, R.: Characterization of extreme wave fields during Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-1012, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-1012, 2024.

Stefano Sebastianelli, Leo Pio D'Adderio, Paolo Sanò, Daniele Casella, Giulia Panegrossi, and Derrick Herndon

Recent studies exploiting satellite observations characterized both the thermodynamic and the microphysical structure of Mediterranean cyclones supposed to go through a tropical transition (Medicanes) with particular reference to the role of deep convection in the development of the warm core. In analogy with what happens in tropical cyclones (TC), the surface wind field is useful to characterize Medicanes, as it could give additional information on their evolution.

The purpose of our work is the characterization of the surface wind field of Medicanes by means of the correct identification of Medicane’s rotational center. The methodology we developed exploits the computation of the standard deviation of the horizontal surface wind direction also taking into account the wind speed field. This methodology is based on the observation that very close to the center the wind direction is highly variable in space due to the formation of the cyclonic vortex.

The Automated Rotational Center Hurricane Eye Retrieval (ARCHER) algorithm, developed by the TC group at CIMSS/University of Wisconsin-Madison, is widely used for the correct identification of a TC’s center of rotation. Since Mediterranean cyclones often exhibit satellite-based phenomenological features typical of TCs we will also try to investigate the applicability of ARCHER algorithm to these cases.

To retrieve the surface wind field over the sea, data provided by the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) real-aperture radar onboard MetOp satellites and by the Wind Radar (WindRAD) onboard of Feng Yun FY-3E satellite series are used. For both sensors the surface winds field estimation is related to the roughness of the sea surface through the back-scattered electromagnetic signal. We exploit all the available ASCAT and WindRAD overpasses for the Medicanes occurred in the last decade.

A key feature that characterizes the surface wind field of a Medicane is the radius of maximum wind (RMW). Following the definition provided for TCs, the RMW is defined as the distance between the location where the maximum wind speed occurs and the Medicane’s center of rotation. A further objective will be to show how the different methodologies used for the determination of the Medicanes' rotational center influence the RMW computation as the cyclones evolves to its mature phase and to what extent the RMW can be used as a proxy for the cyclone’s intensification.

Preliminary results show that our methodology is more reliable during the mature phase when the Medicane is more organized showing a closed cyclonic structure associated to strong near-surface winds with a quasi-calm area in its center, and that the RMW decreases as the medicanes intensify. This work is part of the ESA project “Earth Observations as a cornerstone to the understanding and prediction of tropical-like cyclone risk in the Mediterranean (MEDICANES)”.

How to cite: Sebastianelli, S., D'Adderio, L. P., Sanò, P., Casella, D., Panegrossi, G., and Herndon, D.: On the automated detection of the rotational center for the characterization of Mediterranean cyclones, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-760, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-760, 2024.

Helena Fos, Jesús Peña-Izquierdo, David Amblas, Victor Estella-Perez, Cristian Florindo-Lopez, Marc Cerdà-Domènech, Antoni Calafat, Sergi Corral, Laia Romero, and Anna Sanchez-Vidal

The wide continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion in the NW Mediterranean is a region subject to pronounced atmospheric and oceanic interactions. Persistent cold northerly winds trigger progressive cooling of shelf waters, instigating a notable increase in seawater density. This dense water is forced to overflow by the slope, primarily channeled through the submarine canyons and especially through the southernmost Cap de Creus submarine canyon. Known as dense shelf water cascading, this intricate phenomenon exerts a pivotal influence not only on regional oceanographic dynamics but also on seafloor morphology and deep-sea living resources, warranting comprehensive investigation.

To understand the interannual variability of cascading events spanning recent decades, we use the Med MFC physical reanalysis dataset, which encompasses the Mediterranean Sea. This dataset has proven invaluable, exhibiting robust correlations with in-situ observations of dense shelf water cascading via moored instrumentation, thereby offering unprecedented insights into the spatiotemporal evolution of water properties and dynamics within the Gulf of Lion.

Our study quantifies the influence of the shelf water density modulation by the buoyancy fluxes in the air-sea interface. Leveraging data from atmospheric ERA5 and hydrological GloFAS reanalyses, we unveil a comprehensive understanding of the ocean-atmosphere interaction dynamics within this region. Specifically, we analyze the interannual variability in the buoyancy fluxes calculated from the main forcing agents impacting shelf water density: river freshwater input, wind speed, air-sea temperature contrast, absolute humidity, and precipitation.

Our analysis reveals a significant correlation between these fluxes and the East Atlantic pattern (EA), which is one of the main modes of climate variability in the atmosphere. This underscores the intricate interplay between oceanic processes and broader atmospheric dynamics, particularly over the Gulf of Lion. Our findings offer insights into the mechanisms governing dense shelf water cascading and natural variability, thus augmenting our understanding of regional climate dynamics and enhancing predictive capabilities, and help foresee its occurrence and evolution in the context of climate change.

How to cite: Fos, H., Peña-Izquierdo, J., Amblas, D., Estella-Perez, V., Florindo-Lopez, C., Cerdà-Domènech, M., Calafat, A., Corral, S., Romero, L., and Sanchez-Vidal, A.: Atmospheric and ocean preconditioning factors of dense shelf water cascading in the NW Mediterranean: insights from reanalyses, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-881, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-881, 2024.

Maria Gabriela Escobar Franco, Rafael Almar, Julien Boucharel, and Boris Dewitte

Coastal zones play an important role for coastal communities, infrastucture and ecosystems.
They are considered as complex systems that are constantly affected by the human activities and
the climate. Due to the configuration of the coastline, some drivers have a greater impact on the
coastline at different times of the year. Here we present a regional evaluation of the shoreline
changes over 27 years (1999-2019) based on satellite observations and reanalysis data. We study
the main hydrodynamic drivers of the coastal variability: the sea level, ocean waves and wind stress
(alongshore) on intraseasonal timescales in the western of South America. We analyse the monthly
changes in the shoreline as a linear function of the physical drivers, which are modulated by: the
Equatorial Oceanic Kelvin Wave and the coastal trapped wave that have the major variability in
the austral winter at the equator, the Coastal Jet that characterize the wind bursts in the Pisco and
Central Chile region in the austral fall and the extratropical storm activity that module the waves.
We found that theses drivers contribute to the most of the variability in the northern region (from
Ecuador to the central Peru region 15°S) during June-August, and to the southern region (from
central Peru to the central Chile 35°S) during December-February. Our results provide insight
into the effects of physical forcing over the coastline on intraseasonal timescales, which can result
from atmospheric and oceanic perturbations from tropical-extratropical teleconnexions, that can
be considered in the context of community resilience.

How to cite: Escobar Franco, M. G., Almar, R., Boucharel, J., and Dewitte, B.: Influence of physical drivers on the variability of shoreline position in western South America, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-142, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-142, 2024.

Jiha Kim, Nary La, Pil-Hun Chang, Hyun-Suk Kang, Jeong-Hyun Park, and Ik Hyun Cho

The storm surge forecast model holds significant importance in minimizing coastal damages caused by strong low-pressure system (e.g., typhoon). In general, the model accuracy is largely influenced by atmospheric forcing. In the case of a deterministic forecast model, therefore, the surge forecast can vary significantly depending on the uncertainty of the atmospheric model. In the present study, we developed the Ensemble Regional Tide·Storm Surge Model (ETSM) for the sea around Korean Peninsula, utilizing the forecast results of 26 members calculated from an ensemble atmospheric model to address the uncertainty of a single forecasting model. For the assessment of ETSM, we carried out numerical experiment from July to September 2022 (ETSM_0). In addition, three sensitive experiments were conducted, considering initial bias correction (ETSM_1), the increase of ensemble members by using time-lag method (ETSM_2), and both methods (ETSM_3). When we compared ETSM_0 to additional experiments, the ensemble spread range generally widened in ETSM_2 and ETSM_3 due to the increase of ensemble members especially in the period of Typhoon HINNAMNOR, which leads to the inclusion of observations within the spread. Verification of the probability of surge heights exceeding the threshold of 10 cm for each forecast time (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120hr) showed that the Brier Skill Score (BSS) was 0.14 on average for ETSM_O, while it was 0.47 for ETSM_1, 0.19 for ETSM_2, and 0.47 for ETSM_3. Furthermore, the Relative Operation Characteristic (ROC) was 0.73 on average for ETSM_O, 0.79 for ETSM_1, 0.75 for ETSM_2, and 0.81 for ETSM_3. This indicates an overall improvement in probability forecast performance when applying initial bias correction and increasing the number of ensemble.

How to cite: Kim, J., La, N., Chang, P.-H., Kang, H.-S., Park, J.-H., and Cho, I. H.: Improving Forecast Accuracy of Ensemble Regional Tide and Storm surge Model, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-391, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-391, 2024.

Crina Radu, Georgeta Bandoc, and Mircea Degeratu

The studies on Romanian sea breeze remain relatively underdeveloped, posing a significant gap in climate research. This study aims to utilize the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) to identify cases of sea breeze occurrences along the Romanian coastline. The overarching goal is to enhance our understanding of local climatology and validate the empirical findings through a theoretical approach.

The study employs data from the Copernicus European Regional ReAnalysis (CERRA) database, which is available at 3-hour intervals. The first phase of this study is to validate the empirical findings for the year 2018. By utilizing the SBI index, we aim to delineate patterns of sea breezes and their temporal variations throughout the year.

Preliminary findings suggest that the theoretical approach based on the SBI index yields results that offer a more robust investigation and constitute a comprehensive exploration of the dynamics of sea breezes along the Romanian coastline. Using the SBI method, sea breeze occurrences have been classified into four distinct types: sea breezes blocked by offshore synoptic flow, sea breeze regime, sea breeze embedded into onshore synoptic current, and sea breeze inhibited by negative thermal gradient. The results revealed a significant increase in the identification of sea breeze cases, compared with the empirical results, with over 70% more instances detected. Notably, over 80% of these cases were found to be associated with incorporated maritime breezes within the synoptic current.

By comparing the outcomes of both approaches, we aim to validate the efficacy of the SBI index in identifying and characterizing sea breezes on the Romanian coast. Additionally, the study seeks to elucidate any discrepancies between the two methods, providing insights into the strengths and limitations of each approach. The comparative analysis of theoretical and empirical results will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the sea breeze in Romania. Furthermore, it will contribute to the refinement of methodologies for studying and predicting local weather phenomena, thereby enhancing the accuracy of climate models and forecasts.

In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of studying sea breezes in Romania and introduces the SBI index as a valuable tool for identifying and analyzing these types of circulation. Through comparative analysis, we demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the SBI index in the Romanian, providing a basis for further research.

How to cite: Radu, C., Bandoc, G., and Degeratu, M.: Advancing Understanding of the Sea Breeze for the Romanian Black Sea Coast: A Comparative Analysis Using the SBI Index, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-462, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-462, 2024.

Hyeonsoo Cha, Jae-Hong Moon, Taekyun Kim, and Y. Tony Song

Because regional sea level rise can threaten coastal communities, understanding and quantifying the underlying process contributing to regional sea level budget are essential. In this study, we assessed whether regional sea level rise budget on the northwestern Pacific marginal seas (including the Yellow and East China Seas, South China Sea, and East/Japan Sea) can be closed with a combination of observations and ocean reanalyses over 1993–2017 but also with independent observations from in situ profiles including Argo floats and satellite gravity measurements since 2003. The sum of estimated components is comparable to the geocentric sea level rise for all marginal seas, representing the major contributions from land ice melt and sterodynamic components. While the mass loss of land ice accounts for a large fraction of the observed trend, the spatial trend and its interannual variability are dominated by the sterodynamic processes. The observation-based estimate further shows that along the continental shelves, the sterodynamic sea levels are substantially induced by ocean mass redistribution due to changes in ocean circulation. In contrast, local steric sea level contributes to the sum differently in spatial patterns, with stronger steric sea level rise in the deep water regions than the surrounding continental shelf regions. This result highlights the circulation-driven ocean mass change between the deep ocean and shallow marginal seas, which is playing a role in driving regional sea level rise trend and its variability along the continental shelves. In addition, our study demonstrates the utility of independent observational platforms for a process-based assessment by achieving the regional sea level budget closure.

How to cite: Cha, H., Moon, J.-H., Kim, T., and Song, Y. T.: Evaluation of the sea-level rise in the northwestern Pacific marginal seas, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-647, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-647, 2024.

Carlos Román-Cascón, Oscar Álvarez, Alfredo Izquierdo, Javier Benavente, Jesús Gómez-Enri, and Tomás Fernandez-Montblanc

The OceanUCA project* focuses on the development of an operational platform to integrate and update already existing operational tools (such as the OceanMap UCA system developed by the group in the framework of previous projects), including new observational systems and higher-resolution numerical model products.

The methodology of the project aims to improve and adapt the computational resources to respond to the current societal needs and to the higher computational time demand of the new models. This is mainly motivated by the growing spatiotemporal resolution of the models used to effectively respond to specific environmental coastal problems (e.g., oil spills, wrecks, marine and atmospheric heat waves, extreme events tracking, etc.). OceanUCA will be based on tools generated from observational data and numerical model outputs (both atmospheric and hydrodynamic), specifically designed and configured to reach their maximum resolution on the coast of Andalusia (Southern Spain). Besides, the new operational platform OceanUCA will be coordinated with other Spanish and European operational oceanographic services.

The ultimate aim of the project will serve to detect specific effects associated with climate change, to enhance the environmental protection of the area, to facilitate the conservation of natural resources, to develop early-warning products, to improve the short, medium, and long-term forecasts, and to help using adequately the set of ecosystem services that the coastal environment offers. Besides, we hope the new platform will help the decision-making from institutions and third parties through the real-time (and forecast) monitoring of marine and atmospheric processes on the coast of Andalusia.

In this work, we will show details about the platform, including overviews of the hydrodynamic and atmospheric models used and the associated observations, that will be extended in the frame of related projects currently developed.

* OceanUCA is a project recently funded by the 2023 call for Marine Sciences I+D+i projects in the frame of: “Plan Complementario de Ciencias Marinas of Junta de Andalucía” and “Plan de Recuperación, Transformación y Resiliencia” (NextGenerationEU funding).

How to cite: Román-Cascón, C., Álvarez, O., Izquierdo, A., Benavente, J., Gómez-Enri, J., and Fernandez-Montblanc, T.: OceanUCA: towards the adaptation and consolidation of an Operational Oceanographic and Atmospheric System to improve the observation and forecasting of coastal physical processes in Andalusia, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-718, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-718, 2024.

Gianluca Redaelli, Giovanni Liguori, Leone Cavicchia, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Davide Bonaldo, Sandro Carniel, Carlos Calvo-Sancho, Maria Luisa Martin, Juan Jesús González-Alemán, Antonio Richi, and Rossella Ferretti

In a complex contest of climate change, we observe the evolution of extreme events that greatly challenge many areas of human life. Although the Mediterranean Sea is a relatively mild basin, it is however characterized by, occasionally intense cyclones with tropical-like characteristics known as Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLC). Many studies have highlighted that sea surface temperature (SST) distribution play a crucial role in modulating the intense air-sea exchange, hence controlling both development and evolution of TLCs. However, given the complex interplay among ocean mixed layer, heat content and temperature, the role of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and SST Anomaly is of paramount importance. In this study we investigated the role of both SST anomaly, horizontal gradients and MLD profile on the origin and evolution of a recent record-breaking TLC (named IANOS and DANIEL). IANOS and DANIEL are originated over the southern Ionian Sea. The first made landfall over Greece mainland coast and DANIEL made landfall over Libyan coasts. These TLCs developed over a basin where a positive SST anomaly up to 4 °C was detected, which coincided with the sea area where it reached the maximum intensification and strength. We conducted a series of experiments using an atmospheric model (WRF - Weather Research and Forecasting system) driven by underlying SST (standalone configuration), either with daily update or coupled to a simple mixed-layer ocean model (SLAB ocean), with SST calculated at every time step using the SLAB ocean for a given value of the MLD. Sensitivity tests were performed increasing or decreasing MLD depth by 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, 75 m, 100 m, removing the horizontal gradients, removing the SST anomaly. Then, possible past and future climatological scenarios of MLD thickness were identified and tested. Preliminary results show that the MLD influences not only the intensity of the cyclone but also the structure of the precipitation field both in terms of magnitude and location. The fundamental role of the SST anomaly was also found to be essential to provide intense characteristics to IANOS and DANIEL. Results deserve further investigation in the context of climate change scenarios that can provide useful insights into impact on coastal civil and economics in the whole Mediterranean region.

How to cite: Redaelli, G., Liguori, G., Cavicchia, L., Miglietta, M. M., Bonaldo, D., Carniel, S., Calvo-Sancho, C., Martin, M. L., González-Alemán, J. J., Richi, A., and Ferretti, R.: Exploring how a warmer Mediterranean Sea affects the origin and development of destructive Tropical-Like Cyclones IANOS and DANIEL, EMS Annual Meeting 2024, Barcelona, Spain, 1–6 Sep 2024, EMS2024-737, https://doi.org/10.5194/ems2024-737, 2024.