This session aims at presenting highlights of relevant recent results regarding the exploration and sustainable utilization of the Moon through observations, modelling, laboratory and theory - although the main focus of the session is on instrumentation and modelling approaches. Key research questions concerning the lunar surface, subsurface, interior and their evolution will be discussed. More in detail, the topics of interest for this session include:
-Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration
-Synthesis of results from Clementine, Prospector, SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang’e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Artemis and GRAIL
- First results from Chang'E 4, Chandrayaan2, Chang’E5, Commercial Lunar Payload
- Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna25-27, SLIM, GLXP legacy, LRP, commercial landers, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions
- Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties
- Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, In-Situ Resources, ISRU, support studies
- ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village

Note that this session is open to all branches of lunar science and exploration, and is intended as an open forum and discussion between diverse experts and Earth geoscientists and explorers at large. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

Co-organized by PS6
Convener: Bernard Foing | Co-convener: Joana S. Oliveira
| Attendance Mon, 04 May, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)

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Session summary Download all presentations (45MB)

Chat time: Monday, 4 May 2020, 16:15–18:00

Chairperson: Joana S. Oliveira, Bernard Foing
D826 |
Maria T. Zuber and David E. Smith

The recent development of high-resolution models of the lunar gravity field based on data from the NASA GRAIL mission have been instrumental in gaining knowledge about the structure of the Moon, and particularly, of the upper crust. Beneath the outer layer GRAIL data reveal evidence of massive ancient dikes and past processes that no longer have any surficial expression due to heavy bombardment during the Moon’s post-accretional epoch that pulverized the shallow crust. The gravity field of this outer crust, with lower density and higher porosity than expected, also reveals anomalies that indicate the presence of regions of even lower density possibly indicating the existence of lava tubes, as well as regions of higher density where mass anomalies could conceivably indicate locations of resources. Lava tubes, long suspected of existing beneath the maria, are places protected from particle and EM radiation and therefore potential locations for safe location of humans.  Gravity anomaly regions are thus prime locations for exploration studies that could help sustain a human presence. The use of high-resolution  gravity in lunar exploration, as well as science, is a tool for survivability for human expeditions.

How to cite: Zuber, M. T. and Smith, D. E.: Contribution of Gravity to Lunar Science, Exploration and Resource Assessment, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11912, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11912, 2020.

D827 |
Lauren Jozwiak and G. Wes Patterson and the Mini-RF Science Team

The possibility that water ice could be present in lunar polar craters has long been postulated.  More recently, measurements from instruments on a number of spacecraft have all pointed to the presence of water at the lunar poles; although whether that water exists as surficial frost or as extensive, competent ice deposits remains strongly debated. Water ice can exhibit a strong response at radar wavelengths in the form of a Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE) and the circular polarization ratio (CPR) of the returned data can be a useful indicator of such a response—i.e., measured CPRs for icy materials typically exceed unity. Mini-RF is currently operating as part of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Cornerstone Extended Mission to address driving questions related to the form/abundance of water on the Moon and its vertical distribution. Using a combination of monostatic and bistatic observations of the lunar poles, we investigate the radar response of lunar polar craters. Continued analysis of monostatic radar data suggest little evidence for extensive ice signatures; however, initial analyses of bistatic data suggest that an ice signature may be observed within the crater Cabeus. These seemingly contradictory results could be related to the nature of the depth or distribution of ice. We will explore these possibilities, and the implications for lunar ISRU.  

How to cite: Jozwiak, L. and Patterson, G. W. and the Mini-RF Science Team: Mini-RF Observations of Lunar Polar Craters and Implications for Ice Distribution, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11285, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11285, 2020.

D828 |
Yoshifumi Futaana and Stas Barabash and the The SELPHIE mission proposal team

We are approaching a new era of space exploration: Utilization of our Moon for Human Beings. Intensive international efforts targeting human activities on the Moon have been initiated, and developed drastically in this decade. The revolution enabling the activities was the discovery of water at the Moon. We envisage utilizing the water for Lunar surface activities, as well as for explorations to farther Deep Space destinations.

Although multiple datasets have revealed the existence of Lunar water, fundamental scientific questions remain unanswered: Where has the surface and cold trap waters come from? What are the relative roles between solar wind protons and delivery from space for the Lunar surface water? What is the role of transportation of surface water to cold traps? This is the problem area that the SELPHIE (Surface, Exosphere, and Lunar Polar Hydration with Impact Experiments) mission is to reveal. The top-level science question of SELPHIE is "How is the lunar surface water delivered or produced, transported, and accumulated in cold traps?"

The baseline design of the SELPHIE mission is composed of six scientific sensors (three remote sensing and three in situ sensors) together with two impact experiments: An infrared spectrometer, visible camera, energetic neutral atom telescope, neutral mass spectrometer, solar wind monitor, and dust detector.  These sensors are operated from a 3-axis stabilized SELPHIE orbiter to reveal the comprehensive picture of the lunar water cycle. Two impact experiments (two identical systems, enabling two independent experiments) will be executed to reveal the source of water under cold traps. Each impact experiment contains a 6U cubesat and a small impactor (4 kg). The impactor will impact to a permanently shadowed crater to make ejecta. The cubesat will sound the plume by mass spectrometer and camera.

The norminal mission period is for 8-12 months, under the quasi-stationary polar orbit of the Moon (30-200 km altitudes). The pericenter is above the South Pole. The total mass of 600 kg (dry mass) with 61 kg payload mass is the baseline, while a further mass reduction could also be foreseen. The total cost, without payload developement, is within the ESA's F-class mission cost cap (150 MEuro).

How to cite: Futaana, Y. and Barabash, S. and the The SELPHIE mission proposal team: A mission proposal for understanding the origin of the lunar water: Scientific concept of the SELPHIE Mission, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-18308, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-18308, 2020.

D829 |
Roman V. Kruzelecky, Piotr Murzionak, Qi-Yang Peng, Paul Burbulea, Ian Sinclair, Gregory Schinn, Yang Gao, Craig Underwood, Chris Bridges, Roberto Armellin, Andrea Luccafabris, Edward Cloutis, Alexis Parkinson, Brynn Dagdick, Mike Daly, Amélie St-Amour, and Jean de Lafontaine

Finding suitable quantities of key resources for life-support and refueling is vital to future sustained lunar manned bases and commercial activities. There are large uncertainties in the lunar near-surface distribution of water ice volatiles and relevant in-situ resources, such as ilmenite (FeTiO3). Moreover, planned future lunar orbiter missions have relatively limited spatial resolution, in the km range, for the volatile mappings relative to typical lander and rover range capabilities, especially for operations within the lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) that could shelter accumulated water ice deposits.

VMMO, for Volatile and Mineralogy Mapping Orbiter,  is a low-cost 20 kg 12U Cubesat that comprises the Lunar Volatile and Mineralogy Mapper (LVMM) multi-wavelength chemical lidar science payload, the Compact LunAr Ionizing Radiation Environment(CLAIRE) monitoring payload, a COTS electronics test bed, and the supporting 12U Cubesat bus with propulsion, direct to Earth S-band and 1560 nm optical communications, on board data processing and a suite of altitude and pointing sensors for semiautonomous vision-assisted navigation from lunar orbit.

VMMO will most likely be deployed from a commercial lunar transportation provider, such as Astrobotics, into a suitable near-polar injection orbit. The on-board propulsion will be used to achieve a stable lunar frozen orbit for the subsequent science operations with a perilune over the south pole under 100 km to assist the LVMM volatile and mineralogy mappings.

The compact LVMM is a multi-wavelength Chemical Lidar (<6.1 kg) which will use single-mode (SM) fiber lasers emitting simultaneously at 532 nm, 1064 nm and 1560 nm.  This will permit stand-off mapping of the lunar water ice distribution using active laser illumination, with a focus on selected permanently-shadowed craters in the lunar south pole;Shackleton, Faustini and Cabeus. This combination of selected laser spectral channels can provide very sensitive discrimination of water/ice in various types of Mare and Highland regolith, based on breadboard validation. The use of the SM fiber lasers enables a small laser beam divergence to provide high spatial resolution in the 10 m range at the lunar surface. There is some relevant flight heritage as part of the Fiber Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) payload on ESA’s Proba-2 spacecraft that is still operational after more than 10 years in low earth orbit.

LVMM can also be used in a passive multispectral mode at 300 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm and 1560 nm to map the lunar ilmenite in-situ resource distribution during the lunar day using the characteristic surface-reflected solar illumination. By combining the passive lunar day measurements with the active lunar night measurements, some new insights into the lunar diurnal water cycle should be possible.

This paper discusses the VMMO science requirements and the supporting 12U Cubesat platform and LVMM multiwavelength chemical lidar payload and some of the associated design trade-offs.

How to cite: Kruzelecky, R. V., Murzionak, P., Peng, Q.-Y., Burbulea, P., Sinclair, I., Schinn, G., Gao, Y., Underwood, C., Bridges, C., Armellin, R., Luccafabris, A., Cloutis, E., Parkinson, A., Dagdick, B., Daly, M., St-Amour, A., and de Lafontaine, J.: Lunar Volatile and Mineralogy Mapping Orbiter 12U Cubesat, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22678, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22678, 2020.

D830 |
José Luis Mesa Uña, Marina Díaz Michelena, Francisco Javier de Frutos Hernánsanz, Claudio Aroca Hernández-Ros, Marina Pérez Jiménez, Marco Maicas Ramos, María del Mar Sanz Lluch, Cristina Lavín García, Reinel Marante, Benoit Langlais, Rolf Kilian, and Miguel Ángel Rivero

The main objective of this contribution is to present the evolution of NEWTON novel magnetic susceptometer for planetary exploration, a state of the art sensor for the measurement of the complex magnetic susceptibility developed in the frame of an EU H2020 funded project [1].

The magnetic susceptibility is a complex parameter dependent on the external magnetic field amplitude, direction and frequency. NEWTON susceptometer has been developed to determine the magnetic susceptibility of rocks and soils, with the capability to determine not only the real part but also the imaginary part of the susceptibility.

The calibration and validation process for the susceptometer prototype casted very good results in comparison with other commercial and high resolution laboratory devices, reaching a resolution in the order of χ = 10−4 (I.S. Vol. Susceptibility), representative of Earth, Moon and Mars rocks. The critical parts of the prototype have been subjected to different tests, i.e. vibration and TVT, to verify the capability to withstand the hard environmental conditions of interplanetary missions.

In this work we discuss the potential contribution of NEWTON instrument on the technical and scientific objectives achievement in future investigations on the Moon, either as payload during in-situ exploration with rovers or in sample return missions, providing a useful tool for fast in place sample analysis.

There are still open questions regarding Moon’s magnetic field and geological characteristics of the satellite. Most hypotheses to explain the magnetic characteristics and anomalies on the lunar surface invoke a thermally driven core dynamo during its Pre-Nectarian and Nectarian history [2]. However, this theory is problematical given the small size of the core and the required strong magnetic field strength of an ancient dynamo. Further investigations on the lunar samples from missions [3] indicate ancient magnetic fields with intensities of <1 to 120 μT for the period between 4.2 to 4.0 Ga. This huge range of intensities may indicate that the Moon’s magnetic field experienced extreme high temporal variations [2]. Even if considering large uncertainties, dynamo models should consider paleointensities of at least ~35 μT for this high-field period.

The use of scientific instruments like NEWTON susceptometer in rover exploration missions could shed some light on the ancient dynamo magnetic field, the magnetic and mineral composition of the lunar crust and other unanswered questions from the Moon.


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 730041 and the Spanish Programme of Research, Development and Innovation oriented to the challenges of the society under grant ESP2017-88930-R.



[1] M.Diaz Michelena, J.L Mesa Uña, M. Perez Jimenez, M. Maicas Ramos, P. Cobos Arribas, C. Aroca Hernandez-Ros, Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, volume 263, pages 471-479 (2017)

[2] Tikoo, S.M., Weiss, B.P., Cassata, W.S., Shuser, D.L., Gattacceca, J., Lima, E.A., Suavet, C., Nimmo, F. & Fuller, M.D. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 404: 89-97 (2014)

[3] Tsunakawa, H., Takahashi, F., Shimizu, H., Shibuya, H., & Matsushima, M. Icarus 228: 35-53 (2014).

[3] Fuller, M. (1974). Reviews of Geophysics, 12 – 1, 101-103 (1974)

How to cite: Mesa Uña, J. L., Díaz Michelena, M., de Frutos Hernánsanz, F. J., Aroca Hernández-Ros, C., Pérez Jiménez, M., Maicas Ramos, M., Sanz Lluch, M. M., Lavín García, C., Marante, R., Langlais, B., Kilian, R., and Rivero, M. Á.: Newton novel magnetic instrument. Potential application to unveil key questions as the origin of the Moon, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20527, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20527, 2020.

D831 |
| solicited
Jan Deca

All lunar swirls are known to be co-located with crustal magnetic anomalies (LMAs). Not all LMAs can be associated with albedo markings, making swirls, and their possible connection with the former, an intriguing puzzle yet to be solved.

Given favorable conditions, an LMA can deflect the solar wind enough to form a mini-magnetosphere that partially (and possibly only temporarily) shields the underlying lunar regolith. Recent modeling efforts have shown that the resulting energy flux pattern to the surface is consistent with the underlying albedo (swirl) patterns. In particular, coupling a fully kinetic particle-in-cell code with a downward-continued magnetic field model based on orbital-altitude observations, we are able to produce a pattern similar to Reiner Gamma’s alternating bright and dark bands, but only when integrating over the full lunar orbit. Although consistent with the solar-wind standoff hypothesis for the origin of swirls, the match is not perfect. A combination of reasons could be the cause.

Here we discuss some of the unexplained discrepancies between the flux profile and the surface brightness and why the Reiner Gamma swirl region should be a prime target for future low-orbiting spacecraft or even landers/rovers, and we consider the potential role of human exploration.

How to cite: Deca, J.: The Reiner Gamma Swirl and Magnetic Anomaly: Why We Should Go There, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-6194, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6194, 2020.

D832 |
Robert Buchwald, Silvio Sandrone, Thomas Schrage, and Carlo Mirra

The European Large Logistic Lander (EL3) is an ESA proposed contribution to the international human Moon exploration efforts. EL3 would be capable of flying a variety of missions. In the frame of the American Artemis program, EL3 would provide increased capabilities for science and technology payloads as well as supporting lunar surface asset deployment for longer surface expeditions. Besides this, also self-standing European science and exploration missions as well as a sample return scenario using gateway and Orion infrastructure for returning surface samples from the lunar far side back to Earth are part of the lander's portfolio.

Being envisaged as a modular and versatile system, payloads could be delivered to any longitude or latitude on the Moon. Hazard avoidance capabilities would enable accessing clustered and rocky areas on the surface, which were out of reach for missions of the past. Lunar night survival technologies could allow long term science observations and repeated operations of ISRU plants.

ESA is in exchange with the international community on the definition of common user requirements which address NASA's needs whilst also expressing the European vision. First industrial studies have been awarded for paving the way towards a sustained exploration of the Moon. A regular exchange between the EL3 user community and the industrial teams is planned to be organized soon to allow capturing all relevant stakeholder needs right from the beginning.

How to cite: Buchwald, R., Sandrone, S., Schrage, T., and Mirra, C.: European Lunar Cargo Lander: Performance figures and community opportunities, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22416, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22416, 2020.

D833 |
Luís Lopes, Shashank Govindaraj, Balazs Bodo, Kevin Picton, Joseph Purnell, Fran Colmenero, Wiebke Brinkmann, Heitor Savino, Jakub Stelmachowski, and Nabil Aouf

PRO-ACT (Horizon 2020; https://www.h2020-pro-act.eu/) studies the establishment of a lunar base with the support of a mobile robotic platform formed by three distinct robots, with different features, based on their cooperation and manipulation capabilities. This vision will provide tools in preparation of the commercial exploitation of in-situ resources by assembling an ISRU (In-Situ Resource Utilisation) system, essential for a future human settlement at the Moon. PRO-ACT’s vision of ISRU focuses on the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to serve as the oxidizer for fuel and artificial atmosphere generation within habitats and 3D printing of relevant structures using regolith for construction purposes – including tiles for roads and elements for shelters. The mineral ilmenite, found in lunar rocks, is the perfect target for the ISRU platform as it contains oxygen, iron and titanium as construction materials.

The main goal of PRO-ACT is to implement and demonstrate the cooperative capabilities of the multi-robot system in a Moon alike environment that will be replicated at two sites, indoors and outdoors, in Europe. For this purpose, the PRO-ACT project (OG11) will also rely on the outcomes of previous space-related projects from the PERASPERA project and its Operational Grants. Therefore, PRO-ACT will: 1) Review, extend and integrate previous OGs outcomes as part of a comprehensive multi-robot system, in a Moon construction scenario, 2) Develop robust cooperation capabilities allowing joint interventions (navigation in close vicinity and joint manipulation actions) in mixed structured/unstructured environment, 3) Make the capabilities available within a CREW module, 4) Customize existing mobile robotic platforms and prepare facilities to perform tests and demonstrations in a selection of relevant scenarios of Moon construction activities (ISRU capabilities establishment; preparing dust mitigation surfaces; assembling and deploying a gantry/3D printer).

PRO-ACT will show what robotic cooperation can achieve and will demonstrate the effectiveness of collaborative mission planning, and manipulation and assembly of a supporting infrastructure. Cooperative scenarios will be based on: 1) fine scale surveying of areas prior to construction work, 2) site clearing by grading stones and debris, 3) unloading equipment/construction elements and transporting them to the assembly sites, 4) assembly of specific modular components of an ISRU plant, 5) assisting partial assembly and mobility of a gantry, 6) 3D printing of modular building elements from pseudo-regolith simulant, and 7) sample assembly of printed elements to construct sections of storage, habitation spaces or dust mitigation surfaces. Following this scenario, the key robotic elements, (the mobile rover IBIS, the six-legged walking robot Mantis and a gantry) are outlined according to the corresponding mission architecture. The ISRU plant size is representative of a future lunar mission, with grasping points to assist robotic manipulation capabilities and considering reduced lunar gravity.

The target of this work is to reach a Technology Readiness Level of TRL 4/5 (depending on scenarios subparts) with this approach, to enable exploration of the Moon environment in the next decade. This will be achieved and proven with the performance of the required tests and demonstrations in Lunar analogues, in order to validate the newly developed capabilities.

How to cite: Lopes, L., Govindaraj, S., Bodo, B., Picton, K., Purnell, J., Colmenero, F., Brinkmann, W., Savino, H., Stelmachowski, J., and Aouf, N.: PRO-ACT - Planetary Robots Deployed for Assembly and Construction of Future Lunar ISRU and Supporting Infrastructures, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-11595, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-11595, 2020.

D834 |
Joana S. Oliveira and Lon L. Hood

Orbital spacecraft magnetic field observations show that several isolated magnetic anomalies are found to be heterogeneously distributed over the lunar surface. The magnetic anomalies origin is still debated; however, it is largely accepted that an ambient core magnetic field was present during their formation. Contrary to previous studies, here we focus only on anomalies that are related to basins/craters, which correspond to the best possibility to hold ancient core field information. In particular, the basin rocks become thermoremanently magnetized as the melt sheet cools down slowly recording the ambient magnetic field that was present when the crater was formed.

We build regional magnetic field maps using data from quiet orbits of Lunar Prospector and Kaguya spacecraft. When comparing these regional maps to existing global models, several differences and details are discovered. Further investigation is required to understand why small scales are missing from global models. For each mapped crater, we perform inversions for the magnetization direction to estimate the corresponding paleopole position (defined as the north magnetic pole when the anomaly formed). In detail, a grid of dipoles is placed over the basin inner depression, where the melt sheet is believed to be. All dipoles have the same common direction, nonetheless different dipole moments.

Preliminary results show that paleopole positions of regionally mapped anomalies associated with craters are not in absolute agreement with previous paleopole studies. Also of significance is the distribution of dipoles obtained, which seem to be consistent with inferred impactor trajectories. We conclude that paleopole position results are highly dependent on the technique and choices we make to construct the magnetic field maps. Further studies of several other craters will be performed, but we expect large differences when using regionally mapped anomalies. Our results will help to better constrain the lunar ancient core field morphology.

How to cite: Oliveira, J. S. and Hood, L. L.: Retrieving paleopoles using newly mapped lunar magnetic anomalies within basins, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20287, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20287, 2020.

D835 |
Cassandra Armstrong and Peter Chi

Our previous study of the restored Apollo Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) data discovered that narrowband ion cyclotron waves were often observed at the Apollo 15 and 16 landing sites when the Moon was in the Earth’s magnetotail (Chi et al., 2013). Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excitation of ion cyclotron waves at the Moon: the absorption of ions at the lunar surface and the pickup ions from the lunar exosphere. Either process can lead to an ion velocity distribution unstable to ion cyclotron instability, but it is of particular interest to investigate which ion cyclotron waves are associated with the latter mechanism so that the observations of them can provide hints to the type and the number of pickup ions escaped from the lunar exosphere. More recently, Nakagawa et al. (2018) examined the Kaguya data and found similar ion cyclotron waves in the Earth’s magnetotail but at a very low occurrence rate.

In this study, we perform statistical analysis on the full set of the restored LSM data, including those from the Apollo 12, 15, and 16 missions between 1969 and 1975, that were only partially available to our previous study. We find that the ion cyclotron waves were observed by Apollo 15 LSM approximately 5% of the time, which is about six times more frequently than that found in Kaguya observations. A slightly lower occurrence rate of ion cyclotron waves is found in the Apollo 16 LSM data because of the strong local crustal magnetic field at the Apollo 16 site and the conservation of the Poynting flux. Future joint measurements by lunar landers and orbiters can enable a true comparison of the ion cyclotron waves on the lunar surface and at different altitudes of the exosphere.

How to cite: Armstrong, C. and Chi, P.: Ion Cyclotron Waves on Lunar Surface: Apollo Observations and Implications for Future Lunar Missions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20818, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20818, 2020.

D836 |
Sylvain Ranvier, Sebastien Hess, Jean-Charles Mateo Velez, Angel Alvaro Sanchez, and Johan De Keyser

One major environmental constraint during exploration missions is the presence of charged dust-like particles, which are present on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids. From an analysis of the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems during the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface, it was found that these effects can take many forms such as external vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems and seal failures. One of the most serious effects is the compromising of astronaut health by irritation and inhalation of lunar dust.

Therefore, it is of utmost importance to characterise the properties of the dust particles present on the exploration sites and their transportation mechanisms to enable efficient mitigation techniques to be put in place.

The overall objective of the DUSTER project is to develop instrumentation and technologies to study dust particles and electrostatic transportation for planetary and small body exploration missions. Specifically, the aim is to design, manufacture and test in a relevant environment a compact multi-sensor instrument for in situ analysis of dust properties (mechanical and electrical) and electrostatic transportation that can be used on a small lunar lander. To that end, the instrument includes:

- A dust collector: electrodes biased at high potential to attract/collect dust particles, coupled to an electrometer

- Langmuir probes

- E-field probes

Using this instrument, the following parameters will be derived:

- Charging level of dust as a function of the environmental parameters (illumination, plasma density and temperature)

- (gravity + cohesive forces)/charge ratio distribution of dust layer

These two parameters will allow the determination of the electric field needed to attract/collect dust according to the environmental conditions (illumination, plasma density and temperature), which, among other applications, will allow designing electrostatic dust mitigation devices and dust sample collectors.

How to cite: Ranvier, S., Hess, S., Mateo Velez, J.-C., Alvaro Sanchez, A., and De Keyser, J.: DUSTER: a multi-sensor instrument to study dust transport and electrostatic removal for exploration missions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21638, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21638, 2020.

D837 |
David Heather and Elliot Sefton-Nash


The Package for Resource Observation and in-Situ Prospecting for Exploration, Commercial exploitation and Transportation (PROSPECT) is a payload in development by ESA for use at the lunar surface. Current development is for flight on the Russian-led Luna-Resource Lander (Luna 27) mission, which will target the south polar region of the Moon. PROSPECT will perform an assessment of volatile inventory in near surface regolith (down to ~ 1 m), and analyses to determine the abundance and origin of any volatiles discovered. Lunar polar volatiles present compelling science and exploration objectives for PROSPECT, but solar wind-implanted volatiles and oxygen in lunar minerals (extracted via ISRU techniques) constitute potential science return anywhere on the Moon, independently of a polar landing site. PROSPECT is comprised of the ProSEED drill module and the ProSPA analytical laboratory plus the Solids Inlet System (SIS), a carousel of sealable ovens (for evolving volatiles from regolith).

In ensemble, PROSPECT has a number of sensors and instruments (including ion-trap and magnetic sector mass spectrometers, imagers, and sensors for temperature, pressure, and permittivity) that form the basis for a range of science investigations that are (almost all) led by the PROSPECT Science Team:

  • Imaging, Surface Modelling and Spectral Analysis
  • Drilling, Geotechnics and Sample Handling
  • ProSPA ISRU Precursor Experiments
  • ProSPA ISRU Prospecting
  • ProSPA Light Elements & Isotopes
  • ProSPA Noble Gases
  • Thermal Environment and Volatile Preservation
  • Permittivity (ESA-led)

Development status and current activities

PROSPECT Phase C, ‘detailed definition’, began in December 2019. An plan of research activities is in progress to gain from and guide ongoing development, build strategic scientific knowledge, and to prepare for operation of the payload.

Drill Testing. Testing of the ProSEED Development Model was carried out in December 2019 as part of the final Phase B activities. Test procedures were formulated to demonstrate drilling and sampling functionality in ambient, cold and thermal vacuum (TV) laboratory conditions (at CISAS, University of Padova). Tests included drilling into, and sampling from, well-characterized NU-LHT-2M simulant mixed with anorthosite inclusions of various sizes, according to a layered scheme that describe depth-density profile and distribution of inclusions and a range of plausible water ice contents.

ProSPA Bench Development Model (BDM). The BDM of the ProSPA analytical lab at the Open University has been tested to demonstrate science performance against measurement requirements. Dedicated efforts in 2019 focused on verification of evolved gas analysis (EGA) via measurement of meteorite standards, constraint of oxygen yield via demonstration of ISRU capabilities, improving understanding of sensitivity of science requirements to regolith volatile abundance and possible contamination, and understanding the performance of oven seal materials.

Volatile Preservation. Particular efforts since 2018 have focused on understanding the capability of PROSPECT to sufficiently preserve volatile content in regolith throughout the sampling-analysis chain: from drilling to sealing of the ovens, until measurement of evolved gases in ProSPA’s ion-trap and magnetic sector mass spectrometers. PROSPECT’s ability to meet science requirements must persist for the range of possible volatile contents expected in near-surface regolith at landing sites in the lunar south polar region.

How to cite: Heather, D. and Sefton-Nash, E.: The ESA Prospect Payload for Luna 27: Development Status, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22244, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22244, 2020.

D838 |
| solicited
Nick Gollins, Shahrzad Timman, Max Braun, and Markus Landgraf

In the context of an accelerated lunar exploration agenda on international level, ESA is engaging in studies to enable European roles in the near and mid-term which can support the international community. While near-term opportunities exist in “boots-on-the-ground” human lunar return in the frame of the NASA Artemis programme and commercial (CLPS) robotic landers, ESA continues to prepare the next step in sustainability with the European Large Logistic Lander (EL3).

Returning to the Moon not only yields fundamentally important science opportunities for our understanding of the Solar System but also allows us to test hardware and operational procedures for the exploration and utilization of space beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). EL3 will be a sustainable programme that will allow a diversity of missions for the science community. Whilst EL3 is intended to be a generalised lander capable of delivering a wide variety of cargo, such as science experiments, crew supplies, or unpressurised rovers, the most studied mission to date is a sample return package comprised of a return stage and a rover. EL3 Sample Return will land on the lunar surface, demonstrate surface operations, and return ∼15 kg of samples to the lunar Gateway and back to Earth by the astronauts aboard Orion. Hence, the mission will begin a robotic pathway toward sustainable human exploration of the Moon and beyond. 

To achieve this, some of the key objectives include: (1) Create opportunities for science, particularly sample return, which has been highlighted as a key aspect of ESA’s lunar science strategy; (2) Gain scientific and exploration knowledge by scouting for potential resources; (3) Create opportunities to demonstrate and test technologies and operational procedures for future Mars missions; (4) Preparing for more sustainable human lunar missions by implementing, demonstrating, and certifying technology elements for vehicle reusability, mobility, and night survival.

EL3 Sample Return will consist of the EL3 cargo lander, an interface element housing a 330 kg rover, and a Lunar Ascent Element (LAE) that will return the samples to the lunar Gateway. The rover will be designed for driving more than 100 km at relatively high speed and surviving the lunar night. Whilst mostly operated by ground control on Earth, the rover could also be partly tele-operated by astronauts aboard the Gateway. Once landed on the lunar surface, the rover will immediately collect a contingency sample and will then collect additional samples along a ∼35 km long traverse. The rover will carry a suite of scientific instruments that will allow the comprehensive study of the sampling locations, providing the context of the samples, as well as the geology along the traverse. After depositing the samples into the LAE, the rover will embark on a 100+ km traverse along which it will take further in-situ measurements over the course of a year or more.

In summary, the goals of the EL3 programme will be to support international crewed lunar activities, develop and fly the technologies necessary to build Europe’s lunar capability, and serve the needs of the lunar science community.


How to cite: Gollins, N., Timman, S., Braun, M., and Landgraf, M.: Building a European Lunar Capability with the European Large Logistic Lander, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22568, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22568, 2020.

D839 |
Bernard Foing and the ILEWG Task Groups

ILEWG has been organising since 1994 ICEUM International Conferences on Exploration & Utilisation of the Moon with published proceedings, and where community declarations have been prepared and endorsed by community participants. ILEWG has co-organised and co-sponsored lunar sessions at EGU, COSPAR, EPSC.

ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and synergies with Mars exploration, MoonBase, MoonVillage, EuroMoonMars, ArtMoonMars, Young Lunar Explorers, ILEWG Young Professional Grantees.  ILEWG has also sponsored a number of activities, workshops, tasks groups and publications in collaborations with other organisations: COSPAR, space agencies, IAA, IAF, EGU

Besides the discussion forums, users can also obtain information on how to participate, as well as details on the latest news and events regarding lunar exploration, forthcoming meetings, relevant reports and documents of importance for the work of the ILEWG, summary descriptions of recent and future  lunar exploration projects (such as SMART-1, Chang'E1-5 , Selene Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1-2, LRO, LCROSS), GRAIL, ARTEMIS, international lunar exploration projects) funded by various space agencies, and basic data on the Moon itself. Activities of the related space agencies and organizations can also be found. The ILEWG Forum also hosts the Lunar Explorer's Society. http://www.lunarexplorers.net/

The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) is a public forum sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite" (International Lunar Workshop, Beatenberg (CH), June 1994). The Forum is intended to serve three relevant groups:

  • Actual members of the ILEWG, i.e. delegates and representatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans in the spirit of the Beatenberg Declaration (see below).
  • Team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the ILEWG Charter (see below).
  • Members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas.



ILEWG ICEUM declarations (International Conference on Exploration & Utilisation of the Moon) :


COSPAR ICEUM13: Pasadena Lunar Declaration 2018 https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2019/EPSC-DPS2019-874-1.pdf

Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008 https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2009/EGU2009-13223.pdf

How to cite: Foing, B. and the ILEWG Task Groups: Report from ILEWG Task Groups: Science, Technology, human aspects, roadmaps, socio-economics, young lunar explorers, MoonVillage, MoonMars synergies, EuroMoonMars, ArtMoonMars, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-22025, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-22025, 2020.

D840 |
Sabrina Kerber, Michaela Musilova, and Bernard Foing

Additive manufacturing technologies have been successfully implemented in the concept designs for human interplanetary missions for some years. They not only play an important role in the designs of future-extra-terrestrial habitats, but the benefits of 3D printing have already been successfully tested on the International Space Station (ISS). [1] 
However, while such studies of in-situ manufacturing techniques concentrate heavily on applications in the area of engineering or on the potential of 3D printing sustenance, they regretfully neglect to explore the potential benefits additive manufacturing could have for the Human Factors of space exploration. [1, 2]
Based on experiments during a lunar simulation at the Hawai´i Space Exploration Analog and Simulations (HI-SEAS) habitat, this paper investigates how additive manufacturing can improve liveability in a space habitat.
Personal objects and leisure time items are indispensable for manned space exploration, as they greatly contribute to the astronauts’ mental health and psychosocial balance. Access to a 3D printer bears the potential of a much greater flexibility and variety in personal items, and could also offer the possibility to customize leisure objects to specific needs and moods of astronauts. In addition, through the limited payloads and possibilities of recycling everyday objects, additive manufacturing technology offers the opportunity to greatly enhance the sustainability the of any human extra-terrestrial mission.

In December 2019 the European Space Agency’s (ESA) EuroMoonMars (EMM) and International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) initiated an analog astronaut simulation in cooperation with the International MoonBase Alliance (IMA). During this mission (EMMIHS-II - EuroMoonMars IMA HI-SEAS) the Human Factors of Additive Manufacturing Study was conducted as a basis for this paper. Psychological effects, changes in mood and work effectiveness, and the possibility to create and maintain a connection to Earth by 3D printing seasonal objects and decorations, were assessed.
The study delivered positive results about the use of additive manufacturing from a Human Factors point of view, as well as the confirmation of the use in engineering. The results open up the possibilities for further studies of the Human Factors of additive manufacturing during future analog simulations.

First, I would like to thank our fellow EMMIHS-II crew members (M. Musilova, A. J. D’Angelo, A. P. Castro de Paula Nunes, C.R. Pouwels) and the EMMIHS-II mission sponsors. In addition, my gratitude goes out to the HI-SEAS Mission Control, ground support at ESA/ESTEC and the ILEWG EuroMoonMars manager, Prof. B. H. Foing, for enabling this research.


[1] T. Prater et al (2019), Overview of the In-Space Manufacturing Technology Portfolio, NASA & ISS National Lab Microgravity Materials Science Workshop, Georgia, US.
[2] M. Terfansky, M. Thangavelu (2013), 3D Printing of Food for Space Missions, California, US.
[3] M. Musilova, H. Rogers, B. H. Foing et al (2019). EMM IMA HI-SEAS campaign February 2019. EPSC-DPS2019-1152.
[4] EuroMoonMars Instruments, Research, Field Campaigns and Activities 2017-2019. B. H. Foing, EuroMoonMars 2018-2019 Team. 2019 LPI Contrib. No. 3090.

How to cite: Kerber, S., Musilova, M., and Foing, B.: The Human Factors of Additive Manufacturing on Human Extra-Terrestrial Missions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-20496, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-20496, 2020.

D841 |
Diego De Blasi

Outer space activities are increasingly bringing the international (scientific) community to upper stages of knowledge and awareness. With particular reference to Lunar exploration, general involvement of all States (also within a context of public-private partnerships initiatives) towards the principle of sustainable utilization of lunar resources shall represent an important requirement for the future of all Mankind

Thus, the safeguarding of lunar environment (the equitable/intragenerational utilization of its resources) shall represent a critical issue for the whole evolutionary framework of the Corpus Iuris Spatialis

Firstly, the principle herein shall be taken into examination under the provisions laid down in the Agreement governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies. Accordingly, article 11 states “the moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of mankind”[..]; as well, “The moon is not subject to national appropriation by any claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means..” (paragraph 2)

Secondly, other concerns may also take into account: a) the perspective of ISRU (in situ resources utilization) processes, which shall take place towards sustainability means b) the undertaking of well balanced measures in exploring and using natural resources vis-à-vis adverse changes in lunar environment (article 7, par. 1, Moon Treaty). In addition, besides the terms pursuant to the establishment of peaceful use of (space) lunar activities, an adequate consensus shall be called upon States beyond the status quo

In conclusion, the aferomentioned background shall also consider the adoption of a comprehensive Additional Protocol to the Moon Treaty concerning the sustainable utilization of lunar resources. Arguably, this progressive framework may also be welcomed as milestones towards further legal developments in international space law 



How to cite: De Blasi, D.: The Future of Sustainable utilization of resources on the Moon: a new international legal regime? , EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2018, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2018, 2020.

D842 |
Robin Thor, Reinald Kallenbach, Ulrich Christensen, Philipp Gläser, Alexander Stark, Gregor Steinbrügge, and Jürgen Oberst

The Moon is periodically deformed by the tidal forces exerted on it by the Earth and the Sun. The tidal Love number h2 describes the magnitude of the radial component of these deformations at the monthly frequency, which have an amplitude of up to ∼10 cm. Like the potential Love number k2, h2 depends on the density and rheological properties of the materials in the lunar interior and their distribution. We analyze > 3.6 · 109 measurements of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) obtained during the 27-month circular orbit phase of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at 50 km altitude, when LOLA reached global coverage. We simultaneously invert these observations for the Love number h2 and a global topographic model. The topography is parametrized as an expansion in 2D cubic B-spline basis functions, which are defined on a global equirectangular grid. This parametrization is more computationally efficient than an expansion in spherical harmonics, but still allows for a high smoothness. To deal with data gaps, we constrain the solution by minimizing the second derivative of the topography. We find that the h2 solution depends on the choice of resolution of the equirectangular grid. We determine the accuracy for each investigated resolution (from 6 km to 1 km at the equator) from a Monte Carlo simulation using 100 synthetically generated sets of observations. The topographic signal in the synthetic data follows a power law extrapolated from the real lunar topography. At large scales, the topography is generated using a spherical harmonic expansion, at smaller scales it is generated using Gaussian process regression. Finally, we use the inverse of the root-mean-square h2 obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation as weights for determining a weighted mean of the h2 results for different grid resolutions. The final result of h2 = 0.0386 ± 0.0022 agrees within one standard deviation with a previous result obtained from the same data, but utilizing crossover points of LOLA profiles. This validates the method of simultaneous inversion for tides and topography, especially with regard to future laser altimeter experiments at other planetary bodies, such as Mercury and Ganymede. However, our result also confirms a discrepancy between laser altimeter measurements of h2 and the k2 result of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, which needs to be resolved through better modelling of the lunar tidal response.

How to cite: Thor, R., Kallenbach, R., Christensen, U., Gläser, P., Stark, A., Steinbrügge, G., and Oberst, J.: Simultaneous retrieval of the lunar solid body tide and topography from laser altimetry, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-8067, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-8067, 2020.