The session solicits contributions that report on nonthermal solar and planetary radio emissions. Coordinated multi-point observations from ground radio telescopes (e.g., LOFAR, LOIS, LWA1, URAN-2, UTR-2) and spacecraft plasma/wave experiments (e.g., Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Galileo, Juno, Stereo, Ulysses and Wind) are especially encouraged. Presentations should focus on radiophysics techniques used and developed to investigate the remote magnetic field and the electron density in solar system regions, like the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and the magnetized auroral regions. Interest also extends to laboratory and experimental studies devoted to the comprehension of the generation mechanisms (e.g., cyclotron maser instability) and the acceleration processes (e.g., Alfven waves). Further preparations, evaluations, investigations, analyses of forthcoming space missions (like BepiColombo, Juice, Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe, SunRISE, Taranis) are also welcome.

Co-organized by ST1
Convener: Patrick Galopeau | Co-convener: Mohammed Y. Boudjada
| Attendance Tue, 05 May, 16:15–18:00 (CEST)

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Chat time: Tuesday, 5 May 2020, 16:15–18:00

Chairperson: Patrick H. M. Galopeau
D2886 |
Immanuel Christopher Jebaraj, Jasmina Magdalenic, and Stefaan Poedts

Solar radio emission is studied for many decades and a large number of studies have been dedicated to metric radio emission originating from the low corona. It is generally accepted that solar radio emission  observed at wavelengths below the metric range is produced by the coherent plasma emission mechanism. Fine structures seem to be an intrinsic part of solar radio emission and they are very important for understanding plasma processes in the solar medium. Extensive reporting and number of studies of the metric range fine structures were performed, but studies of fine structures in the interplanetary domain are quite rare. New and advanced ground-based radio imaging spectroscopic techniques (e.g. LOFAR, MWA, etc.,) and space-based observations (Wind/WAVES, STEREO/WAVES A & B, PSP, and SolO in the future) provide a unique opportunity to study radio fine structures observed  all the way from metric to kilometric range.

Radio signatures of solar eruptive events, such as flares and CMEs, observed in the interplanetary space are mostly confined to type II (radio signatures of magneto-hydrodynamic shock waves), and type III  bursts(electron beams propagating along open and quasi-open magnetic field lines). In this study, we have identified, and analyzed three types of fine structures present within the interplanetary radio bursts. Namely, the striae-like fine structures within type III bursts, continuum-like emission patches, and very slow drifting narrowband structures within type II radio bursts. Since space-based radio observations are limited to dynamic spectra, we use the novel radio triangulation technique employing direction finding measurements from stereoscopic spacecraft (Wind/WAVES, STEREO/WAVES A & B) to obtain the 3D position of the radio emission. The novelty of the technique is that it is not dependent on a density model and in turn can probe the plasma density in the triangulated radio source positions (Magdalenic et al. 2014). Results of the study show that locating the radio source helps not only to understand the generation mechanism of the fine structures but also the ambient plasma conditions such as e.g. electron density. We found that fine structures are associated with complex CME/shock wave structures which interact with the ambient magnetic field structures. We also discuss the possible relationship between the fine structures, the broadband emission they are part of, and the solar eruptive events they are associated with.

How to cite: Jebaraj, I. C., Magdalenic, J., and Poedts, S.: On the fine structures in interplanetary radio emissions, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1025, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1025, 2020.

D2887 |
Kantepalli Sasikumar Raja, Milan Maksimovic, Xavier Bonnin, Philippe Zarka, Laurent Lamy, Eduard P. Kontar, Alain Lecacheux, Vratislav Krupar, Baptiste Cecconi, Nora Lahmiti, and Laurent Denis

Solar radio type III bursts are produced by electron beams that are propagating along the open magnetic field lines in the corona and interplanetary medium (IPM). They are the intense, fast drifting, and frequently observed bursts. Recently, it was reported that observations of type III bursts show a maximum spectral response at around 1 MHz. But this behavior of type III bursts is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. In order to understand this behavior we have revisited this problem and studied 2279 isolated type III bursts that are observed with Wind/Waves instrument (from space during 1995-2009) in the frequency range 10 kHz-14 MHz and found that all of them show a maximum spectral response at around 1 MHz. Since type III bursts are somewhat directive, we have studied separately, another 115 type III bursts that are simultaneously observed (in 2013-2014) using Wind/Waves and ground-based facility Nancay Decameter Array (10-80 MHz) and compared the spectral profiles. In this presentation, we will discuss the observations, applied calibration techniques and the possible theoretical explanation of why type III bursts show such behavior. 

How to cite: Sasikumar Raja, K., Maksimovic, M., Bonnin, X., Zarka, P., Lamy, L., Kontar, E. P., Lecacheux, A., Krupar, V., Cecconi, B., Lahmiti, N., and Denis, L.: Spectral Analysis of Solar Radio Type III Bursts from 10 kHz to 80 MHz, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-1252, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-1252, 2020.

D2888 |
Jasmina Magdalenic, Christophe Marque, Richard Fallows, Gottfried Mann, Christian Vocks, and Pietro Zucca

On August 25, 2014, NOAA AR 2146 produced the M2.0 class flare (peaked at 15:11 UT). The flare was associated with a halo CME and a radio event observed by LOFAR (the LOw-Frequency Array). The radio event consisted of a type II, type III and type IV radio emissions. In this study, we present LOFAR observations of the type II (radio signatures of shock waves) and type III bursts (radio signatures of fast electron beams propagating along open or quasi open field lines).  Both, the type II burst and type III bursts show strong fragmentation of the radio emission. Although fine structures of type II bursts were already reported, the richness of the fine structures observed in the studied event is unprecedented. We found type II fine structures morphologically very similar to the ones sometimes seen superposed on type IV continuum emission, and similar to simple narrowband super short structures (Magdalenic et al., 2006). The group of type III bursts was as usually, observed during the impulsive phase of the flare. The high frequency/time resolution LOFAR observations reveal that only few of the observed type III bursts have a smooth emission profile, and the majority of bursts is strongly fragmented. Surprisingly, fine structures of some type III bursts show similarities to the fine structures observed in the type II burst, but on a smaller frequency scale. Some of the type III bursts show a non-organized patchy structure which gives an indication on the possibly related turbulence processes. We show that these LOFAR observations bring completely new insight and pose a new challenge for the physics of the acceleration of electron beams and associated emission processes.

How to cite: Magdalenic, J., Marque, C., Fallows, R., Mann, G., Vocks, C., and Zucca, P.: Strongly structured radio emission observed by LOFAR on August 25, 2014, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-14784, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-14784, 2020.

D2889 |
Yihua Yan, Minghui Zhang, Zhichao Zhou, Xingyao Chen, Chengming Tan, Baolin Tan, Wei Wang, Linjie Chen, Fei Liu, Lihong Geng, Zhijun Chen, Yin Zhang, and Muser Team

Solar radio fine structures observed in wide frequency ranges are manifestations of the physical processes related to the energy release, particle accelerations and propagations, etc. The locations of these fine structures are mostly not clear so it is important to have imaging spectroscopic observations to address these problems.

Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER) is an aperture-synthesis imaging telescope, dedicated to observe the Sun, operating on multiple frequencies in dm to cm range. The ability of MUSER allows one to diagnose coronal magnetic field and the plasma parameters such as electron beam velocity, density, spectral index, etc.

During 2014 to 2019, MUSER has registered a number of solar radio bursts corresponding to 2 X-class, 15 M-class, 38 C-class, 19 B-class, 4 A-class and 5 below A-class flares as well as quiet Sun observations. Here we demonstrate some interesting events from MUSER imaging-spectroscopic observations.

How to cite: Yan, Y., Zhang, M., Zhou, Z., Chen, X., Tan, C., Tan, B., Wang, W., Chen, L., Liu, F., Geng, L., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., and Team, M.: Analysis of solar radio imaging-spectroscopic observations, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-21394, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21394, 2020.

D2890 |
Ahmed Abou el-Fadl, Mohammed Boudjada, Patrick H.M. Galopeau, Muhamed Hammoud, and Helmut Lammer

Type III radio bursts are produced by electron beams accelerated in active regions and following open magnetic field lines. Type III observed frequency is found to be nearly equal to the plasma frequency directly linked to the local electron density. The source regions of such solar bursts are the solar corona and the interplanetary medium where, respectively, higher and lower frequencies are generated. In this work, we consider specific Type III solar bursts simultaneously observed by Cassini/RPWS and Wind/WAVES experiments. Despite the distance of Cassini spacecraft to the Sun such Type III bursts have been detected at Saturn’s orbit, i.e. at about 10AU. Those considered bursts are covering a frequency bandwidth from about 10 MHz down to 100 kHz. We attempt in this study to characterize the spectral pattern, i.e. the flux density versus the observation time and the frequency range, and the visibility of the source regions to the observer (i.e. Wind and Cassini spacecraft). In this context, we analyze the evolution of the Type III bursts from the solar corona and up to Saturn’s orbit taking into consideration the Archimedean spiral which is the geometrical configuration of the solar magnetic field extension in the interplanetary medium. We principally discuss the physical parameters, i.e. solar wind speed and the electron density, which lead to constraint the location of the source region and its visibility to both spacecraft.

How to cite: Abou el-Fadl, A., Boudjada, M., Galopeau, P. H. M., Hammoud, M., and Lammer, H.: Solar Type III radio bursts at Saturn’s orbit: Case study of stereoscopic observations by Cassini/RPWS and Wind/WAVES experiments, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-7876, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-7876, 2020.

D2891 |
Patrick Galopeau and Mohammed Boudjada

We use five different Jupiter’s magnetic field models (O6, VIP4, VIT4, VIPAL and JRM09) to investigate the angular distribution of the Jovian decameter radiation occurrence probability, relatively to the local magnetic field B and its gradient B in the source region. The most recent model JRM09, proposed by Connerney et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 2590-2596, 2018], was derived from Juno’s first nine orbits observations. The JRM09 model confirms the results obtained several years ago using older models (O6, VIP4, VIT4 and VIPAL): the radio emission is beamed in a hollow cone presenting a flattening in a specific direction. The same assumptions were made as in the previous studies: the Jovian decameter radiation is supposed to be produced by the cyclotron maser instability (CMI) in a plasma where B and B are not parallel. As a consequence, the emission cone does not have any axial symmetry and then presents a flattening in a privileged direction. This flattening appears to be more important for the northern emission (34.8%) than for the southern emission (12.5%) probably due to the fact that the angle between the directions of B and B is greater in the North (~10°) than in the South (~4°).

How to cite: Galopeau, P. and Boudjada, M.: Relevance of the magnetic field model for studying the beaming cone of the Jovian decameter emission, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-10781, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10781, 2020.

D2892 |
Alain Lecacheux, Stuart D. Bale, Milan Maksimovic, and Marc Pulupa

The FIELDS/RFS experiment aboard the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft, in orbit around the Sun, is able to detect and remotely study low frequency radio emissions from Jupiter. Accurate measurements of the intensity and polarisation of those emissions (mainly the HOM/DAM components) were obtained throughout years 2018 and 2019. They are compared to similar ones, obtained 20 years ago, during Cassini’s remote flyby of Jupiter. A particular emphasis is brought on the so-called “attenuation bands” phenomenon, - a well-defined intensity extinction/enhancement feature modulating the HOM dynamic spectrum -, which likely results from the radiation propagating to the observer through some permanent or long lived plasma structure (not firmly identified so far) lying in the rotating Jovian inner magnetosphere.

How to cite: Lecacheux, A., Bale, S. D., Maksimovic, M., and Pulupa, M.: New remote radio observations of Jupiter by Parker Solar Probe, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19055, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19055, 2020.

D2893 |
Georg Fischer and Jacob Gunnarson

During the Cassini mission (2004-2017) the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) experiment has recorded the lightning radio emissions from multiple thunderstorms in Saturn's atmosphere. Most of the storms were located in the storm alley at a planetocentric latitude of 35°South, and there was one extra-large storm at 35°North called "Great White Spot" (GWS), which emitted millions of SEDs. This is short for "Saturn Electrostatic Discharges", a widely-used synonym for the radio emission from Saturn lightning. Most lightning storms have also been observed by the Cassini cameras or by ground-based amateur astronomers as bright white spots with diameters around 2000 km ("smaller" storms in the storm alley) or as large as 10,000 km (GWS at 35°North).

In this presentation we focus on a cyclone at 50°North planetocentric latitude, which was observed by the Cassini cameras from 2007 until the end of 2013. Its average diameter was around 3000 km, and it also exhibited some weak SED activity. The first SED outbreak was in December 2010, at the same time when the GWS was raging further south. Due to the differences in longitude and SED rate of the 50°N cyclone compared to the GWS, it is partly possible to separate the SEDs emitted from the cyclone to those emitted from the GWS. The SED rate of the cyclone is rather low, typically a few SEDs per minute, whereas the GWS showed SED rates up to 10 SEDs per second. The SED activity of the 50°North cyclone was very intermittent, it usually lasted for a few weeks before disappearing again for several months. After the first outbreak in December 2010, there was some more activity in early 2011, autumn 2011, December 2011, spring 2012, July 2012, summer 2013, and finally autumn 2013. By comparing SED data from RPWS with images from the Cassini camera we will show that almost all SEDs taking place after the GWS had their origin in the 50°N cyclone, since the SED sub-spacecraft longitude range is consistent with the longitude of the cyclone. The last SED activity from this cyclone took place in November 2013, and it was also the last SED activity recorded by RPWS during the whole Cassini mission. No more SEDs were found from November 2013 until Cassini burned up in Saturn's upper atmosphere in September 2017.


How to cite: Fischer, G. and Gunnarson, J.: Saturn lightning activity from a cyclone at 50°North latitude, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-2906, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2906, 2020.

D2894 |
Walid Majid

Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth.  There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, event rate, and the strength of the generated electric fields.  The detection and characterization of electric activity in Martian dust storms has important implications for habitability, and preparations for human exploration of the red planet. Furthermore, electrostatic discharges may be linked to local chemistry and plays an important role in the predicted global electrical circuit.


Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA’s Mars-based assets, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the only facility in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity from large scale convective dust storms at Mars. We will describe a program at NASA’s Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex that has been carrying out a long-term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The ground-based detections will also have important implications for the design of a future instrument that could make similar in-situ measurements from orbit or from the surface of Mars, with far greater sensitivity and duty cycle, opening up a new window in our understanding of the Martian environment.

How to cite: Majid, W.: Radio Emissions from Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms, EGU General Assembly 2020, Online, 4–8 May 2020, EGU2020-19929, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-19929, 2020.