Geoheritage is the human side of geosciences, where natural features are valued in relation to their societal, cultural and economic context. Geoheritage provides a way to appreciate and manage our environment, as well as being a window into geosciences for the broader public. Our fundamental geoscience is incomplete and meaningless unless it is contextualised, and geoheritage is an essential way to do this. Geoheritage is multidisciplinary, drawing from all sides of geosciences and extending them into social sciences, territorial and risk management, and economics. Geoheritage's basic building block is the geosite, a geographically defined distinct feature, and also includes collections, and buildings with natural stone. All geoheritage is underpinned by geodiversity, the fundamental study of topographic, lithological and geomorphological variability (covered in a linked EGU session, Visages of Geodiversity).
This session calls for a continuation of the rich multidisciplinary sessions in previous EGU meetings, where diverse actors in geoheritage have exchanged with the whole geosciences community on subjects ranging from: 1) the integration of geoscience research into geoheritage (how can you make your research have an impact?; 2) using geoheritage for responsible resource management; 3) geosite description, assessment and protection, including legislative aspects at all scales; 4) territorial management and urban geoheritage; 5) geoheritage and resilience to natural hazards; 6) geoheritage and degradation risk assessment; 7) case studies in geoheritage, including geotourism; 8) remote and geophysical geosciences as intangible geoheritage.
The session is planned to be be held with on-line presentations, with a physical poster session, and an open multidisciplinary splinter meeting, to meet and discuss. Geodiversity and geoheritage visages will combine in this to engage with a large public.
The session is supported by the IAG Working Group on Geomorphosites, the IUGS Commission for Geoheritage, the International Lithosphere Program, and UNESCO IGCP project 692 Geoheritage for Resilience.
vPICO presentations: Fri, 30 Apr
Zoogeomorphosites can be defined as geomorphological sites of special interest for animal biodiversity and conservation. They appear as ideal places for linking geoheritage and biodiversity heritage because of the reciprocal effects and interactions between landforms and animals. On one hand, geomorphodiversity exerts an influence on animal biodiversity at alpha, beta and gamma levels, and many landforms constitute valuable habitats for a wide range of animal species. On the other hand, animals can have direct and indirect geomorphic effects by creating specific landforms (e.g., mounds) and by influencing geomorphic processes (e.g, runoff), respectively.
The aim of this presentation is (1) to illustrate a worldwide range of sites fitting the conceptual definition of a zoogeomorphosite, with a proposed typology, and (2) to present an example of zoogeomorphological survey conducted on a site in Northwest France (Bois-des-Jarries, Vendée), where geoheritage meets with biodiversity heritage. The selected study site is a granitic geomorphosite composed of two hills with small tors and boulders outcropping at 230-260 m a.s.l., and franging a large fluvial paleo-valley of Ypresian age. The land cover is a mosaic of mixed forests and dry heathlands recognized for their high ecological interest, with many valuable species of vascular plants, birds and invertebrates. A major zoogeomorphic interest of the site is that it hosts an important population of mound-building red wood ants (Formica rufa), a regionally rare and vulnerable species responsible for an impressive collection of biogenic microlandforms (ant mounds) on a small surface (62 ha). A zoogeomorphogical survey carried out in summer 2020 on these ant mounds involved a two-stage methodology: (1) linear surveys along forest paths, in order to calculate mound densities and to proceed with a general inventory of ant mounds; (2) morphometric measurements of mounds using strip transects in 13 representative habitat types, in order to calculate mound volumes and to evaluate their evolution on a 5-years period.
119 mounds of Formica rufa have been inventoried in summer 2020 along the forest paths, indicating a density of 2-4 mounds ha–1. First results of the morphometric measurements indicate that the highest biovolumes are found in pine or mixed forest habitats, and that the geomorphology of the granitic hills (slope, aspect, height above drainage, etc.) is of major influence on their distribution and shape. In turn, ant mounds create environmental heterogeneity, or patch-scale geodiversity, highly favourable to biodiversity, notably because they offer microhabitats for various myrmecophilous insects. Finally, ant mounds can be viewed as a remarkable example of biogeomorphological heritage, hybrid and evolutionary in nature, but highly sensitive to environmental and human-induced changes (e.g., forest clear cuts, tourism pressure). Because ant mounds are an integral component of natural heritage and a key provider of ecosystem services, their inventory and protection as zoogeomorphosites – just like that of termite mounds – are of prime relevance in the wider scope of integrating geodiversity and biodiversity in nature conservation policies and strategies.
How to cite: Bétard, F.: Zoogeomorphosite: A concept for, and example of, linking geoheritage and biodiversity heritage, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-92, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-92, 2020.
The concept of “geoarchaeosite” has been introduced by Fouache & Rasse (2009) to identify archaeological sites located on a geomorphosite. In this work, we propose to use the expression in a larger sense as a contraction of geoarchaeological sites, i.e. sites of particular relevance for the understanding of past human-environment interactions. In our approach, the geomorphological and archaeological components of a site have the same level of importance, contrary to the classical approaches on geomorphosites which consider the archaeological interest of a site as an “additional” value. Although scientific literature replete with scattered case studies on geoarchaeosites, methodological guidelines are globally lacking to inventory and assess a collection of such geoarchaeosites for heritage conservation and/or tourism purposes.
The aim of this presentation is to propose an innovative and integrated methodology for the inventory and assessment of geoarchaeosites at a regional scale, with an example of application in the middle Eure Valley (Paris Basin, France). The first stage is the inventory which implies the identification and selection of potential geoarchaeosites considered as important sites worth being protected or managed within tourism or education projects. Two main criteria are involved in the selection process: the selected sites should be both representative of the regional geomorphological setting (spatial axis) and of the archaeological periods (temporal axis). The second stage is the assessment, itself divided into three main steps: (i) the assessment of the scientific value, calculated as the sum of the geomorphological and archaeological values; (ii) the assessment of the conservation need, including the calculation of a “vulnerability index” taking into account the intrinsic fragility of the site, the natural and human-induced threats, and the protection status; (iii) the assessment of the promotion potential, which combines the scientific and additional (cultural, aesthetic, ecological) values together with the visit conditions and potential uses for education and tourism.
In the middle Eure Valley which serves as a case study, the preliminary results derived from the proposed methodology provide a selection of geoarchaeosites with contrasted scientific values, from sites of international (e.g., Saint-Prest, Chaudon) and national rank (e.g., Chartres Cathedral and its historical quarry, the Aqueduc of Maintenon) to more confidential geoarchaeological sites of regional (e.g., megalithic site of Changé, Fort-Harrouard) and local interest (e.g., Shrine of Bû, Mormollins mill), with various degrees of vulnerability. Among the prospects that are emerging in the scope of promotional activities, is the interest of building a digital geoarchaeoheritage platform with a collaborative/participatory aim, associating Websemantics and geomatic technologies, in order to reinforce heritage ownership by local residents and stakeholders.
How to cite: Piau, T., Bétard, F., and Dugast, F.: Methodological proposal for the inventory and assessment of geoarchaeosites: Application to the middle Eure valley (Paris Basin, France)., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-143, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-143, 2020.
Over the last 15 years, the methodological proposals for assessing the heritage value of geomorphosites have been numerous and varied (Brilha, 2018). While some of the main criteria for assessing the geoscientific value, i.e. the interest for Earth sciences (rarity, representativeness, integrity), are mentioned in most methods, the criteria for assessing additional values (Reynard, 2005, 2009: aesthetic, ecological and cultural values) are much more heterogeneous (Mucivuna et al., 2019). There is particularly little discussion in the literature about the assessment of the ecological value of geomorphosites. Many case studies suggest to give a high score when “valuable” or “interesting” fauna and/or flora are observed, without explaining the link with a specific geomorphological landform or process. A few authors, such as Bollati et al. (2015), proposed to assess the “ecologic support role”, i.e. the impacts of geomorphological processes and landforms on vegetal and animal diversity or their contribution to ecosystem services. Despite these suggestions, there is still no detailed methodological proposal to assess the ecological value of geomorphosites based on clearly defined criteria.
The bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and biological elements of nature has been the subject of many publications and led to the development of the biogeomorphology, defined as the study of interactions between geomorphological processes and structures and living organisms, like plants, animals and microorganisms (e.g. Knox, 1972; Butler, 1995; Gorbushina, 2007). Compared to other categories of geosites, the activity of processes responsible for their formation and evolution is often a core characteristic of geomorphosites (Reynard, 2009; Pelfini and Bollati, 2014; Coratza and Hobléa, 2018) and this dynamic can have a strong influence on vegetation. This is especially the case in mountain environment, where dynamic geomorphological parameters can have various effects on vegetation distribution and community composition (Giaccone et al., 2019).
The aim of this communication is to clarify and objectivize the assessment of the ecological value of dynamic mountain geomorphosites. A complete evaluation of the ecological value should take into account the impacts of geomorphological processes and landforms on vegetation and fauna diversity. Here we propose to look further into the question of the influence of dynamic mountain geomorphosites on vegetation diversity. We suggest the definition of three criteria – disturbances, microhabitats, types of substrates – that should be used for a more accurate and objective assessment of the ecological value of this category of geomorphosites, with a particular focus on the links between geomorphology and vegetal biodiversity. We finally apply these criteria for the assessment of the ecological value of four mountain geomorphosites situated in the Vallon de Nant (Swiss Alps): a rock glacier, a moraine complex from the Younger Dryas, a side and frontal moraine from the Little Ice Age and a zone of scree slopes and avalanche deposits.
How to cite: Bussard, J. and Giaccone, E.: Assessing the ecological value of dynamic mountain geomorphosites, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-253, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-253, 2020.
Geoheritage is an important natural resource that can represent a link between geosciences and the wider public, and all over the world initiatives have emerged to protect, value and enhance it. Therefore, geoheritage assessment is a fundamental step in choosing a correct land management strategy. The Liguria Region in Northern Italy is characterized by a wide geological and geomorphological variety, encompassing an important and valuable geoheritage. In Liguria, a regional law (L.R. 39/2009) protect and enhance geodiversity and geosites, establishing the Regional Inventory of Geosites. However, an approved official inventory is still lacking. In the present work a first reasoned inventory of 120 geosites is proposed for the Liguria Region, based on field surveys and literature review. A quantitative assessment of the value and the degradation risk was carried out. The value assessment takes into account the scientific value, the additional (aesthetic and cultural) value and the potential for use value; these three values are combined to obtain a total value (Q). Nine geosites obtain a Q value higher than 4: these geosites are among the best known of the Liguria region and are already exploited for tourism, such as the Palmaria and Tino islands, the Portovenere cliffs, the Gambatesa Mine, the Mt. Ramaceto sandstones, the Fascette Gorge, the S. Bernardino karst plateau, the Capo Mortola nummulitic limestones, the ophiolite outcrops of the Beigua Geopark and Framura. The degradation risk assessment takes into account both fragility and vulnerability of the geosites. The geosites selected and assessed in the present research will be implemented in the Regional Inventory of Geosites. Moreover, the results provides the necessary ground for interested parties to take actions for the implementation of effective regional geoconservation strategy or environmental management plan.
How to cite: Ferrando, A., Faccini, F., Poggi, F., and Coratza, P.: Inventory and assessment of geoheritage in the Liguria region (Italy) within the framework of land management and development, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2610, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2610, 2021.
We present a number of geological objects located along the valley of the Sukil River, which flows within the Ivano-Frankivsk Region in the west of Ukraine. The river crosses a number of structures of the Skyba nappe and the Inner unit of the Ukrainian Carpathian foredeep, which belong to the orogen of the Outer Ukrainian Carpathians. The Outer Ukrainian Carpathians were formed as a result of alpine tectogenesis. They are composed mainly of flysch deposited in Cretaceous-Neogene basins. The foredeep is filled with sediments known as molasses.
The research objects allow to study many aspects of geology —sedimentation, fold formation, fault formation, formation of mountain systems.
Many objects in the Sukil River valley are currently being studied using the latest technologies — digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to create virtual geological outcrops.
Unique samples of Oligocene fish remnants collected during field research are stored in the Natural History Museum of the Precarpathian Professional College of Forestry and Tourism in Bolekhiv which is located on the Sukil River. Here there are also great druses of gypsum from a local quarry. In the same town are the remains of a saltworks which was one of the oldest in the region.
Objects located in the Sukil River valley have not only scientific but also aesthetic significance. The folds from Bukivets are the object of the international geotourism route "Geocarpathians".
How to cite: Oliinyk, M., Bubniak, I., Bihun, M., and Vikhot, Y.: Sukil River valley — a natural geological laboratory, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4467, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-4467, 2021.
Geological elements in cities are usually damaged and invisible to their inhabitants, despite the wide range of benefits they provide to them. In particular, they offer them an opportunity to learn about their geological setting (= sense of place) and be aware of associated risks (= sense of risk). Such geoheritage comes in different forms that ought to be identified and described precisely in order to be preserved and used. The gigantic capital city of Mexico is settled in a paleolake basin embedded in a diverse volcanic landscape. City inhabitants face numerous hazards (floods, landslides, debris flows, subsidence, earthquakes, drought, fires) that create high risks with combined natural and anthropogenic causes due to uncontrolled city growth. The geoheritage of the city is mostly formed by monogenetic (one-event) volcanoes that are an important resource for geoconservation and geoeducation. We present two case studies that were investigated by students near their homes, which was a strategy employed during the COVID-19 pandemic to allow them to undertake field work. The first study area is a popular neighborhood (Lomas de Padierna) that was rooted in the 1970s on basaltic lavas from the ca. AD200 Xitle cone. In this highly urbanized area, the geological nature is only visible as sparse vertical outcrops along streets and small surface exposures in private gardens and road central reservations. Such sites are seldom maintained by the locals who rarely recognize their value. Debris flows during rain storms cause a chronic hazard. The second area consists of a chain of several cones, a dome and a tuff ring (Sierra Santa Catarina) located in the southeastern part of the basin, that conserves elements of the native fauna and flora. Depicted in the great landscape paintings of the Mexico basin made in the 19th century, mining activities and illegal settlements have severely degraded this site since the 1970s, even after the creation of a protected area in 1994 and a conservation area in 2003. Enhanced cone erosion causes frequent landslides affecting settlements. Data on the age and eruptive style of these volcanoes is surprisingly limited, given their importance for hazard assessment.
This work reveals the diverse visages of geoheritage in a large city, showing their low level of scientific knowledge and public appreciation, which account for their pronounced degree of degradation. Hence, the memory of past geological events, awareness of impending hazards, and vital mineral and organic resources are disappearing quickly, further increasing the risks faced by the city. The vulnerability of people to hazards can be linked to their poor knowledge of their environment. The dissemination of information on local geosites may be highly valuable to raise environmental awareness and reduce risks. In this respect, we plan to make and distribute leaflets to local schools and community centers.
How to cite: Guilbaud, M.-N., López Velásquez, N., Járquin Rojas, J. A., Ortega-Larrocea, M. P., Cram, S., and van Wyk de Vries, B.: The diverse visages of Geoheritage in Mexico City: Knowing your place, knowing your risks, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6650, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6650, 2021.
The «Cerro de Las Navajas Obsidian» is a rock within the Comarca Minera, Hidalgo UNESCO Global Geopark, Mexico, that possesses outstanding archaeological, cultural and geological value. It exhibits a unique green-golden macroscopic hue and was exploited and traded since ca. 250 BC, by successive Mesoamerican cultures and until early Colonial times —ultimately recording the transition to a steel-based society. It is the largest deposit of its kind and the longest historical exploited site in the continent. We argue here the potential of this particular obsidian for a heritage designation that highlights its global significance; synergies derived from an international recognition may offer the chance (a) to put in value the multi-dimensional geoheritage of this obsidian, (b) to strengthen the sense of belonging among local community, (c) to require authorities to regulate obsidian mining and commercialization, under fair trade terms and compatible with conservation, research and responsible tourism, (d) to support further research on archaeology and cultural heritage linking geosciences with other disciplines, and (e) to contribute to UNESCO Global Geoparks program’s aims seeking local development and sustainability. The two last expected achievements would be relevant given the lack of legal advisory role of geoparks in geoheritage management in Mexico and its geoconservation community.
How to cite: Cruz-Pérez, M. A., Canet, C., Pastrana, A., Carcavilla, L., Salgado-Martínez, E., and García-Alonso, E. J.: Green and golden obsidian of ‘Cerro de Las Navajas’, Hidalgo (Mexico): geoarchaeological heritage that deserves international recognition, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-6658, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-6658, 2021.
Arequipa, the second most populated city located in the South of Peru, is full of history, culture and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Its natural attractions and geological diversity stand out, like the Colca and Andagua UNESCO Global Geopark, as well as geosites within the city. This provides a basis for improving the population's environmental awareness and resilience, a process that partly starts with geosite inventorying, used in socio-economic exchange with the population. For the geosite work several methods were used from the early Cendrero (1996) to most recent Brilha (2016). As a first stage, potential geosites were field identified, and we established their representativeness, integrity, rarity, scientific knowledge level and geological value. Six major potential geosites were identified: 1) Sillar quarries, 2) Rio Chili valley, 3) Misti and Chachani volcanoes viewpoint, 4) Nicholson volcano, 5) Ccapua monogenetic volcanoes, Yura Viejo, Uyupampa and 6) Domo el Volcancillo. Once identified and judged suitable for potential use and protection, the six sites were qualitatively evaluated for intrinsic value, potential for use and need for protection, thus completing more detailed information on each one. In this second stage, the process of quantifying the value and relevance establishing a ranking. The Brilha (2005) methodology was used to classify geosites as local - regional and national - international interest, The Sillar being of national - international scope, while the other geosites are of local to regional scope. To rank geosites according to their scientific value, educational potential use, tourism potential use and the risk of degradation, the Brilha (2016) methodology was used. Each site was evaluated independently, since the value of the geosite is not directly related to its potential for use or vulnerability. The ranking for scientific value and educational and tourist use is different and the Sillar and Ccapua have high risk of degradation, while the others moderate risk. We also classified each site for its natural risk to inhabitants, users and visitors, making a preliminary safety plan for each site. The process ends with a classification seeking to provide a legal basis for geoheritage management and protection. Conservation plans take into account the degradation risk to propose strategies with include safety. Community involvement was a first step, with the Sillar site users partly initiating and directing our work. We all see the geoheritage as a tool to publicize both geology and associated activities in an innovative way through geotourism and economic sustainability. Risk is managed with geosites and the benefits and dangers related to the Misti and Chachani volcanoes communicated. The process continues with constant monitoring of geosites. This aims to empower local scientists and residents, because it highlights the geological heritage, and generates "tools" for education and promote resilient communities in the face of geological hazards; in addition, diversify the alternatives for geotourism. It is part of the UNESCO IGCP Geoheritage for Resilience, project 692.
How to cite: Arias Salazar, C. L., Manrique, N., Aguilar, R., and van Wyk de Vries, B.: Geosite assessment in Arequipa City – Peru: UNESCO IGCP 692 project 'Geoheritage for Geohazard Resilience' , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8355, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8355, 2021.
The Pertosa-Auletta cave is a complex karst system of southern Italy included in the “Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni” UNESCO Global Geopark as a focal geosite for the important geological heritage, the experience in geoturism management and the cultural, didactic and recreational appeal. Representing one of the most important perennial springs of the Alburni massif, since the early 1900s, this cave has played a key role within the territory of the Alburni, Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, so the complex welcomes thousands of visitors from all over the world every year. The site is managed by the MIdA Foundation (Integrated Environmental Museum) with the goal of education on environmental and landscape value of the caves. Geological peculiarities, historical-cultural characteristics, as well as environmental protection of the geosite are the main subjects of MIdA actions targeted to the local community and geotouristis. Thanks to the cooperation with several national and international research institutes, the Foundation contributes to the production of new knowledge and to the dissemination of results through its organization. In addition to the cave, the MidA system includes two Museums: the Speleo-Archaeological Museum and the Soil Museums, where visitors are led on a journey into the underworld. Tours and practical activities focus on multidisciplinary information about carsism, genesis of the Pertosa-Auletta cave, archeological findings in the site. A special effort is devoted to soils, precious sources of underground treasures, and ecosystem processes regulating life on the planet. The tour starts from the rocks and their properties and continues through habitats for the growth of numerous lifeforms linked to their structure and chemical composition. The complex relationshis of below-ground environments with water and other earth features are presented. The Pertosa-Auletta cave offers a good example of how people can understand the importance of a complex karst system. Inside the cave the Negro, an underground river flows and it plays an important role in the karst complex. Water and sediments of the Negro have preserved an archeological settlement on piles dating back to the Bronze Age. The presence of piles inside a cave represents one of the most characteristic features of this karst complex and is an example of different uses of the cave through the ages. During the Bronze Age, the Pertosa-Auletta cave was used for both a cultural and a living purpose. In Classical and Medieval times, the complex became a shrine, dedicated first to pagan gods related to fertility and then to the Archangel Michael. Findings are shown in the MIdA Speleo-Archeological Museum along with multimedia displays and reconstructions of the Prehistoric pile. The Pertosa-Auletta cave is also a research site on karst phenomena, hydrology and speleo-biology with important findings on vermiculations, where the evidence of microbial activity supports the possible involvement of biogenic processes in vermiculation development in karst caves.
How to cite: Addesso, R., Cafaro, S., Papaleo, F., Alaggio, R., D'Orilia, F., and Amato, M.: The geosite of Pertosa-Auletta cave: an educational journey into the underworld, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9054, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9054, 2021.
Establishing legal protection to a geosite (or geodiversity site) is considered one of the key tools of how to conserve its values and how to avoid degradation and devastation. The proper management measures (usually included in care plans or other planning and strategic documentation) then help to balance the conservation needs and sustainable use of the sites and allow to gain public finances for these purposes.
In the Czech Republic, nature conservation is anchored in Act n. 114/1992 Coll. (Nature Conservation Act) which defines several levels of protected areas that can be applied also on geoheritage. However, there are other legislative tools that protect other entities (e.g. agricultural land, water, or forests). The special relationship to geodiversity has Act n. 44/1988 Coll. (Mining Act) which aims to protect the mineral deposits including their deposit areas. Various tools for the protection applied to a single area can cause ambiguities because every protected entity has different management and limitations.
This is the case of Hády Hill, an area situated in the outskirts of Brno, the second-largest city in the Czech Republic. The area is important from the Earth Science point of view (tectonics, paleontology, geomorphology, stratigraphy, hydrogeology) and has high ecological and cultural values, e.g. occurrence of endangered species linked to the subsoil, remnants of old landscape structures (orchards, pastures), historical mining, use of the building material for Brno monuments. Earth-science and ecological values are protected according to Nature Conservation Act within one National Nature Reserve, two Nature Monuments, and four Important Landscape Elements and partly included in Special Area of Conservation (according to the Habitats Directive - Council Directive 92/43/EEC). Moreover, due to the occurrence of quality limestone, which was extracted from the Middle Ages up to the end of the 20th Century, the part of the study area is declared as a reserved mineral deposit and protected deposit area (according to Mining Act). All these areas mutually overlap.
Concerning geoheritage, some phenomena still have no degree of protection, but they are included in the Database of Geological Localities (kept by the Czech Geological Survey) and proposed for legal protection.
Last but not least, the site undergoes tourist and recreational pressure which is continuously increasing due to the COVID-19 situation (lack of indoor possibilities of how to spend the free time).
To find the balance between the various conservation needs, management measures, limitations, tourist/recreation pressure, and urban development, it was necessary to do a complex analysis of the various types of protected areas and their values. Based on the SWOT analysis and Risk Assessment, the main threats, risks, and possible conflicts of interest were identified and assessed. Then, specific proposals and possible solutions were designed with an emphasis on effective geoconservation (e.g. declaration of the new or enlarging the currently protected areas), development of sustainable forms of tourism, and future rational use of an area (e.g. via volunteer activities or participative planning of management).
How to cite: Kubalíková, L.: Enough is enough… Can various legislative tools cause ambiguities when applied in a single area? (Case study: Hády Hill, Brno, Czech Republic), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5403, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5403, 2021.
Humans are part of nature, so natural landscapes can contain human impacts. The limit of this natural anthropomorphic influence, where landscape stops being natural, is not defined clearly, but major infrastructure, urbanization etc. are clearly non-natural elements. When a natural feature becomes important for humans, such as the iconic Puy de Dôme volcano in central France, it tends to attract human modification. The Puy de Dôme was a Druidic and Roman sacred site, with added temples and paths. Yet, outside these, the majority of the mountain remained in a natural state, evolving by erosion, slope movement, and accumulating debris on its lower flanks. The natural state can still be seen in the detailed morphometry of its flanks. Since the turn of the 20th century, increased human activity has further modified the site, with the construction of a spiral cog railway track, and infrastructure: restaurants, observatories, military and communication buildings, including the iconic spike – that inhabitants are so attached to. Despite this increased activity, the essential natural values of the mountain have been mostly maintained, although the spiral railway track has cut / modified the natural drainage to some extent. With UNESCO World Heritage inscription in 2018, visitation is on the increase, and with more visitors, further pressure has been seen. Occasional debris flows and landslides have also become newsworthy events, impacting the railway operation. New slope stability plans have been drawn up for the cog railway and the footpaths, which have included large scale bolting of outcrops, wire meshing and rock removal. These have been implemented only very partially due to opposition from ecology and geoheritage actors.
To provide a clear picture of the natural state of the Puy de Dôme and to guide natural protection and risk management, a full geomorphological and morphometric analysis is needed. This abstract gives the first results of this work, presenting the geomorphology and morphometry, including a geomorphon and shape analysis, and 3-D Virtual Reality LiDAR topography. The resulting information allows us to determine the state of 'naturality' of the Puy de Dôme and establish the natural system and determine its anthropogenic influences. The volcano, since its eruption 11,000 years ago, has been slowly evolving under different climatic regimes, that have contributed to its present shape. Ongoing processes, which include natural-compatible pastoral and forest activity continue to shape the dome.
Despite the human presence, the volcano is large enough to presently maintain its natural evolution in the long term and adapt to changing climatic conditions. However, there are many sites of concern, where installations have the potential to alter this, and to generate enhanced risk to the geological nature and to visitors. With our analysis, we can propose management strategies that can minimize impact, can be monitored, and which can protect the geoheritage and the fragile ecology, while allowing continued access to the site. Human access needs to respect and to be adapted to the natural conditions.
How to cite: van Wyk de Vries, B., Pál, M., Albert, G., Vörös, F., Grosse, P., and Delage, E.: The Puy de Dôme: Natural or Anthropogenic? Understanding, managing and protecting an original landscape in a UNESCO World Heritage site, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7145, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7145, 2021.
In mountain environments, the high variability of soil forming factors (i.e., parent material, climate, relief, organism, time) is responsible for the presence of different soil types, which not only contribute to the pedodiversity but are also a component of the local cultural heritage.
Up to now, scarce attention has been paid to the soil in the geoheritage/geoconservation scientific analyses.
To promote soil as element concurring to mountain geoheritage definition, we propose a strategy to include pedological topics within a multidisciplinary trail planned in the Veglia-Devero Natural Park (Lepontine Alps). The geomorphological dynamicity and environmental change affecting during times the small mountain catchment of Buscagna hydrographic basin are illustrated with a specific address to soil characteristics. The physical and chemical properties, and pedological features of soils reflect the interaction among the other ecosystem components (i.e. geology, geomorphology and vegetation), underlining the role of soil as natural archive for reconstructing landscape evolution and for achieving a more complete assessment of Late Quaternary geomorphic events, especially surface processes.
Geopedological researches carried out in the study area, allowed to detect 7 soil profiles as potential sites of pedological interest, located in safe and accessible places, along already existing hiking paths. The selected soil profiles not only mirror the main soil types that characterize the area but also represent evidence of past environmental conditions and geomorphic dynamics.
The opportunities for hikers and mountaineers, to observe the exposed soils along the Buscagna valley, thanks to the presence of erosional scarps and subsidence areas, allow also to get more awareness of the need of geoheritage conservation strategies addressed to soil, especially in the mountain landscape where soil characteristics reflect the striking influence of its forming factors.
How to cite: Masseroli, A., Bollati, I. M., Trombino, L., and Pelfini, M.: Methods for soil enhancement in geoheritage research: a case study from Veglia-Devero Natural Park (Lepontine Alps), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7264, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7264, 2021.
Cajón del Maipo is a mountainous territory located in the Andes Cordillera of central Chile (~ 5,000 km2), 50 km away from Santiago city, and is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the country. It reaches a maximum altitude of 6,570 masl, and its geology is controlled by the compressive subduction regime between the Nazca and the South American plates. In its rocks, 166 million years of geological history are recorded, and its geodiversity includes: sedimentary and igneous rocks, active stratovolcanoes, thermal springs, tectonic structures, glacial and fluvial morphologies, landslides, marine fossils, and abandoned mine shafts. The area is part of the Chilean biodiversity hotspot, and hosts an important and strained water system, with ~650 glaciers that supplies almost the entire city of Santiago with drinking and irrigation water, home to more than 7 million people.
This work shows the existing inventory of geoheritage of Cajon del Maipo, which includes 43 geosites classified in 10 geological thematic areas. Geosites were selected and assessed using a quantitative approach in the three main types of use (scientific, educational and geotouristic), and in their degradation risk. Of the inventory list, 5 geosites have international relevance, 17 national relevance, 10 regional and 11 local relevance. Additional values where highlighted associated with potential for developing geopark activities (cultural and intangible heritage, biodiversity, climate change and geological hazards), as well as legal aspects regarding protection. Combining statistical, geographical, and qualitative analysis of the previous parameters, geosites were categorized in multi labeled management classes, which are: geotourism, education, science, and conservation. For each class, management priorities and opportunities were identified, including research, protection, promotion, infrastructure habilitation, and monitoring. In the next years, this inventory must be the framework for developing a local geoheritage management plan, and the basis for the elaboration of the application dossier of Cajon del Maipo as a UNESCO Global Geopark.
Cajon del Maipo Geopark Project has been developed since 2017 with the main goals of providing economic opportunities for local community and promoting the sustainable management of natural and cultural heritage. Framed in the project Action Plan, actions and initiatives have been implemented, including: geoheritage research and geoconservation; geotourism and local products development; geoeducation programs focused on local schools; and networking at local, national, and international levels. All the mentioned initiatives are supported by the creation and the permanent updating of the Cajon del Maipo inventory of geoheritage.
How to cite: Vergara Daskam, C., Estay Daskam, C., and Prior Carvajal, A.: Inventory of geoheritage as a tool for local sustainable development in Cajón del Maipo Geopark Project, Central Chile , EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9236, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9236, 2021.
Quaternary palaeoenvironmental archives are essential for our understanding of past climate changes and humanity’s response to them. In the age of anthropogenic climate change, these sites are not only important scientifically, but also educationally to teach people about the impact of climate change, and the role it played in shaping past communities.
The landscape of the Arabian Peninsula is highly reactive to even subtle changes in climate and recent research has shown that palaeoenvironmental archives in south-east Arabia (i.e., dunes, fluvial/alluvial and palaeolake deposits, etc.) are crucial for our understanding of the role of climate change in the late-Pleistocene dispersal of early human populations out of Africa. The importance of archaeological sites in this region is increasingly recognised, with many sites benefitting from extensive research and conservation. Similarly, the rich geological history of the region has either been catalogued or protected with integration into national tourism strategies. Despite the the budding initiative of geoheritage conservation in Arabia, however, the protection of Quaternary palaeoenvironmental sites has been entirely disregarded.
With the lack of a protection framework and the continuous economic development of the region, many of these archives are under imminent threat or already destroyed. At present, no assessment has been conducted to examine the possible extent of such loss. Here we propose that a system must be established for scientists to record and highlight the potential threat of destruction of these irreplaceable archives. Also, to protect these sites effectively, we must develop a conservation strategy with an understanding of the factors that differentiate them from geoheritage sites that already enjoy protection.
For the first time, this study has compiled a database of Quaternary palaeoenvironmental archives in south-east Arabia. A total of ~300 sites in the entire region have been assessed for their risk status, with ~100 sites in the UAE assessed additionally for their scientific and educational values. Preliminary results indicate that more than 10% of sites, mostly in urban or coastal settings, have been destroyed or are under imminent threat. Furthermore, the prevailing prioritisation of conventional aesthetic values in geoheritage conservation has been identified as a major obstacle in promoting the conservation of these sites.
How to cite: Sayama, K., Parton, A., and Viles, H.: Protecting Quaternary palaeoenvironmental sites in south-east Arabia: a database approach, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12127, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12127, 2021.
Research related to the assessment of Geodiversity is highly relevant both at the international and national levels, especially in the last 20 years. These researches aim at valuing abiotic aspects as inseparable components of natural heritage and, thus, as well as Biodiversity, must be understood and valued through the ordering of their use and Geoconservation. Geodiversity studies are developed on the basis of several approaches, from the broadest ones, which contemplate the measurement of abiotic elements in a full way, to those that assess Geoheritage through the values of Geodiversity. The present research follows the broader approach of the evaluation and analysis of the entire Geodiversity, applying the measurement of abiotic elements without their valuation, with the purpose of the spatialization of areas with greater and lesser density of the selected elements related in this research to lithology, relief and soil. For this purpose, bases produced by systematic surveys of national research institutions such as the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) were used. As a result, the mapping of the subindexes was obtained pointing from the division into 5 classes, the areas that present greater and lesser diversity of each element, as well as the synthesis map for the indexes of Geodiversity elements in Brazil, considering the three elements selected for this mapping. A spatial analysis was also carried out between the Geodiversity Index Map and the Brazilian Conservation Units, as well as the areas where Geopark Projects are being developed. The majority of the Brazilian territory presents low Geodiversity index (32%), followed by medium (28%), very low (17%), high (15%) and very high (8%). The higher indexes are found in ancient Orogenic Belts, associated with Crystalline Basement that shows broad variation of rocks, in some cases linked with soil and relief elements. Areas of medium diversity are concentrated in Cratons and Sedimentary Basins borders, and low diversity areas are found in the central regions of large Sedimentary Basins, as well as in the Pantanal Floodplain. The Conservation Units present the following percentage of Geodiversity index: very high: 12%; high:10%; medium 16%; low: 23%; very low 22%. The analysis was done taking into account the categories of Conservation Units as well, and the higher indexes were found in Natural Monuments and Wildlife Refuges (38 and 43% respectively). 8 geopark projects have predominance of very high and high Geodiversity indexes; 7 presents medium index and only one amongst the 16 presents predominance of low index. No geopark project has very low index predominant in territory. The analysis of the spatialization of the indexes was carried out from a descriptive and genetic perspective, aiming at clarifying the causes of the distribution of the abiotic elements in the Brazilian territory, being able to provide subindexes for studies in the scope of environmental services, nature and territory conservation planning.
How to cite: Silva, J., Ross, J., Alves, G., de Oliveira, F., Nascimento, M. A., Felini, M., Manosso, F., and Pereira, D.: The Geodiversity of Brazil: quantification, distribution, and implications for conservation areas, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12493, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12493, 2021.
The Italian territory is characterized by frequent hydrogeological instability phenomena, among which landslides, responsible for a high number of damages, are able to leave impressive marks on the landscape and to rework the physical features of a territory. Nevertheless, landslide bodies may represent key sites for thematic itineraries, educational projects, and valorization especially in protected areas. Their management can consequently become an important issue in natural reserves’ management.
Our study focuses on the territory of the "Monte Rufeno Nature Reserve" (Central Apennines, Italy), where iconic landslides are present. Here, the "Scialimata Grande di Torre Alfina" landslide, is listed in the regional Geosite database. After creating a landslide susceptibility map for the reserve territory - based on drainage density and relief energy - the analysis was focused on the Scialimata complex landslide, to define properly its scientific and educational value. The geomorphological characterization of the landslide - carried out both on the field (geomorphological survey and GPS monitoring through wooden pins) that through remote sensing techniques (UAV drone, photointerpretation) - helped the assessment of the landslide dynamism. Moreover, dendrogeomorphological and ecological characterizations were performed to understand the relations between the geomorphic dynamics and the vegetation response (i.e., ecological support role of the Geosite). The area affected by Scialimata landslide falls into the highest landslide susceptibility class. At the local scale, its recent dynamics - as resulted from the GPS field monitoring in the 2015-2018 time interval - shows a maximum downvalley displacement of 23 meters. The landslide dynamics could be driven by a rain pattern with alternated dry and extremely wet periods; moreover, leakages from the water pipeline in proximity of the landslide crowning area, may have decreased the clays cohesion. The possible influence of the landslide, on the Paglia River dynamics, downvalley, was also hypothesized. Disturbances on plants ascribable to the landsliding, as tilted trunks and exposed roots, show distribution and characters explainable not only by the complex rotational dynamism of the landslide, but also by the hypothesized piping effect in the crowning zone. The landslide is highly representative of the geomorphic dynamics affecting the natural Reserve (i.e., scientific value) and it could be classified as an active Geosite, featured by a high ecological support role (not only towards vegetation) that increases the scientific value of the site too. Since the site was also featured by a touristic trail, that underwent disruption due to landslide movement, these results could enable adequate management strategies considering educational value and safety issues.
How to cite: Tronti, G., Bollati, I. M., Pelfini, M., Belisario, F., and Fredi, P.: From landslide characterization to nature reserve management: The Scialimata Grande landslide Geosite (Central Appennine, Italy), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12799, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12799, 2021.
The interaction between human societies and the physical landscape is deep and widespread since the dawn of civilisation. The development of different cultures always had to take into account their physical and geological surrounding, in order to adapt to their features and exploit them in the most efficient fashion. Cultural and geological heritage are therefore often tightly linked in a relationship enhancing the meaning of both to society in many ways. Tapping into these cultural archives can provide a useful way of communicating geoheritage to the wider public through the history of human-landscape interactions. Such landmarks would effectively act as witnesses of Earth history from a human point of view and become beneficial in spreading knowledge about past and current geological processes such as climate change. With the help of archaeogeosites, integrated reconstructions where the geological and geomorphological evidence with the elements of archaeological heritage could provide an effective way of communicating to the larger public sea level dynamics at a longer scale and the effects of climate change in the present and near future.
As a case study, the late ancient city of Nora is particularly effective. Located in southwestern Sardinia (Italy), it was a seaport of great importance during the Punic and Roman periods. Its surrounding landscape is deeply influenced by the marine transgression happening since the Last Glacial Maximum. Along the coast, many landforms and stratigraphic sequences bear evidence of sea level fluctuations and the related changes in the landscape revealing the larger context in which the city was developed. Beach deposits dated to MIS5 are buried by fluvial deposits and soils indicating a much lower sea level during later stadial periods. Since the passage to the Holocene the area, dominated by fluvial and slope dynamics, is interested by the progressive rise of the coastline and the consequent land loss. The city itself was not spared from this process. While its strategic coastal position was instrumental in its rise to prominence, the exposure to a rising sea level had a great impact on its history, both during its development and later as an abandoned settlement and an archaeological site. Several human structures possibly show the necessity of shielding against a progressively more damaging wave action.
How to cite: Mariani, G. S. and Melis, R. T.: The ancient city and the rising sea. Using archaeogeosites to convey climate awareness., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13293, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13293, 2021.
Geoheritage is an emerging research subject with increasing global interest to define, characterize and quantify it in diverse geological and geomorphological settings. As being a new research subject there are great variety of conceptual approaches to do its definition and quantification. Geoheritage conservation is in the process of establishing a common ground that become necessary in the transnational collaboration for a sustainable future. Geoheritage conservation generates ever increasing number of scientific publications based on heterogenous evaluation methods with limited consensus within the field. The produced material, also part of various Big Data repositories, conceals valuable patterns and information on the level of agreement and the solution to draw the line for the acceptable level of subjectivity. Analysing bibliometric data of scientific publication appear in accessible global data bases (e.g. Web of Science) broken down to country levels allow us to find potential indicators for geoheritage designation. Finding determinants that positively influences decision makers and end users within the conservation arena helps geoscientists to achieve policy impact and increase the number of recognised and protected geological and geomorphological sites. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to detect and explore relationships between population, land, tourism, protected areas and bibliometric variables. The result revealed very important links between the socio-economic background and geoheritage conservation outcomes. The fact that there was no one major determinant found that would affect geoheritage conservation globally means that a common ground awaits to be established on which countries can build upon with the unique and special values local communities have to contribute toward geoheritage conservation.
The research is aligned with the goals of the “Geoheritage for Resilience” UNESCO IGPC project 692 program.
How to cite: Németh, B. and Németh, K.: Determinants of geoheritage conservation: Multiple correspondence analysis to explore interrelations between socio-economic and bibliometric data, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13621, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13621, 2021.
The Taya Cave, a sacred Buddhist cave, locates in the precincts of Josenji Temple in Yokohama City, central Japan. The geologic materials of the hills surrounding the cave are soft rocks composed of early Quaternary sedimentary rocks. The cave has a complex three-layer structure with a total length of 570 m. The excavation of the cave is estimated to start in the Kamakura era around A.D. 1200. Since then, the cave became a training place for Buddhists until around 19 C. There are many Buddhist reliefs on the walls and ceiling inside the cave. Because the bedrock is extremely weak, the rocks easily break when they get wet again after drying, namely prone to slaking. Thus, weathering and deterioration have progressed in various parts of the cave. Many valuable Buddhist reliefs have damaged by exfoliation. The walls at several points in the cave have also collapsed on a small scale. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate such deteriorated parts in the cave by simple non-destructive tests of physical and mechanical properties by using Silver Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic velocity test. These measurements clarified the vulnerable points even in the main worship route of the cave. In October 2018, a stainless-steel door installed at the cave entrance to save from deterioration due to slaking. The effect of the door was verified as well by monitoring the environmental conditions inside the cave. Environmental monitoring results revealed that the temperature and humidity near the entrance changed most drastically in this cave. Although the door was closed only at night, the range of maximum and minimum values of temperature and humidity near the entrance became smaller after installation than before. Non-destructive measurements and in situ environmental monitoring are a useful way to assess weathering without damaging geoarchaeological sites.
How to cite: Oguchi, C., Ogawa, M., Sakane, K., and Tamura, Y.: Weathering conditions of Buddhist caves dug in soft rocks and conservation attempting from the deterioration, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-13752, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-13752, 2021.
Keywords: monitoring, criteria, degradation, geoheritage, Vale de Meios, Portugal
Monitoring is one of the main stages in geoconservation strategies, essential to guarantee
geoheritage sustainability. Nevertheless, few studies focus on geoheritage monitoring techniques
and methods, unlike the multitude of works focusing on procedures to inventory and assess the
value of geosites. Moreover, criteria used in these methods can be applied on monitoring
procedures, specifically those supporting degradation risk and scientific value quantitative
assessments. In this context, a geoheritage monitoring model is being applied in Vale de Meios
(Alcanede, Portugal), an abandoned limestone quarry with well-preserved Middle Jurassic
Theropod footprints, inside the Serras de Aire e Candeeiros Natural Park. This geosite was
previously assessed for its scientific value and vulnerability and it is included in the Portuguese
inventory of geoheritage with national and international relevance. A set of “scientific value” and
“degradation risk/vulnerability” criteria were reviewed to assess the degradation of the geosite
and used to identify the most suitable monitoring model. The “integrity” criterium used in most
methods to assess the scientific value of geosites, also credited as “conservation status”, is strictly
connected with the deterioration of the geoheritage elements in the past and present, while
degradation risk is normally referring to the threats and potential losses in the future. Fourteen
“degradation risk” assessment sub-criteria (intrinsic active processes, deterioration of geological
elements, size, extrinsic active processes, proximity to active processes, economic potential,
collectible elements potential, protection status, proximity to human activities, accessibility,
population density, visitor facilities, degradation by public use, and visitation control) can be
distributed by the main criteria fragility, natural vulnerability, anthropic vulnerability, and public
use. A detailed analysis of the criteria and the specific characteristics of each geosite support the
definition of suitable monitoring indicators. In the Vale de Meios geosite, monitoring actions
should primarily consider: active natural process, deterioration of geological elements,
accessibility, visitor facilities, degradation by public use, and visitation control in order to define
the monitoring indicators. An analysis of the conservation status over the past decades has been
carried out, using time indicators of deterioration. Long-term monitoring results will provide more
data about the geoheritage degradation though partial data show that in Vale de Meios the main
concern is related with the high natural vulnerability of the Theropod footprints, which are
exposed to natural erosion. Despite the protection status of the area and design of a plan for
visitation control measures, conservation procedures should prioritize physical protection
initiatives in the geosite management strategies.
How to cite: Canesin, T. S., Pereira, P., Vegas, J., Selmi, L., Coratza, P., and Santos, V.: Addressing indicators for geoheritage monitoring based on degradation risk and scientific value quantitative assessment, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15024, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15024, 2021.
The dissemination of Geoheritage research can be reinforced by building solid partnerships between researchers and national and regional stakeholders as practical experience has shown in the Chablais UNESCO Global Geopark. Increasingly, territorial management bodies, particularly those hosting UNESCO designations such as UNESCO Global Geoparks, public agencies with environmental preservation or resource management responsibilities and managers of national or regional geoheritage inventories actively seek to build partnerships with geoheritage researchers. These entities document and manage geoheritage as part of their overall responsibilities and have wider roles than conservation bodies. The non-academic professional teams responsible for geoheritage documentation, management and awareness raising include experienced geoscientists and highly trained science communicators. Professional geoheritage stakeholders have well-developed dissemination channels with public and private sector decision makers as well as the general public and schools that complete and complement academic geoheritage communication networks.
Recent examples from the Chablais UNESCO Global Geopark demonstrate how geoheritage professionals from the local development agency have worked in partnership with geoheritage researchers to maximise the impact of new scientific research in the territory. These examples highlight how collaboration between researchers and professionals embedded in the study region can leverage research results to a wide audience: decision makers, stakeholders, local population and school children. Three case studies highlight the different partnerships and how collaborations led to improved project robustness and scope. In addition, the examples underline how early collaboration leads not only to project improvements but also transmission through highly effective embedded communication channels that complement those of geoheritage researchers.
Each case study addresses a different geosite within the Chablais UGGp with different issues and stakeholders: a retrogressive landslide at Reyvroz, dolines at Nifflon and a series of lakes of varied origin at Saint Paul en Chablais. The examples demonstrate the scope for the application and recognition of research but also the need of researchers and territorial managers to make connections early on for these projects to achieve their full potential. This permits thorough, structured dialogue between researchers and stakeholders that result in geoheritage issues being recognised, understood and incorporated into territorial management decisions and sustainable policy. This is a crucial step given that the value of the natural environment from a general public and political standpoint continues to be equated with biodiversity and ecosystemic services to the detriment of geoheritage and geosystem services.
How to cite: Justice, S., LoDestro, C., Giardino, M., and Bosson, J.-B.: Maximising the leverage of geoheritage research for effective sustainability policy and territorial management, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-16328, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-16328, 2021.
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